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The Case for Comparative Quantitative Measures of Culture by John Bing

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In "The Case of Comparative Quantitative Measures of Culture: The Many Dimensions of Geert Hofstede," John Bing describes insights from Geert Hofstede's quantitative research of cultural differences. It describes the six dimensions in Hofstede's framework: Individualism, Power Distance, Certainty, Achievement, Time Orientation and Indulgence. It features interesting data about the influence of age and education on national culture. It also includes a chart that maps individual results along two cultural dimensions: Individualism and Power Distance. Interestingly, results from New York City coalesce around the concept of Autonomy, or the overlap of Individual and Participative orientations. Results from Mumbai coalesce around the concept of Multi-Level Consultation, or the overlap of Group and Participative orientations.

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The Case for Comparative Quantitative Measures of Culture by John Bing

  1. 1. The Case for Compara-ve Quan-ta-ve Measures of Culture The Many Dimensions of Geert Hofstede John W Bing, Founder and Chair, ITAP Interna7onal The Anthropology Spotlight Lecture Series: Applying Anthropology to Real World Problems 1 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Individual •  Personal History •  Family Background •  Personality Environmental •  Economic Factors •  Market Issues •  Social Factors Na-onal Culture •  Education •  National Values •  Fundamental Beliefs Organiza-onal Climate •  Corporate Culture •  Organizational Structure •  Global Reach SOURCE: From various published ar2cles authored by John W. Bing Ed.D © John Bing 2000 - 2010 About Culture - Culture in Context ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. KNOWN A C PUBLIC SELF What you and others know about you UNKNOWN SELF What you do not know about yourself that others know. OTHERS/Other Cultures B D NOT KNOWN PRIVATE SELF What you know that others do not know. UNKNOWN TO ALL SELF/Your Own Culture KNOWN NOT KNOWN 3 Johari Window ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. In science, serendipity—the unexpected finding of something one was not looking for yet whose significance one recognizes—is a highly welcome and recognized form of cunning when wrestling with uncertainty. --Helga Nowotny, The Cunning of Uncertainty 4 The Cunning of Uncertainty ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. 5 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7. ...normal distribu7on / na7onal average scores A B 62 C 7 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved. About Culture - Culture in Context A word about cultural stereotypes
  8. 8. Geert Hofstede, Professor Emeritus of Organiza7onal Anthropology and Interna7onal Management at University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. •  He became a founder of compara7ve intercultural research, through the publica7on of "Culture's Consequences". •  His book "Cultures and Organiza7ons: Soaware of the Mind" (3rd edi7on co-authored with Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov) has appeared in 17 European and 4 Asian languages. •  Geert Hofstede is one of the most cited authors in the social sciences. •  He is Doctor Honoris Causa of ten European universi7es, Honorary Professor at two Chinese universi7es, Honorary Fellow of Interna7onal Associa7on for Cross-Cultural Psychology, and Fellow of Academy of Management and Academy of Interna7onal Business in the USA. •  In May 2008, Wall Street Journal ranked him among the Top 20 “most influen7al business thinkers”. •  In September 2011 Queen Beatrix (Netherlands) conferred upon him the 7tle of Knight in the Order of the Dutch Lion. 8 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved. About Geert Hofstede
  9. 9. “…intercultural competence starts with awareness… recogni7on that one carries a par7cular mental soaware because of the way one was brought up, that others who grew up in a different environment carry different mental soaware for equally good reasons.” --Geert Hofstede 9 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Intercultural Competence Robert Kaplan, Cultural Thought PaHerns in Intercultural Educa2on
  10. 10. ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 10 •  Individualism (Individual or Group Orienta-on) - the degree to which ac7on is taken for the benefit of the individual or the benefit of the group •  Power Distance (Hierarchical or Par-cipa-ve Orienta-on) - the extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally •  Certainty (Need for Certainty or Tolerance for Ambiguity) - the extent to which people prefer rules, regula7ons and controls, or are comfortable with ambiguity •  Achievement (Achievement or Quality of Life Orienta-on) - the degree to which we focus on goal achievement and work, or quality of life and caring for others •  Time Orienta-on (Long- or Short-term Orienta-on) - the fostering of virtues that promote a long-term (perseverance and thria) or short-term 7me horizon (preserving present benefits) •  Indulgence (Indulgence or Restraint) - the tendency to allow rela7vely free gra7fica7on or the convic7on that such gra7fica7on needs to be curbed Hofstede’s Dimensions
  11. 11. Evolu-on of the Culture in the Workplace Ques-onnaire™ •  Hofstede’s Culture’s Consequences: Describing a research-based, quan7ta7ve approach to understanding cultural differences •  The 24-item ques7onnaire: a Paper/Pencil approach to learning about cultural differences •  An online applica7on of 60 ques7ons with a database of 15,000 responses from 60 countries 11 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. Advantages of Each Orienta-on Individual Orienta-on Self-reliance Group Orienta-on Interdependence Hierarchical Orienta-on Discipline Par-cipa-ve Orienta-on Acceptance of Responsibility Need for Certainty Precision Tolerance for Ambiguity Innova7on Achievement Orienta-on Efficiency Quality of Life Orienta-on Custom Outputs & Personal Service Long-Term Orienta-on Developing New Market Opportuni7es Short-Term Orienta-on Fast Adapta7on Individualism Power Distance Certainty Achievement Time Orienta-on 12 Indulgence Orienta-on A sense of well-being Restraint Orienta-on Work-ethic Indulgence ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. USA UK Japan Arab Ctrs. Participant Mexico COUNTRY 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 DegreeofIndividualism Sample Question: Decisions made by individuals are usually of a higher quality than decisions made by groups. PREFERENCES FOR INDIVIDUALISM Individual Style Versus Group Style 13 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. The Influence of Age on National Culture Y = below 40; O = 40+ ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 Country Similar Different Different US (UK similar) IND/C/ACH PD (16 points) LTO (17 points) Y = 60; O = 44 Y = 53; O = 36 Philippines IND/PD/ACH C (12 point) LTO (25 points) Y = 71; O = 59 Y = 50; O = 25 Germany IND/C/ACH/LTO PD (10 points) Y = 46; O = 36 South Korea IND/PD/ACH/LTO C (13 points) Y = 68; O = 55 India C/ACH/LTO IND (16 points) PD (17 points) Y = 37; O = 53 Y = 78; O = 52 China IND/PD/C/ACH LTO (17 points) Y = 91*; O = 76 * Highest in the sample ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Country Similar Different Different US C/ACH/LTO IND (10 points) PD (19 points) L = 64; H = 74 L = 56; H = 37 Philippines PD/C/ACH/LTO IND (11 points) L = 39; H = 50 Germany IND/C/ACH/LTO PD (21 points) L = 55; H = 34 South Korea All similar India C/ACH/LTO IND (11 points) PD (26 points) L = 36; H = 47 L = 85; H = 59 China IND/C/ACH/LTO PD (12 points) L= 82; H = 70 The Influence of Education on National Culture ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 L = elementary, secondary and vocational; H = college and above
  16. 16. The Influence of Gender on National Culture ©2017 ITAP International, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 Country Similar Different Different US All similar Philippines All similar Germany C/ACH/LTO IND (15 points) PD (23 points) F = 96; M = 81 F = 25; M = 48 South Korea C/ACH IND (29 points) PD (13 points) F = 63; M = 34 F = 59; M = 72 LTO (21 points) F = 62; M = 83 India All similar China All similar F = Female; M = Male
  17. 17. New York City Office Scores Mumbai Office Scores ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18. Through Thick and Thin •  Thick Descrip7ons: First used by anthropologists describing groups* (Qualita7ve Approaches) •  Thin Descrip7ons: Using “big data” to discover correla7ons and differences* (Quan7ta7ve approaches) •  Both are needed for a full understanding of cultural similari7es, differences, and contexts, and to applying anthropology to real world problems *Helga Nowotny, The Cunning of Uncertainty 18 ©2017 ITAP Interna7onal, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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