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Anatomy and morphology of teeth

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Anatomy and morphology of teeth

  1. 1. علمی است که راجع به خصوصیات ماکروسکوپیک دندانهای هنجار و ناهنجار و تنوع آنها و ارتباط انٓه باا هم و اجزاء سیستم جونده صحبت می کند
  2. 2. Primary dentition Mixed dentition Permanent dentition از ٦ ماهگی تا ٦ سالگی از ٦ سالگی تا ١٢ سالگی از ١٢ سالگی تا زمانی که دندانها در دهان هستند
  3. 3. Primary dentition Mixed dentition Permanent dentition دوره های دندانی
  4. 4. Introduction Dentition is the term used to describe the natural teeth in the jawbones. The dental assistant must know the names, locations, and functions of the teeth. The dental assistant must also understand the various systems of numbering the teeth, as well as the patterns of tooth eruption and occlusion. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. The Primary Dentition  The first set of 20 primary teeth is called the primary dentition.  This dentition is commonly referred to as the “baby teeth.”  You may also hear the term deciduous dentition. This is an older and less frequently used dental term to describe the primary dentition. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Fig. 11-1 Facial and buccal view of a primary dentition. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. The Mixed Dentition  Mixed dentition generally occurs between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Both primary and permanent teeth are present during this transitional period.  The mixed-dentition period begins with the eruption of the first permanent tooth, which is a permanent mandibular first molar.  This period ends with shedding of the last primary tooth. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Fig. 11-2 Facial and buccal view of a mixed dentition. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. The Permanent Dentition  The permanent dentition is the final, or adult, dentition.  This period begins with shedding of the last primary tooth.  Growth of the jawbones slows and eventually stops.  There is very little growth of the jaw overall during this period because puberty has passed. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Fig. 11-3 Facial and buccal view of a permanent dentition. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. The Dental Arches  The maxillary arch (upper), which is actually part of the skull, is fixed and not capable of movement. The teeth are set in the maxilla bone.  The mandibular arch (lower) is capable of movement through the action of the temporomandibular joint. The mandible is the bone that supports the lower arch of teeth, hence the name “mandibular arch.”  Occlusion is the natural contact between the maxillary and mandibular teeth in all positions. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Quadrants  Dividing the maxillary and mandibular arches into halves yields four sections, which are called quadrants.  Each quadrant of permanent dentition contains eight permanent teeth and a quadrant of primary dentition contains five teeth. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Fig. 11-4 A, Primary dentition separated into quadrants. B, Permanent dentition separated into quadrants. (From Finkbeiner B, Johnson C: Comprehensive dental assisting, St Louis, 1995, Mosby.) Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Fig. 11-5 Permanent dentition separated into sextants. (From Finkbeiner B, Johnson C: Comprehensive dental assisting, St Louis, 1995, Mosby.) Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Sextants  Sometimes it is necessary to divide the dentition into six parts, each called a sextant.  Maxillary right posterior  Maxillary anterior  Maxillary left posterior  Mandibular right posterior  Mandibular anterior  Mandibular left posterior Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Anterior Teeth  The anterior teeth are the incisors and canines.  They are visible when we smile.  These teeth are aligned to form a smooth, curving arc from the distal (back of the) canine on one side of the arch to the distal canine on the opposite side. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Posterior Teeth  The premolars and molars.  The posterior teeth are aligned with little or no curvature.  These teeth appear to be in an almost straight line. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. تاج دندان آناتوميك كلينيكال ريشه دندان آناتوميك كلينيكال
  19. 19. مينا عاج سمنتوم پالپ دندان اتاق پالپ كانالهاي ريشه
  20. 20. لثه سمنتوم PDL استخوان آلوئل
  21. 21. Types and Functions of Teeth  Human beings eat both meat and plants.  To accommodate this variety in diet, teeth are designed for the cutting, tearing, and grinding of different types of food.  The permanent dentition is divided into four types of teeth:  Incisors  Canines  Premolars  Molars Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Types of Teeth in the Primary Dentition  The primary dentition has:  Incisors  Canines  Molars  There are no premolars in the primary dentition. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Fig. 11-6 A, Occlusal view of the permanent dentition. The types of teeth are identified using the Universal/National System. (From Bath-Balogh M, Fehrenbach MJ: Illustrated dental embryology, histology, and anatomy, ed 2 St Louis, 2005, Saunders.) Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Incisor Teeth  Incisors are single-rooted teeth with relatively sharp, thin edges.  Located at the front of the mouth, the incisors are designed to cut food without the application of heavy force.  Incisor means “that which makes an incision or cut.”  The tongue side, or lingual surface of the incisor is shaped like a shovel to help guide food into the mouth. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Canine Teeth  Canine teeth are also known as cuspids.  They are located at the “corners” of the arch.  The canines are designed for cutting and tearing food.  They are the longest teeth in the human dentition.  Canine teeth have the longest roots of all teeth and are usually the last teeth to be lost.  Because of its sturdy crown, long root, and location in the arch, the canine is referred to as the cornerstone of the dental arch. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Premolar Teeth  There are four maxillary and four mandibular premolars.  The premolars, also known as bicuspids, are a cross between canines and molars.  The pointed buccal cusps hold the food while the lingual cusps grind it.  The premolars are not as long as canines and also have a broader surface made for chewing food. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Molar Teeth  Molars are much larger than premolars and usually have four or more cusps.  The function of the 12 molars is to chew or grind food.  The molars have more cusps than do the other teeth. There are four or five cusps on the occlusal (biting) surface of each molar, depending on the tooth’s location.  Maxillary and mandibular molars differ greatly from each other in shape, size, and numbers of cusps and roots. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. ماکزيلاری يا منديبولار دائمی يا شيری راست يا چپ ثنايا م يانی کناری نيش آسيا کوچک ا ول دوم آسيا بزرک ا ول دوم سوم
  29. 29. نامگذاري نمادي دندانها Palmer Universal FDI
  30. 30. Tooth Surfaces  Occlusal surfaces: posterior teeth  Incisal surfaces: anterior teeth  Lingual surfaces  Buccal or facial surfaces  Mesial surfaces  Distal surfaces Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Fig. 11-7 Surfaces of the teeth and their relationships to other oral cavity structures, to the midline, and to other teeth. (From Bath-Balogh M, Fehrenbach MJ: Illustrated dental embryology, histology, and anatomy, ed 2, St Louis, 2005, Saunders.) Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. اĔ نامگذاری سطوح دندا
  33. 33. Anatomic Features of the Teeth  Anatomic features of the teeth help maintain their positions in the arch and protect the tissues during mastication.  Contours  Contacts  Embrasures Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Fig. 11-8 Tooth contours. A, Normal contour. B, Inadequate contour. C, Overcontouring. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Fig. 11-9 Example of a permanent anterior tooth with the contact area and height of contour identified. (From Bath-Balogh M, Fehrenbach MJ: Illustrated dental embryology, histology, and anatomy, ed 2, St Louis, 2005, Saunders.) Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Embrasures  When two teeth in the same arch touch, their curvatures next to the contact areas form spaces called embrasures.  An embrasure is a triangular space in a gingival direction between the proximal surfaces of two adjoining teeth in contact.  Embrasures are continuous with the interproximal spaces between the teeth.  All tooth contours, including contact areas and embrasures, are important in the function and health of the oral tissues. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Fig. 11-10 Embrasures may diverge facially, lingually, occlusally, or apically. Copyright © 2009, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. برجستگيهاي سطح دندان Cingulum Mamelon Ridge Tubercle Height of Countour Line Angle Point Angle
  39. 39. Terminology برجستگيهاي سطح دندان Cingulum Mamelon Ridge Tubercle Height of Countour Line Angle Point Angle
  40. 40. Terminology فرورفتگيهاي سطح دندان • • Fossa • Groove • Sulcus • Pit
  41. 41. تقسيم به يک سوم

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