The general definition of a mineral is a substance which encompasses the following criterias   1.   Naturally occurring   ...
3. Southern Belt-this belt includes Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states where gold, iron ore,chromites, manganese, lignite, mi...
A metallic mineral has a distinctive, shiny, metallic luster. Metallic minerals such as gold and silver arealso economic m...
Unit - III                                     06. Sources of Energy  I.   Minerals and Power Resources : 1 state-1 distri...
hydrocarbons industry and support greater foreign involvement. India’s                      state-owned Oil and Natural Ga...
Power Corporation and several other state level power generating                     companies are engaged in operating co...
Indian potential                          Limitations                          Methods of harnessing                      ...
UsesRural heating, Motor fuel, Refrigeration and CookingFourth largest consumer of LPG in the world after USA, China & Jap...
WIND ENERGYEquipment Used In Wind Power GenerationWind turbines are the individual components of wind farms, and they are ...
Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impactof wind power is relatively mi...
It depends where you put it for the costs so not much good financially           May interfere with mooring and anchorage ...
DISADVANATGES:1. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard.2. The high cost of dam c...
energy was operational in the form of energy sources long back when mineral oil, coal, andnatural gas were not broadly int...
Gujarat - 1432.71 MWKerala - 23.00 MWMadhya Pradesh - 187.69 MWWest Bengal - 1.10 MWOther states - 3.20 MWSolar Energy The...
Thermal energy/Geo-thermal energy Geothermal energy is the application of natural temperature, which prevails on the exter...
Animal, Agricultural, and Human Excretions With the usage of agricultural and animal excretions over and above human body ...
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Minerals class 12

  1. 1. The general definition of a mineral is a substance which encompasses the following criterias 1. Naturally occurring 2. Stable at room temperature 3. Represented by a chemical formula 4. Usually abiogenic (Non Organic) 5. Ordered atomic arrangement Distribution of Mineral Resources in India In India the distribution of minerals has not been even. These are mainly confined in the peninsular region of the country leaving aside the Northern Great Plains and the Himalayan region almost devoid of minerals. Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states have large potentials of mineral resources in the country. Most of the deposits of iron ore found in the Achaean rocks of Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; of manganese in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra; of mica in Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Karnataka; of bauxite in Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat; of cyanide in Jharkhand, Bihar; and sillimanite in Meghalaya. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Genetic West Bengal are deficient in mineral resources. Mineral Belts Following mineral belts may be clearly identified in the country: 1. Chota Nagpur Belt-this belt is associated with north-eastern part of the Peninsula incorporating the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. It mainly consists of ancient gneisses and granites and constitutes the richest mineralised zone of the country. The region abounds in coal, mica, manganese, chromites, limonite, bauxite, phosphate, iron ore, copper, dolomite, china-clay and limestone. It contains about 100% reserves of cyanide, 93% of iron ore, 84% of coal, 70% of chromites, 70% of mica, 50% of fire clay, 45% of asbestos, 45% of china clay, 20% of limestone and 10% of manganese. Important mineral producing districts include Singhbhum, Hazaribag, Munger, Dhanbad, Ranchi, Palamau and Santhal Paragana (in Jharkhand), Sambalpur, Koraput, Keonjhar,Cuttack,Mayurbhanj, Dhenkanal and Sundargarh (in Orissa); and Birbhum, Bankura, Purulia and Medinipur (in West Bengal) and Munger (in Bihar). 2. Midland Belt-this belt stretches over the states of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. This belt produces most of the manganese ore, bauxite, mica, copper, graphite, limestone, lignite marble and limestone. 1
  2. 2. 3. Southern Belt-this belt includes Karnataka and Tamil Nadu states where gold, iron ore,chromites, manganese, lignite, mica, bauxite, gypsum, asbestos, dolomite, limonite, chinaclay and limestone are important minerals.4. Western Belt-it incorporates the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The belt ispotentially very rich mineral area. It is rich in non- ferrous metals holding promise forcopper, lead, zinc, uranium, mica, manganese, asbestos, salt, building stones, precious stones,natural gas and petroleum.5. South-Western Belt-this belt extends over Karnataka, Goa and Kerala. It containsdeposits of limonite, zircon, monazite sands, garnet, china clay, iron ore, bauxite, mica,limestone and soapstone.6. Himalayan Belt-The Himalayan rocks pre-1 serve valuable minerals in pockets and vaultsof stratigraphic faults. Copper, lead, zinc, bismuth, antimony, nickel, cobalt, tungsten,precious stones, gold and silver are known to occur at different places. Among these mentionmay be made of Almora magnetite, Satna limestone, Taradevi pyrite, Salal bauxite, Rambangypsum, Parmandal betonies, and Missouri phosphorus. Coal deposits are found in the sub-Himalaya of eastern regions. Hydrocarbons are found in Assam and Meghalaya and naturalgas in Himachal Pradesh foothills. Extensive deposits of cement and blast-furnace gradelimestone and dolomite are present in the Triassic-Jurassic rocks of Kashmir, Shali belt(Himachal Pradesh), Krol formation (Uttaranchal) and Buxa group (Eastern Himalaya).7. The Indian Ocean-The Indian Ocean is also a good source of minerals. Besides the avail-ability of petroleum and natural gas in the off shore areas along the western and the easterncoasts the seabed contains manganese nodules, phosphorite nodules and barium sulphateconcretions.The manganese nodules are of high grade ore quality (manganese 25%, iron 18%). The bestquality nodules are found in water depths of more than 4,000 m. Phosphorite nodules (P20530%) are mainly found near the Andaman Islands and may be utilised in ferrtilizer industry.The Arabian Sea is richer in phosphate than the Bay of Bengal. Barium sulphate concretionshave been dredged from about 1,235 m off Colombo in the Indian Ocean in 1880s.These concretions contain over 75% barium sulphate, manganese;, calcium, barium,aluminum, iron, silicon, titanium, sodium, potassium, chromium, monazite, limonite,magnetite and garnet. 2
  3. 3. A metallic mineral has a distinctive, shiny, metallic luster. Metallic minerals such as gold and silver arealso economic minerals. These are valued as beautifully collectible pieces and also for their potentialindustrial use.Rocks, minerals, and select naturally occurring and synthetic materials of economic value, exclusive offuel and metallic ore minerals. The select materials include peat, mineral-derived materials such as limeand cement, and synthetic versions of gemstones, abrasives, graphite, and calcite. Generally, non-metallic minerals undergo no chemical or mineralogical alteration for and in their end-uses; are low-price, high-volume commodities such as construction materials; are higher-priced and large-volumecommodities that are raw materials in the chemical and agricultural industry; and very high price butvery low volume materials such as gemstones. A characteristic of non-metallic minerals is that, in mostcases, they maintain their form and physical properties through processing to final end use.In metallurgy, a non-ferrous mineral is any metal that is not ferrous, including alloys, that does notcontain iron in appreciable amounts. Generally more expensive than ferrous metals, non-ferrous metalsare used because of desirable properties such as low weight (e.g., aluminium), higher conductivity (e.g.,copper), non-magnetic property or resistance to corrosion (e.g., zinc). Some non-ferrous materials arealso used in the iron and steel industries. For example, bauxite is used as flux for blast furnaces, whileothers such as wolframite, pyrolusite and chromite are used in making ferrous alloys.A ferrous mineral is a metal primarily made of iron and other metals to give the correct propertiesIron is often referred to as a ferrous metal, but the word ferrous really refers to compounds containingiron. Compounds containing iron having a valance of +2 are ferrous; those compounds containing ironhaving a valence of +3 are ferric.In a more general sense, ferrous metals are metals or metal alloys that contain the element iron. Steel,for example, is a ferrous metal, and there are a number of other alloys that contain iron. Use the linkbelow for more information.all ferrous metals are magnetic and contain a small amount of other metals to provide the correctpropertiesIndias domestic uranium reserves are small and the country is dependent on uranium imports to fuel itsnuclear power industry.Large deposits of natural uranium, which promises to be one of the top 20 of the worlds reserves, havebeen found in the Tummalapalle belt in the southern part of the Kadapa basin in Andhra Pradesh inMarch 2011. The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) of India, whichexplores uranium in the country. A prototype reactor that would burn Uranium-Plutonium fuel whileirradiating a thorium blanket is under construction at theMadras/Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station. 3
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  7. 7. Unit - III 06. Sources of Energy I. Minerals and Power Resources : 1 state-1 district-2 places 1 east-1 west Oldest + Largest Exports Rank of India in the worldTotal Installed Capacity (October 2012) PercentageCoal 57.38Hydroelectricity 18.77Renewable energy source 11.94Gas 9.03Nuclear 2.28Oil 0.57 a) Iron ore India has a large number of economically useful minerals and they constitute one-quarter of the worlds known mineral resources. About two- thirds of its iron deposits lies in a belt along Odisha and Bihar border. Other haemaite deposits are found in Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharastra and Goa. Magnetite iron-ore is found in Tamilnadu, Bihar and Himachal. b) Manganese Next to Russia, India has the largest supply of Manganese. The manganese mining areas are Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Rajasthan (Banaswara) c) Mica India also produces third quarters of the worlds mica. Belts of high quality mica are, Jharkhand (Giridh and Koderma), Andhra (Nellore) and Rajasthan (Bhilwara) d) Petroleum India had about 125 Million metric tonne of proven oil reserves as April 2010 or 5.62 billion barrels as per EIA estimate for 2009, which is the second-largest amount in the Asia-Pacific region behind China. Most of Indias crude oil reserves are located in the western coast (Mumbai High) and in the northeastern parts of the country, although considerable undeveloped reserves are also located in the offshore Bay of Bengal and in the state of Rajasthan. In 2010, India produced an average of about 33.69 million metric tonne of crude oil as on April 2010 India’s oil sector is dominated by state-owned enterprises, although the government has taken steps in past recent years to deregulate the 7
  8. 8. hydrocarbons industry and support greater foreign involvement. India’s state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is the largest oil company. ONGC is the leading player in India’s upstream sector, accounting for roughly 75% of the country’s oil output during 2006, as per Indian government estimates. e) Coal India has the worlds largest deposits of coal. Bituminous coal is found in Jharia and Bokaro in Jharkhand and Ranigunj in West Bengal. Lignite coals are found in Neyveli in Tamilnadu. f) Nuclear power resources Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity. As of 2012, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in six nuclear power plants, generating 4,780 MW. while seven other reactors are under construction and are expected to generate an additional 5,300 mw. g) Nuclear power generation Nuclear power plants Currently, twenty nuclear power reactors produce 4,780.00 MW (2.9% of total installed base).Power station Operator State TypeKaiga NPCIL KarnatakaKakrapar NPCIL GujaratKalpakkam NPCIL Tamil NaduNarora NPCIL Uttar PradeshRawatbhata NPCIL RajasthanTarapur NPCIL MaharashtraThe projects under construction are:Power station Operator StateKudankulam NPCIL Tamil NaduKalpakkam Bhavini Tamil NaduKakrapar NPCIL GujaratRawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan h) Thermal power generation Thermal power is the largest source of power in India.There are different types of Thermal power plants based on the fuel used to generate the steam such as coal, gas, Diesel etc. About 75% of electricity consumed in india are generated by Thermal power plants. More than 50% of Indias commercial energy demand is met through the countrys vast coal reserves. Public sector undertaking National Thermal 8
  9. 9. Power Corporation and several other state level power generating companies are engaged in operating coal based Thermal Power Plants.Apart from NTPC and other state level operators, some private companies are also operating the power plants.Name Operator Location District State/Sector RegionNTPC Dadri NTPC Vidyutnagar Gautam Budh Nagar Uttar Pradesh/Central NorthernTalcher ThermalPower Station NTPC Talcher Angul Orissa/Central EasternNeyveli ThermalPower Station – I,NLC Neyveli Cuddalore Tamilnadu/Central SouthernVindhyachal SuperThermal Power StationNTPC, Vindhya Nagar Singrauli Madhya Pradesh/CentralWestern i) Hydel power generation India was the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric power in 2008 after Norway, and 3.5% the world total in 2008. The potential for hydroelectric power in India is one of the greatest in the world. In this system of power generation, the potential of the water falling under gravitational force is utilized to rotate a turbine which again is coupled to a Generator, leading to generation of electricity. India is one of the pioneering countries in establishing hydro-electric power plants. The power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha (Shivanasamudra) were established in 1898 and 1902 respectively and are among the first in Asia. Refer to hydro power projects. II. Conventional Energy Sources (fossil fuel and firewood) : FIREWOOD Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel. Generally, firewood is not highly processed and is in some sort of recognizable log or branch form. Being a tropical country India is a store house of firewood resources. Some of the species include, Acacia, babool, Saru etc. But Firewood is a renewable resource. However, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on local and regional level. For example in some places in the world and through history, the demand has led to desertification. Wood combustion products can include toxic and carcinogenic substances. Smoke, containing water vapor, carbon dioxide and other chemicals and aerosol particulates, can be an irritating (and potentially dangerous) by-product of partially burnt wood fuel. A major component of wood smoke is fine particles that may account for a large portion of particulate air pollution Firewood is a renewable resource. However, demand for this fuel can outpace its ability to regenerate on local and regional level. For example in some places in the world and through history, the demand has led to desertification. Good forestry practices and improvements in devices that use firewood can improve the local wood supplies. 9
  10. 10. Indian potential Limitations Methods of harnessing Environmental consequences a) Fossil fuels : 1. Coal : (i) Thermal power (ii) How much coal is left? India 60.6 Billion tonnes (iii)Issues with thermal power : 1. Global warming 2. Thermal pollution in watersAsh pond decant contains harmful heavy metals like B, As, Hg which have a tendency to leachout over a period of time. Due to this the ground water gets polluted and becomes unsuitable fordomestic use. 3. Fly ashFly ash is one of the residues generated in combustion. It contains trace concentrations of heavymetals and other substances that are known to be detrimental to health in sufficient quantities. 4. Atmospheric pollutionThe main emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants are carbon dioxide (CO),nitrogen oxides (NO), sulfur oxides (SO), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and air- borne inorganicparticles such as fly ash, soot, and other trace gas species. Carbon dioxide, methane, andchlorofluorocarbons are greenhouse gases. These emissions are considered to be responsible forheating up the atmosphere,producing a harmful global environment. 5. OthersThe exposure of employees to high noise levels is very high in the coal based thermal powerplant.Large area of land is required for coal based thermal power plant. Due to this, natural soilproperties changes. It becomes more alkaline due to the alkaline nature of flyash. 2. Petroleum : (i) Petrol (ii) DieselDiesel fuel, the kind of fuel commonly used in commercial trucks, has not always been moreexpensive. Diesel fuel is a less refined petroleum distillate than gasoline, so it should always becheaper to produce than gasoline. The problem with diesel fuel prices has more to do with thelaws of supply and demand for various petroleum products, not the actual cost of production. (iii)LPGLiquefied petroleum gas, also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, liquid petroleum gas or simply propaneor butane, is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances andvehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacingchlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used asa vehicle fuel it is often referred to as autogas. 10
  11. 11. UsesRural heating, Motor fuel, Refrigeration and CookingFourth largest consumer of LPG in the world after USA, China & Japan (iv) Non-renewable resource (v) Expensive 3. Firewood, Agricultural waste and Animal waste for Heating and cooking Converting animal and plant waste into energy can be a triple-hitter: It not only helps reduce waste going to landfills or from being released as gas into the atmosphere, but saves energy and money. Waste materials – ranging from animal manure for methane to wood chips for direct heat to waste vegetable oil for straight use or conversion to biodiesel – also have a positive energy and carbon balance. That is, more energy is derived from the fuel than is spent converting it. Therefore, no net CO2 is generated.III. Non-Conventional Energy Sources : Indian potential Advantages and Limitations Methods of harnessing Environmental consequences Need to promote a) Biomass b) Solar c) Wind d) Ocean e) Hydel f) Geothermal g) NuclearBIOMASSThe harnessing of energy from biological mass (biomass) is a simple process. The waste woodand other sources are gathered in big trucks. The waste is then transported to a biomass plant.Here, the waste is fed into furnaces where it is burned. The heat created is used to boil water andthe energy from the steam is used to rotate turbines and generators.Environmental Impact:- Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the form of carbonmonoxide, carbon dioxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs (volatile organic compounds),particulates and other pollutants, in some cases at levels above those from traditional fuel sourcessuch as coal or natural gasSOLAR ENERGYThe best thing about solar energy in terms of its environmental effects is that it produces almostno carbon emissions or greenhouse gases. It doesnt burn oil, it doesnt produce toxic waste, andits lack of moving parts reduces the chances of an environmentally devastating accident to nil.Indeed, the only pollutants which factor into solar power are those involved in the constructionand transportation of its parts; that ranks it among the cleanest forms of energy on Earth. 11
  12. 12. WIND ENERGYEquipment Used In Wind Power GenerationWind turbines are the individual components of wind farms, and they are machinery composedof several main parts. The first part is the rotor, also known as the blades or the propeller, andthis is the part of the turbine that actually collects the wind energy and converts it into driveenergy, which then turns a shaft.Advantages & Disadvantages Of Wind EnergyThere are a range of advantages and disadvantages of wind energy to look at, including themany problems associated with wind turbines.In this day and age, the world needs to look at the different natural energy sources available tous. Global warming could be due our energy craving lifestyle, so we should look into moreenvironmentally friendly energy sources.Advantages: Wind energy is friendly to the surrounding environment, as no fossil fuels are burnt to generate electricity from wind energy. Wind turbines take up less space than the average power station. Windmills only have to occupy a few square meters for the base, this allows the land around the turbine to be used for many purposes, for example agriculture. Newer technologies are making the extraction of wind energy much more efficient. The wind is free, and we are able to cash in on this free source of energy. Wind turbines are a great resource to generate energy in remote locations, such as mountain communities and remote countryside. Wind turbines can be a range of different sizes in order to support varying population levels. Another advantage of wind energy is that when combined with solar electricity, this energy source is great for developed and developing countries to provide a steady, reliable supply of electricity.Disadvantages: The main disadvantage regarding wind power is down to the winds unreliability factor. In many areas, the winds strength is too low to support a wind turbine or wind farm, and this is where the use of solar power or geothermal power could be great alternatives. Wind turbines generally produce allot less electricity than the average fossil fuelled power station, requiring multiple wind turbines to be built in order to make an impact. Wind turbine construction can be very expensive and costly to surrounding wildlife during the build process. The noise pollution from commercial wind turbines is sometimes similar to a small jet engine. This is fine if you live miles away, where you will hardly notice the noise, but what if you live within a few hundred meters of a turbine? This is a major disadvantage. Protests and/or petitions usually confront any proposed wind farm development. People feel the countryside should be left in tact for everyone to enjoy its beauty. 12
  13. 13. Compared to the environmental impact of traditional energy sources, the environmental impactof wind power is relatively minor. Unlike fossil fuel power sources Wind power consumes nofuel, and emits no air pollution. The energy consumed to manufacture and transport the materialsused to build a wind power plant is equal to the new energy produced by the plant within a fewmonths. While a wind farm may cover a large area of land, many land uses such as agricultureare compatible, with only small areas of turbine foundations and infrastructure made unavailablefor use.OCEAN ENERGYSo far, engineers have developed and implemented several methods for collecting wave energy.These methods can be implemented on the shoreline, near the shore or offshore. Most devicesthat are near or offshore are anchored to the sea floorTerminator: Wave energy devices oriented perpendicular to the direction of the wave, areknown as terminators. These terminators include a stationary component and a component thatmoves in response to the wave. The "stationary" part could be fixed to the sea floor or shore. Itmust remain still, in contrast to the movable part. The moving part works kind of like a pistonin car -- moving up and down. This motion pressurizes air or oil to drive a turbine.What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the energy from ocean wavesTidal power, is a form of wave power and shares a common group of issues and solutions. Theequipment mechanisms are similar and are still experimental. The environmental impact isinterchangeable.The major difference between the two is the manner in which they retain the water to producepower. Both mechanisms use a turbine which spins to create the power. Tides are much slowerand water is retained, while waves are fairly repeatable and storage of water is far lower.Advantages: Wave power is a renewable Energy Source. Wave Energy Is a Clean Fuel. Wave Energy is Environmentally Friendly - it doesnt destroy the environment. There is plenty of it. Tides/Waves are always predictable. you can always produce a significant amount of energy. you dont need fuel so it doesnt cost that much . Waves are free and will not run out so the cost is in building the power station. Wave power does not produce greenhouse gases. There are very few safety risks with wave power generation.Disadvantages Harnessing the power of it is difficult. it can cost a lot of money and requires further research. If the whole tidal/wave energy scheme does get popular real estate will be losing money for beach front houses since they will be using the beaches for the tidal/wind farms. 13
  14. 14. It depends where you put it for the costs so not much good financially May interfere with mooring and anchorage lines commercial and sport fishing. Waves can be big or small so you may not always be able to generate electricity. You need to find a way of transporting the electricity from the sea onto the land. Not many people have tried to generate electricity this way yet so the equipment is expensive. It is believed that harnessing wave or tidal power will eventually slow the rotation speed of the planet. It is currently believed that we could cause as much as a full day of loss to our calenders every two thousand years by collecting enough energy from waves and tides. Environmental Impacts :- ► Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. ► Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. ► Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances. HYDEL ENERGY The combination of electrical generators and hydraulic turbines allows hydropower systems to convert the potential energy of dammed or flowing water into storable electrical output. Although this conversion relies on relatively simple mechanical properties, the system employed to achieve it is often complex in its design and capabilities. Harnessing the motion of water to power machines and mechanical processes is one of the oldest methods of power generation currently in use. Today, there are thousands of hydropower plants in the United States, providing a notable percentage of the country’s electricity supply. Most hydroelectric power is derived from water moving downhill and flowing through a dam where it causes a turbine to rotate, which in turn drives a electric generator. A large volume of moving water can generate an enormous amount of force, and the ability to regulate the rate of flow allows hydropower systems to channel the potential and kinetic energy involved. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROPOWERADVANTAGES:1. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate.2. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water canbe saved for use another time when electricity demand is high.3. Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity formany years / decades.4. The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities.Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right.5. The lakes water can be used for irrigation purposes.6. The build up of water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when the water isreleased to produce electricity.7. When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do notpollute the atmosphere. 14
  15. 15. DISADVANATGES:1. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard.2. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to becomeprofitable.3. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed.4. People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. This meansthat they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power schemes can go ahead.5. Although modern planning and design of dams is good, in the past old dams have been known to bebreached (the dam gives under the weight of water in the lake). This has led to deaths and flooding.6. Dams built blocking the progress of a river in one country usually means that the water supply fromthe same river in the following country is out of their control. This can lead to serious problemsbetween neighbouring countries.7. Building a large dam alters the natural water table level. For example, the building of the AswanDam in Egypt has altered the level of the water table. This is slowly leading to damage of many of itsancient monuments as salts and destructive minerals are deposited in the stone work from ‘rising damp’caused by the changing water table level. GEO THERMAL ENERGY As we progress towards a new millenium of using cleaner and renewable alternative resources, geothermal energy is one of the cleanest and most efficient source of energy. By harnessing the steam from underground water heated by the Earths magma at volcanic areas, this steam can be used to drive turbines in geothermal power stations to produce electricity for domestic and industrial use. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:- Fluids drawn from the deep earth carry a mixture of gases, notably carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3). These pollutants contribute to global warming, acid rain, and noxious smells if released. Existing geothermal electric plants emit an average of 122 kilograms (270 lb) of CO2 per megawatt-hour (MW·h) of electricity, a small fraction of the emission intensity of conventional fossil fuel plants NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear energy is produced by the release of heat from unstable elements such as Uranium. The energy is harnessed by using the energy to heat water. The radioactive water is than pumped through a heat exchanger where the dirty water is used to heat clean water. The clean water can then be used to drive turbines and other forms of engine. Non Conventional Energy In India, non-conventional energy sources consist of those energy sources that are infinite, natural, and restorable. For example, tidal energy, solar energy, and wind energy are nonconventional sources of energy. Fascinatingly, the application of tidal energy and wind 15
  16. 16. energy was operational in the form of energy sources long back when mineral oil, coal, andnatural gas were not broadly introduced as conventional sources of energy. In the beginning, windmills were utilized for taking out water and pounding grains. Runningwater and wind were applied for direction finding. Currently, some of the important and widelyused non conventional sources of energy are tides, wind, solar geothermal heat, and biomasscomprising animal waste, agricultural waste, and human body waste. For example, disposalsfrom big metropolitan areas can work as a source of producing biogas. All these nonconventional energy sources are unlimited or restorable and are essentially quite economical.Some of the India non conventional energy sources are given below -Tidal Energy Tidal energy is a limitless and renewable source of energy. For producing electrical power fromtidal energy, dams are built close to estuaries to make use of inward and outward water currentsand surges. Subsequently, the water is used to power turbines to generate electricity via the usageof water. The tidal surge has to be minimum seven meters for cost-effective performance. In thestate of Gujarat, the Gulf of Kutch is an appropriate place for electrical energy from the energygenerated by tall and powerful tides moving into small brooks.Wind Energy Wind energy is a popular form of non-conventional energy. It is utilized for drawing water,which is an essential requirement in watering agricultural lands in the rural areas. In addition, itcan be utilized for electricity generation. In India, states like Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Orissa, andMaharashtra are regarded as superior areas with respect to this type of energy. Places that haveregular and rapid wind flows are appropriate for this kind of power generation. Other thanwindmills, wind farms are there as well. The installed capacity of wind power in India till December 2010 was 13,065.37 MW,principally distributed throughout:Maharashtra - 1837.85 MWTamil Nadu - 4132.72 MWRajasthan - 670.97 MWKarnataka - 1184.45 MWAndhra Pradesh - 122.45 MW 16
  17. 17. Gujarat - 1432.71 MWKerala - 23.00 MWMadhya Pradesh - 187.69 MWWest Bengal - 1.10 MWOther states - 3.20 MWSolar Energy The sun is the most abundant and unlimited source of energy. The sun functions as a globalsource of energy and has tremendous potential. As a result, solar energy is one of the mostimportant non conventional sources of energy that are utilized in India. The solar cookers arequite economical and they have been a remarkable invention. These cookers assist in foodpreparation nearly without any expenditure. Additionally, many tiny and medium-scale solarpower plants have been intended for the countryside areas in India. Until now, some of theeffective usages of solar energy include water heating, food preparation, area heating, removal ofsalt from water, and drying of harvest. Furthermore, it has been forecasted that solar energy willbecome the future source of energy while fossil fuels, specifically oil and coal, would becompletely used up. Solar photovoltaic systems, solar thermal systems, and solar energy centreare some of the means of generating solar energy. The biggest photovoltaic (PV) power plants ofIndia are as follows:Gandhinagar Solar Plant - Installed January 21, 2011Thyagaraj Stadium Plant-Delhi - Installed April, 2010Azure Power, Sabarkantha Gujarat - Installed June 2011Tata - Mulshi, Maharashtra April 2011 - Installed April 2011Tata - Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu - Installed July 2011Moser Baer - Patan, Gujarat - Installed July 2011TATA - Osmanabad, Maharastra - Installed 1st Aug 2011REHPL - Sadeipali, (Bolangir) Orissa - Installed July 2011Techniques to generate Non Conventional Source of Energy in India 17
  18. 18. Thermal energy/Geo-thermal energy Geothermal energy is the application of natural temperature, which prevails on the exterior andbelow the earth, predominantly in the fissures and holes within the outer shell of the earth.Geothermal energy can be productively utilized for different objectives. The country is notaffluent in thermal energy resource. Nonetheless, endeavors are on for the total exploitation ofnatural energy of the Manikaran thermal springs in the state of Himachal Pradesh. Energygenerated from this can be applied for operating cold storage plants.Biomass Biomass is an important source of energy which represents approximately 33% of the overallvolume of fuel used in the country. It is broadly utilized in domestic circles for preparing foodand warming. In countryside areas, farming disposables, timber, wood coal, and sunbakeddroppings can be used as biomass. Many initiatives have been taken in India to make the rightuse of biomass in essentially a successful and more systematic way. The two principal segmentsof the biomass program are generation and usage of biomass. Smoke-free ambience, improvedhealthcare, and better quality of life and education are some of the salient benefits of biomass.Energy Plantation In India, barren areas are utilized for cultivation of plants and bushes that tend to spread quicklyand have significant heat generating characteristics. Successively, they render wood coal, fuelwood, power, hay, and most notably opportunities for agricultural service. With the gasificationplan, these energy plantations spanning approximately 8,000 hectares were generating almost 1.5MW power every year.Bagasse Oriented Power Plants It was projected that Indian sugar mills have the capacity of generating over 2,000 MWadditional electrical energy at the time of the grinding period. The energy generated by a sugarmill would initially fulfill its own energy needs and the remaining can be used in wateringfarming areas by supplying it into the local power system. Similar to bagasse, various otheragricultural disposables like rice husk are also used for generating electrical energy in thecountry.Energy from Urban disposables In Delhi, a pilot plant for the intention of displaying has been established for processing hardmunicipal disposables for switching into energy. Urban disposables generate a significantvolume of energy annually. In addition, wastes in metropolitan areas are utilized for generatingelectrical energy and gas. 18
  19. 19. Animal, Agricultural, and Human Excretions With the usage of agricultural and animal excretions over and above human body wastes, anumber of `Gobar Gas` plants have been built in many rural areas to make them self-reliant intheir energy requirements. The energy generated in this way is utilized for food preparation,lighting roads and houses, and satisfying the water supply requirements of the rural community.The plants have been established both at private and group levels. Last but not least, the largest percentage of energy is used in the household kitchens of India.Cow dung and wood are regarded as global sources of energy. Unfortunately, the conventional`chulhas` are uneconomical modes of preparing food. The better categories of effective andsmoke-free chulhas assist in protecting wood fuel. These are some of the most well known andextensively utilized non-conventional sources of energy in India.Importance of non-conventional sources of energy:1. The non-conventional sources of energy are abundant in nature. According to energy expertsthe non-conventional energy potential of India is estimated at about 95,000 MW.2. These are renewable resources. The non-conventional sources of energy can be renewed withminimum effort and money.3. Non-conventional sources of energy are pollution-free and eco-friendly 19