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CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 1
©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Why was th...
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©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Hofstede’s F...
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The Advantag...
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Hofstede’s F...
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Hofstede’s F...
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The Framewor...
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Collaboratio...
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Collaboratio...
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The Chinese ...
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The Chines...
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The Chines...
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The Chines...
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The Chines...
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Researcher...
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Researcher...
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The Framew...
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The Framew...
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Culture in...
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Culture in...
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The CWQ
IT...
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Your resul...
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CWQ Group ...
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Reports on...
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ITAP is pr...
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Improving ...
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Catherine ...
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Why Was the Time Orientation Added to Hofstede's Framework?

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In the early 1980s, Hofstede's framework included only 4 cultural dimensions. It later came to include two additional dimensions: Time Orientation and Indulgence. This presentation describes how Time Orientation came to be added to the framework. Initially, Time Orientation was known as "Confucian Work Dynamism". Time Orientation emerged thanks to Prof. Geert Hofstede's collaboration with Prof. Michael Harris Bond.

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Why Was the Time Orientation Added to Hofstede's Framework?

  1. 1. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 1 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 1 Why was the Time Orientation Added to Hofstede’s Framework? ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Source: Hofstede’s webinar to ITAP International
  2. 2. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 2 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Hofstede’s Framework • The framework allows professionals to compare cultures along six dimensions • Each dimension is conceived of as a continuum • At the end pole of each continuum is a cultural orientation Since there are six dimensions, there are twelve cultural orientations
  3. 3. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 3 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 The Advantage of Each Orientation* Individual Orientation Self-reliance Group Orientation Interdependence Hierarchical Orientation Discipline Participative Orientation Acceptance of Responsibility Need for Certainty Precision Tolerance for Ambiguity Innovation Achievement Orientation Efficiency Quality of Life Orientation Custom Outputs & Personal Service Long-Term Orientation Developing New Market Opportunities Short-Term Orientation Fast Adaptation Individualism Power Distance Certainty Achievement Time Orientation Indulgence Orientation A sense of well-being Restraint Orientation Work-ethic Indulgence *This slide showcases ITAP’s terminology for Hofstede’s dimensions
  4. 4. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 4 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 Hofstede’s Framework Evolved Over Time • Geert Hofstede developed his framework over several decades of research • The framework began with research on employees of IBM in 40 countries • By1980, Hofstede’s framework had four dimensions
  5. 5. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 5 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 Hofstede’s Framework in 1980: Four Dimensions 1. Inequality: more or less? Power Distance large vs. small 2. The unfamiliar: fight or tolerate? Uncertainty Avoidance strong vs. weak Certainty* 3. Relation with in-group: loose or tight? Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism* 1. Emotional gender roles: different or same? Masculinity vs. Femininity Achievement* * The star indicates places where the current ITAP terminology is different from Hofstede’s terminology
  6. 6. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 6 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 The Framework is Based on Measurements • The framework compares the culture of different countries along six dimensions • The dimension-specific country scores are normed on a scale of 1 to 100
  7. 7. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 7 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 Collaboration with Michael Harris Bond • December 1980: at a cross-cultural psychology conference in India, Prof. Hofstede was a discussant for a paper by Michael Harris Bond • Bond and colleagues had replicated an American survey, the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), among students from 10 countries around the Pacific
  8. 8. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 8 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Collaboration with Michael Harris Bond • Hofstede’s comment was that Bond et al. took average values of countries to compare individuals: this was a “reverse ecological fallacy” • Bond accepted Hofstede’s critique and reanalyzed his RVS data at the country (“ecological”) level • He found 4 country-level dimensions, with correlations to the dimensions in Hofstede’s framework
  9. 9. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 9 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 The Chinese Perspective • Both the IBM and the RVS survey questions had been selected and formulated by Western minds • Bond and Hofstede wondered to what extent their similar results could be caused by their shared Western culture rather than reflect the cultures of the respondents • Bond decided to test this by having a questionnaire designed by his Chinese colleagues
  10. 10. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 10 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 The Chinese Value Survey (CVS) • The Chinese Value Survey (CVS) was administered to students in 23 countries worldwide • The CVS results were published by “The Chinese Culture Connection,” Bond & 23 co-authors, in 1987
  11. 11. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 11 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 The Chinese Value Survey (CVS) • Analysis of the CVS results produced 4 country-level dimensions. Three of these correlated with Power Distance, Individualism and Achievement* • No CVS dimension correlated with the Certainty* Dimension. Questions related to Certainty have not been included by the Chinese designers of the CVS * ITAP’s terminology
  12. 12. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 12 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 The Chinese Value Survey (CVS) • The CVS produced a new dimension mainly composed of Chinese values which the Western designers of the IBM surveys had overlooked
  13. 13. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 13 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 The Chinese Value Survey (CVS) Yielded the Time Dimension • Bond initially called this new dimension “Confucian Work Dynamism” – Hofstede called it “Long vs. Short Term Orientation” (LTO/STO) – ITAP’s terminology: “Time Orientation” • In 1988 Bond and Hofstede published their 2nd joint article and Hofstede added LTO/STO to his model as a 5th dimension
  14. 14. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 14 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 Researchers’ Minds and Respondents’ Minds • A common misunderstanding is that because the CVS did not identify Certainty as a dimension, this dimension is not relevant in Asia • But Certainty is very relevant in Asia: for example, it is the key culture factor distinguishing Japan from China • The reason Certainty was not included because the Chinese designers of the CVS did not perceive it as relevant
  15. 15. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 15 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 Researchers’ Minds and Respondents’ Minds • Time Orientation is not only relevant in Asia but very important worldwide • The reason Time Orientation did not emerge earlier lies with the Western designers of the IBM and RVS surveys: They were not aware of the importance of Time Orientation
  16. 16. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 16 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 The Framework Over Time • Today the framework has six dimensions: - Time Orientation was the fifth dimension that he added - Most recently he added a sixth dimension: Indulgence • Hofstede’s framework has dimension- specific scores for 76 countries
  17. 17. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 17 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 The Framework Captures a • So far, there are six major replications of the framework (with elites, working professionals, airline pilots, consumers, civil servants) • The country scores are normed relative to each other • As cultures slowly shift, they shift together, and the scores remain stable relative to each other
  18. 18. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 18 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Culture in the Workplace QuestionnaireTM (CWQ) • For more insight about working effectively across cultures, contact ITAP • ITAP is one of only 2 companies worldwide endorsed by Dr. Hofstede and approved to represent his research "This [approval] is due to their professionalism and deep understanding of my work.” • An Ivy League university partners with ITAP to certify its coaches in the CWQ ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 19 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire™ (CWQ) Useful in… Organizational Development • Change Management • Executive Coaching • Relocation Coaching • Global Team Development • Follow-on to Global Competency Development Learning and Development • Onboarding • Relocation Training • Global Skills Training (see catalog) • Negotiations • Project Management • Leading Effective Meetings • Conflict Resolution • Influencing Skills, etc. Other • Culture Audit on… • web content • training materials • training methodology • marketing materials • Global Call Center Development • Business Ethics across Cultures ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 20 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 The CWQ ITAP CWQ database includes over 8,000 respondents. Results correlate highly with Hofstede’s data. The CWQ application is currently available in: – English – Latin American Spanish – European Spanish – French – German – Korean – Chinese – Questions and instructions only (not the report) are in Danish and Japanese ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 21 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 Your results compared to country averages Explanation of your results Individual orientation Group orientation Individual Report ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. INDIVIDUALISM - the degree to which action is taken for the benefit of the individual, or benefit of the group This dimension represents the relationship between the individual and the group in a given society.  An individualistic society is a culture of the "self” where individuals are expected to take care of themselves and ties between individuals are loose. In business in individualistic cultures, employees are expected to take responsibility for their work and their career development. A group (or collectivist) society gives preference to belonging to the "we," where individuals are loyal and contribute to the wealth of their family, clan, or organization in exchange for reciprocal group support. In group cultures, the organization, supervisor and colleagues are more likely to provide support and foster interdependence. Individualism: The higher your score, the higher your preference for Individual Orientation. A score of 50 or lower means more of a preference for Group Orientation. Interpreting your results [NOTE: THIS IS A SAMPLE EXPERT PARAGRAPH BASED ON THIS PERSON'S ANSWERS.] Your score is in the middle to high range of the Individualism dimension and indicates a moderate preference for individual orientation. Employees with a preference for individual orientation will pursue their employer's interests to the extent that these coincide with their self-interest. Freedom to adopt your own approach and having challenging work are important in a job. Individuals expect direct feedback, as well as rewards and recognition based on their individual performance. Speaking one's mind, honesty and openness are valued. Decisions can often be made quickly by an individual who has the authority to speak on behalf of a larger group. Both your score and the score for USA indicate a preference for an individual-oriented environment that supports and encourages individual expression. In countries with a more pronounced individual orientation such as USA, you may find the need to appeal more to self-interest than to the group interest, to a degree beyond your normal style. You can also expect that you may need to take even more individual responsibility for your job performance than you may be used to. Your score shows the least difference with the score for India. Your approach is therefore likely to be consistent with the approach in India. respondent
  22. 22. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 22 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 CWQ Group Results QUADRANT CHARTS: • The Individualism results of a group of people along with country scores • The chart also shows the group results for another cultural dimension (in this case, Power Distance) ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 23 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 Reports on 38 Countries ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 24 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 ITAP is prepared to provide demonstrations of its Intellectual Property to qualified licensors ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Who licenses the CWQ? • Human Resource professional in large organizations • Consulting firms seeking the capability to assess cultural values at the individual, group and organizational levels
  25. 25. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 25 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 Improving Competitive Advantage • Our services focus on: 1.Global talent retention and development 2.Effectiveness of the senior team and mission critical global teams 3.Global leader and global workforce development 4.Cross-border transformation and change • Ensure that culture is an asset, not a barrier in your global business. ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 26 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26 Catherine Mercer Bing CEO, ITAP International, Inc. Managing Director, ITAP Americas, Inc. 353 Nassau Street, First Floor Princeton, NJ 08540 USA (W) +1.215.860.5640 (M) +1.609.937.1557 www.Itapintl.com cbing@itapintl.com SKYPE: CatherineBing ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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