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Traditional Theories of Leadership and the Achievement Dimension

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Hofstede's framework recognizes six cultural dimensions. This presentation discusses one of the six dimensions: Achievement. The Achievement dimension partially aligns with the tension between being employee-oriented and production-oriented. These last two terms come to us from the University of Michigan studies of leadership.

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Traditional Theories of Leadership and the Achievement Dimension

  1. 1. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 1 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1 1 Traditional Theories of Leadership and the Achievement Dimension ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 2 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Traditional Theories of Leadership: Behavioral Theories Behavioral theories: •Focus on observable behavior, not underlying traits •Behavior can be learned, esp. by high self-monitors “self-monitors” = people who are very conscious of their own behavior and its impact on others, and are skilled at adjusting their own behavior Source: Management 11e
  3. 3. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 3 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 Traditional Theories of Leadership: Behavioral Theories • Ohio State Studies uncovered 2 dimensions of behavior: 1. Consideration: Trust, respect for ideas, regard for feelings • [66% of employees are motivated by appreciation] 1. Initiating structure: Organize work, work relationships, and goals. Source: Management, 11th edition, by John R. Schermerhorn, Jr
  4. 4. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 4 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4 Traditional Theories of Leadership: Behavioral Theories University of Michigan Studies: Similar to the studies in Ohio State University •Employee-oriented leaders: Like the Ohio State dimension of “initiating structure” •Production-oriented leaders: Like the Ohio State dimension of “consideration” Source: Management, 11th edition, by John R. Schermerhorn, Jr
  5. 5. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 5 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 Differences Between Ohio state and Michigan University Research • University of Michigan studies show that “leaders who were employee-oriented in their behavior” do better than production-oriented leaders • Employees under employee-oriented leaders have: – higher group productivity – higher job satisfaction Source: Management, 11th edition, by John R. Schermerhorn, Jr
  6. 6. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 6 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6 Differences Between Ohio state and Michigan University Research • The Ohio State studies argue that both consideration (employee-oriented) and initiating structure (production-oriented) are important Source: Management, 11th edition, by John R. Schermerhorn, Jr
  7. 7. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 7 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 Basic Distinction: Relationship vs. Task Source: Management, 11th edition, by John R. Schermerhorn, Jr
  8. 8. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 8 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8 Reflection: Where did YOU learn behaviors that belong to “initiating structure”? Where did you learn: -Trust? -Respect for ideas? -Respect for your own feelings? -Respect other people’s feelings?
  9. 9. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 9 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 Reflection: Where did YOU learn behaviors that belong to “initiating structure”? Where did you learn: - Organize work? - Relating to people at work? - Setting goals?
  10. 10. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 10 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 Evaluating Behavioral Theories Strengths Weaknesses • Directs researchers and practitioners to an important distinction: task vs. relationship • Theory does not tell us about the situations in which task or relationships are particularly important, making it difficult to give practical advice • There are probably other orientations besides employee and production Source: Management, 11th edition, by John R. Schermerhorn, Jr
  11. 11. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 11 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 Geert Hofstede: The Values that Motivate Behavior • One can research the values that motivate behavior (and situations in which there is a gap between the values and the behavior) Prof. Geert Hofstede
  12. 12. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 12 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12 Hofstede’s Framework • As in previous ITAP presentations, we define cultural values by drawing on Prof. Geert Hofstede’s framework • In Hofstede’s framework, cultural values are organized along six dimensions – Each dimension is a continuum – At each end of a continuum is a distinct value orientation
  13. 13. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 13 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Hofstede’s Framework and the Ohio State and University of Michigan Studies • One of Hofstede’s 6 dimensions is Achievement • Achievement partially aligns with the tension between being employee-oriented vs. production-oriented (Consideration vs. Structure Initiation)
  14. 14. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 14 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 Achievement …the degree to which we focus on goal achievement and work, or quality of life and caring for others ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATION QUALITY OF LIFE ORIENTATIONNice guys finish last. Winning isn’t everything, it’s the only thing. All work and no play make Jack a dull boy. It is nice to be important, but it is more important to be nice.
  15. 15. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 15 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 Achievement Scores Vary Across Countries Japan=95 Sweden=5 Austria=79 Denmark=16 Germany=66 Netherland=14 USA=62 China = 471 1 ITAP research over the past 9 years. Hofstede’s estimate is 66. ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATION QUALITY OF LIFE ORIENTATION
  16. 16. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 16 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 Imagine Business Leaders Working Across Cultural Differences Advice to individuals with Quality of Life Orientation who work with Achievement oriented colleagues: Your colleagues might perceive you as less driven or ambitious than they are They be frustrated and have a greater expectation for urgency and delivery versus your preference for establishing consultative relationships and rapport Recognizing this dynamic early on may help you establish the cooperation you seek to develop
  17. 17. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 17 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 Geert Hofstede: The Values that Motivate Behavior Since more than one value motivate behavior, and Hofstede’s framework includes 6 dimensions... ITAP has created charts with 4 cells to discuss behavior along 2 value dimensions – Achievement and Certainty
  18. 18. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 18 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Certainty… …the extent to which people prefer rules, regulations and controls or are more comfortable with unstructured, ambiguous or unpredictable situations. NEED FOR CERTAINTY TOLERANCE FOR AMBIGUITY Do it by the book. Better safe than sorry. Rules are meant to be broken. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Japan=92 Germany=65 USA=46 China=30
  19. 19. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 19 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 China and Tolerance for Ambiguity Orientation “Adherence to laws and rules may be flexible to suit the actual situation and pragmatism is a fact of life. The Chinese are comfortable with ambiguity; the Chinese language is full of ambiguous meanings that can be difficult for Western people to follow”
  20. 20. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 20 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 China Japan Scores: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/china,japan/ Combining Two Behavioral Styles U.S.A. Germany
  21. 21. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 21 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 Geert Hofstede: The Values that Motivate Behavior • Global leaders sometimes work with leaders and followers who do not behave like them and do not share the same values that drive behavior • Leaders are at risk of not being effective when their behavior and values do not align with other people’s behavior and values, or if they do not respect differences
  22. 22. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 22 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 • For more insight about working effectively across cultures, contact ITAP • ITAP is one of only 2 companies worldwide endorsed by Dr. Hofstede and approved to represent his research "This [approval] is due to their professionalism and deep understanding of my work.” • An Ivy League university partners with ITAP to certify its coaches in the CWQ. ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 23 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 24 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 ITAP CWQ database includes over 8,000 respondents. Results correlate highly with Hofstede’s data. The CWQ application is currently available in: – English – Latin American Spanish – European Spanish – French – German – Korean – Chinese – Questions and instructions only (not the report) are in Danish and Japanese ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 25 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 Your results compared to country averages Explanation of your results Individual orientation Group orientation ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. INDIVIDUALISM - the degree to which action is taken for the benefit of the individual, or benefit of the group This dimension represents the relationship between the individual and the group in a given society. • An individualistic society is a culture of the "self” where individuals are expected to take care of themselves and ties between individuals are loose. In business in individualistic cultures, employees are expected to take responsibility for their work and their career development. A group (or collectivist) society gives preference to belonging to the "we," where individuals are loyal and contribute to the wealth of their family, clan, or organization in exchange for reciprocal group support. In group cultures, the organization, supervisor and colleagues are more likely to provide support and foster interdependence. Individualism: The higher your score, the higher your preference for Individual Orientation. A score of 50 or lower means more of a preference for Group Orientation. Interpreting your results [NOTE: THIS IS A SAMPLE EXPERT PARAGRAPH BASED ON THIS PERSON'S ANSWERS.] Your score is in the middle to high range of the Individualism dimension and indicates a moderate preference for individual orientation. Employees with a preference for individual orientation will pursue their employer's interests to the extent that these coincide with their self-interest. Freedom to adopt your own approach and having challenging work are important in a job. Individuals expect direct feedback, as well as rewards and recognition based on their individual performance. Speaking one's mind, honesty and openness are valued. Decisions can often be made quickly by an individual who has the authority to speak on behalf of a larger group. Both your score and the score for USA indicate a preference for an individual-oriented environment that supports and encourages individual expression. In countries with a more pronounced individual orientation such as USA, you may find the need to appeal more to self-interest than to the group interest, to a degree beyond your normal style. You can also expect that you may need to take even more individual responsibility for your job performance than you may be used to. Your score shows the least difference with the score for India. Your approach is therefore likely to be consistent with the approach in India. respondent
  26. 26. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 26 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26 QUADRANT CHARTS: •The Individualism results of a group of people along with country scores •The chart also shows the group results for another cultural dimension (in this case, Power Distance) ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 27 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27 Hofstede Country Culture Analysis Australia Hofstede Country Culture Analysis Germany Hofstede Country Culture Analysis Mexico Hofstede Country Culture Analysis China Hofstede Country Culture Analysis India Hofstede Country CultureAnalysisUnited Arab Emirates ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 28 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28 ITAP is prepared toITAP is prepared to provide demonstrationsprovide demonstrations of its Intellectualof its Intellectual Property to qualifiedProperty to qualified licensorslicensors ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Who licenses the CWQ? •Human Resource professional in large organizations •Consulting firms seeking the capability to assess cultural values at the individual, group and organizational levels
  29. 29. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 29 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29 Improving Competitive Advantage • Our services focus on: 1.Global talent retention and development 2.Effectiveness of the senior team and mission critical global teams 3.Global leader and global workforce development 4.Cross-border transformation and change • Ensure that culture is an asset, not a barrier in your global business. ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. CULTURAL HARMONY: WORKING IN A MULTI-CULTURAL COMPANY 30 ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 Catherine Mercer Bing CEO, ITAP International, Inc. Managing Director, ITAP Americas, Inc. 353 Nassau Street, First Floor Princeton, NJ 08540 USA (W) +1.215.860.5640 (M) +1.609.937.1557 www.Itapintl.com cbing@itapintl.com SKYPE: CatherineBing ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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