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Ancient Rome BCE-CE De nobis fabula narratur “ The Romans knew how to govern people, establish legal structures and constr...
Geography-  Locus-Locus-Locus <ul><li>Middle of the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Larger and more arable land than Greec...
Origins of Rome <ul><li>Legend: Romulus and Remus raised by she-wolf 733bce traced boundaries with plow </li></ul><ul><li>...
Steps to Unification <ul><li>Etruscans and Gauls squeezed out by Latins </li></ul><ul><li>290- conquered central Italy the...
Meanwhile, back in Rome,  the importance of citizenship <ul><li>gradual struggle between the patrician and plebeian classe...
The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE <ul><li>Major rival in Med- Phoenician Carthage </li></ul><ul><li>First Punic War 264-42- copie...
8 Struggles Continue in the Republic <ul><li>Graft, corruption, struggle between patrician and plebeians </li></ul><ul><li...
Republic’s Last Gasp <ul><li>First Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar challenges t...
The Roman Empire <ul><li>Caesar Augustus- purpose “to restore the republic” </li></ul><ul><li>27 BC Augustus become “First...
The Roman World <ul><li>Ever expanding- see maps- spread Pax Romanae </li></ul><ul><li>Politically - emperor/ dictatorship...
The Roman World (cont) <ul><li>Golden Age- literature Horace, Virgil, Ovid and Livy </li></ul><ul><li>Religion- state reli...
Slavery in the Roman World <ul><li>Important to building projects and way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests supplied sla...
The Roman Builders- All over the Empire <ul><li>Amazing accomplishments- Roads that still last </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts...
The Roman Emperors- the Good, Bad and Ugly <ul><li>Good- Marcus Aurelius-phil “citizen of the world” </li></ul><ul><li>Cal...
The Roman legacy- writing and the law <ul><li>alphabet- should look familiar to us </li></ul><ul><li>Romans wrote down eve...
The Roman Provinces- still impacted <ul><li>Gaul- France today- many roads, aqueducts, theaters </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhin...
Why a Roman “Fall” <ul><li>Instability caused by no real plan of succession </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble on the borders </li>...
Christianity and Rome <ul><li>Helped Christianity spread- communication </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal- unrest, questioning of p...
The Barbarians at the Gates <ul><li>Pressure from Germanic tribes looking for safety </li></ul><ul><li>Huns pressured the ...
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Classical Rome

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Classical Rome

  1. 1. Ancient Rome BCE-CE De nobis fabula narratur “ The Romans knew how to govern people, establish legal structures and construct roads that took them to the ends of their known world”
  2. 2. Geography- Locus-Locus-Locus <ul><li>Middle of the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Larger and more arable land than Greece- mts north and south </li></ul><ul><li>River valleys- Po in the North, Tiber in middle of boot </li></ul><ul><li>Rome - inland accessible by boat- defensible,on “Seven Hills” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Origins of Rome <ul><li>Legend: Romulus and Remus raised by she-wolf 733bce traced boundaries with plow </li></ul><ul><li>Later: Virgil’s Aeneus, hero of Troy, roams the Med looking for a home </li></ul><ul><li>Reality: Etruscans </li></ul><ul><li>unsure of origin </li></ul><ul><li>used iron, bronze and silver </li></ul><ul><li>Rome and Latins under rule of king </li></ul><ul><li>beginning fear of kings, rebelled </li></ul><ul><li>invaded by Gaul 390 BCE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Steps to Unification <ul><li>Etruscans and Gauls squeezed out by Latins </li></ul><ul><li>290- conquered central Italy then Samnites in South </li></ul><ul><li>265 took over Greek city states </li></ul><ul><li>key- staying power of army, won over conquered people- become Roman citizens </li></ul>
  5. 5. Meanwhile, back in Rome, the importance of citizenship <ul><li>gradual struggle between the patrician and plebeian classes </li></ul><ul><li>2 consuls and Senate made up of patricians </li></ul><ul><li>popular assemblies established with a representative tribune- veto power </li></ul><ul><li>450 BCE 12 Tables Roman Law codified </li></ul><ul><li>Result- increase of privileges for plebes </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE <ul><li>Major rival in Med- Phoenician Carthage </li></ul><ul><li>First Punic War 264-42- copied ships and corvus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>out of Sicily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Punic war 218-202- Hannibal 216 Battle of Camnae </li></ul><ul><li>Third- treaty infringement trumped up Cato’s speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carthago delenda est” Carthage plowed and sowed with salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result Rome now the POWER in the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 8 Struggles Continue in the Republic <ul><li>Graft, corruption, struggle between patrician and plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>Gracchi Brothers Tiberias and Gaius </li></ul><ul><li>Marius consul 6 x </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla- general seized Rome in 82 BCE restored power to Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set precedent </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Republic’s Last Gasp <ul><li>First Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar challenges the Senate crosses the Rubicon </li></ul><ul><li>47 BCE virtual ruler, increased Senate to 900 </li></ul><ul><li>44 BCE assassinated, Second Triumvirate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Octavius, Marc Antony, Lepidus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Actium 31 BCE End of an era </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Roman Empire <ul><li>Caesar Augustus- purpose “to restore the republic” </li></ul><ul><li>27 BC Augustus become “First Citizen” Princeps </li></ul><ul><li>ended strife- beginning of Pax Romanae </li></ul><ul><li>tried to impact life- morality, building </li></ul><ul><li>sculpture- deified him, literature as well </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation- of power/ Senate limited </li></ul><ul><li>SPQR Senatus Populusque Romanus- banner </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Roman World <ul><li>Ever expanding- see maps- spread Pax Romanae </li></ul><ul><li>Politically - emperor/ dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Roman citizenship as they spread </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman family- gradual less influence for fathers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>family strong unit- run like the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women become more independent- socially and ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>politically active as wives of emperors- Livia, wife of CA </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Roman World (cont) <ul><li>Golden Age- literature Horace, Virgil, Ovid and Livy </li></ul><ul><li>Religion- state religion, Roman gods reflected Greek </li></ul><ul><li>emperor became “divine” connection to gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tolerant of other religions Mithras, Persian god of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity-”And there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>persecutions not as many as thought- made stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes combined with others- e.g. Celtic gods </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Slavery in the Roman World <ul><li>Important to building projects and way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests supplied slaves so came from all over </li></ul><ul><li>Not related to ethnicity or skin color </li></ul><ul><li>Greek slaves educated and highly prized </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellions like Sparticus 73BCE occurred- Crassius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>put down, crucified slaves and held a 10 day party for Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves gradually won freedom and numbers decreased </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Roman Builders- All over the Empire <ul><li>Amazing accomplishments- Roads that still last </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts- bringing water to every important city </li></ul><ul><li>Temples for the gods- copied Greek style- massive </li></ul><ul><li>Forum- public area of the city- center- oration etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Theaters- for entertainment- drama </li></ul><ul><li>Coliseums- more fun, fights, gladiators, animals </li></ul><ul><li>Baths- public places- series of rooms dif temps </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Roman Emperors- the Good, Bad and Ugly <ul><li>Good- Marcus Aurelius-phil “citizen of the world” </li></ul><ul><li>Calm and unified- Trajan, Hadrian, walls and rebels </li></ul><ul><li>Bad- Caligula- named horse “consul”, Commodus, fought gladiators with blunted weapons, Nero, mass murder- inc his mother, pregnant wife, brother </li></ul><ul><li>Many later emperors were generals- most powerful could become emperor </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Roman legacy- writing and the law <ul><li>alphabet- should look familiar to us </li></ul><ul><li>Romans wrote down everything- very literate, passed on to use use every day, alma mater, alter ego, per capita, vice versa, a.m/, p.m., RIP ,list goes on ad infinitum </li></ul><ul><li>some consider the statutes and case law most important legacy- took idea that a written law can protect one person from another- put it into practice- Because it’s the laws means something to us- not necessarily in other cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>tried to appeal to people through argument- idea of people deciding </li></ul><ul><li>magistrates important in Rome- e.g. of Apostle Paul </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Roman Provinces- still impacted <ul><li>Gaul- France today- many roads, aqueducts, theaters </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhine- no border- Trier and Wiesbaden </li></ul><ul><li>Britain- difficult place, Bath and Hadrian’s wall </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine- Masada- rebellion and magnificent cities like Baalbek </li></ul><ul><li>Africa- riches of Egypt and the granary of the Empire </li></ul>
  17. 17. Why a Roman “Fall” <ul><li>Instability caused by no real plan of succession </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble on the borders </li></ul><ul><li>Morally bankrupt? </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Empire- Diocletian </li></ul><ul><li>Later Constantine- new capitol- Constantinople- </li></ul>
  18. 18. Christianity and Rome <ul><li>Helped Christianity spread- communication </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal- unrest, questioning of polytheism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explained spiritual aspects, Christ’s teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis of eternal life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community exclusive (mystery religion) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persecution- under Nero, blamed for fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly tolerant, Christians refused to worship state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect- spread slowly- letters formed NT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>officially tolerated 313 Edict of Milan </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Barbarians at the Gates <ul><li>Pressure from Germanic tribes looking for safety </li></ul><ul><li>Huns pressured the Visogoths-410- ran into the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Vandals- 455- sacked Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Series of invasions- physical damage, but also intellectual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>established German kingdoms in West- illiterate,look at art </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The East survives- becomes Byzantium- keeps the learning from the ancient world </li></ul>

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