Tra Trieste e Nova Gorica per lo studio deifenomeni ultravelociBetween Trieste and Nova Gorica for thestudy of ultra-fast phenomenaCesare Grazioli? ? ?? ? ? ?? ? ?
Project U TRST-NoMaTalents for an International House(TALENTS)Grant Agreement number: 245574Ultrafast Time Resolved SpecTroscopy on Novel Materials• What is Spectroscopy?• Ultrafast Technology• The Origin Institution• The Host Institution• Working between Trieste and Nova Gorica(and Europe)• Research on Novel Materials
What is spectroscopy?The study of the interaction of matter with lightSpecifically, looking at how energy is stored in amolecule, how it gains or loses energy, and how energymoves around inside the molecule.The electromagnetic spectrum is BROADMANY techniques:Absorption spectroscopyFluorescence spectroscopyX-ray spectroscopyVisible spectroscopyUltraviolet spectroscopyInfrared spectroscopyNear Infrared (NIR) spectroscopyRaman spectroscopyCARS spectroscopyNuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopyPhotoemission spectroscopyMössbauer spectroscopy (…….)
An example of our capabilities:Scientists at IBM Research have made “the worlds smallest movie”by moving individual atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope.http://www.research.ibm.com/articles/madewithatoms.shtmlCu(111)TipCOSeveral molecules of CO onCopper (111)We have reached a high degree of sophistication in terms ofprediction and control of the static properties at the microscopicscaleHundreds of frames that have been assembled for a movieA Boy and His Atom
Bet: Do all four hoovesof a trotting horse eversimultaneously leavethe ground?The Birth of Ultrafast “Technology”Leland Stanford Eadweard MuybridgeTime Resolution:1/60th of a secondThe "Trotting Horse”Controversy Palo Alto, CA 1872
Observation of theprocess from birth todeath of a moleculeDevelopments of Ultrafast TechnologyAhmed ZewailNobel prize 1999Time Resolution:10 fsApparatus with an ultrafast laser to be used on amolecular beam. The beam and the picosecondlaser system were interfaced. The goal of theproject began as wanting to directly measure therate of vibrational-energy redistribution for anisolated molecule using the picosecond laser.
Why “femtoseconds”?Photodissociation dynamicshvn e-PhotoionizationdynamicsSpectroscopy+Photodissociation dynamicshvn e-PhotoionizationdynamicsSpectroscopy+VUVSoft-X-RaysA chemical reaction, typically,happens in some tens or hundreds offemtoseconds (fs)1 fs = 0.000000000000001 sone millionth of a billionth of secondsToday, thanks to the development of advanced light sources (synchrotrons,free electron lasers) we are able to follow and to study a reaction that takesplace with these time scales.We are also able to understand ‘why some reactions do occur and why others donot. This and a branch of physics and chemistry which is calledfemtochemistry.
Gas Phase beamline1997-2013: 16y activityBroad Photon energy range [13-900eV]high Resolving Power [E/DE>104]high Photon Flux : 1012_1010 ph s-1 (100mA ring current)7 end stations for photoabsorption, photoelectron, fluorescenceand mass spectrometry; advanced electron, ion and photoncoincidence spectroscopies.An external ps/fs laser for two colour pump-probe experiments.The BL can also accomodate user owned end-stations.Δ
LDM@FERMIOur 4th generation facility for Atoms, Moleculse and ClustersFull range tunability (laser seeded FEL)Fundamental phenomena:multiphoton absorption andphotoemissionFocus on dilute species:spectroscopy of clusters andnanodropletsPump-probe in fs domain withVUV –X photons + optical laser
A laboratory for ultrafastspectroscopy and femtochemistrybased on a state-of-the-art fs-laserHHG source in the VUV,at University of Nova Gorica (Dept.Physics, campus of Ajdovščina),and a scientific case on pump-probeexperiments, in close collaborationwith the LDM beamline of FERMI.In Nova Gorica (Ajdovščina)femtochemistryLaboratory of Quantum Optics: development andcharacterization of methods based on the use of innovativelight sourcesCITIUS Lab
funding from (FP7) Italo-Slovenian Cross – Border Cooperation ProgramThe CITIUS networkELETTRA/FERMIgeneration of light fromrelativistic electronsand its use forinvestigation of matterstructureUNIVERSITY OF NOVA GORICAdesign and contruction of new generationlight sources (several years ofcollaborations with Sincrotrone Trieste)Laboratory of organic matter physics, thatwill be actively involved in the exploitationof the new light sourceCNR-LUXORDesign and constructionof instrumentation forphoton handling andspectroscopy on ultra-short femtosecond andattosecond pulses in theextreme-ultravioletKONTROLNI SISTEMI d.o.o.Remote Control forall “smart” devicesfrom one point.Automatic controlUser interfaceUNIVERSITY OFLUBIANAStabilization oflight mechanicalconstructionsCNR-ISOFSynthesis of newproducts anddevelopment ofinnovativemethodologies inorganic synthesis.The CITIUS collaborationsSOLEIL, the Frenchnational synchrotronfacilityUppsala UniversityDepartment of Physicsand Astronomy, Molecularand Condensed MatterPhysics
The new lab in AjdovščinaLASERBEAMLINEEND-STATIONExperimentalchamber
Building new lab in AjdovščinaWe broke thewall through andreinforced thewhole structureCreation of anISOLATED concretebase, for higherstability
CITIUS specifications are mainly driven by fs-PES requirementswavelength range: 60-20 nm, 100 – 50 fs pulsesgood average power up to 10 KHz and best possible stability107 ph/pulse @sample @ 20 eV; 5*105 ph/pulse @sample @ 70 eVpossibility to perform pump-probe experiments: OPA with delay linetunability in the higher wavelength range under evaluation!!!???103 ph/pulse @sample in the 100-300 eV hv range, through HHG in Helium (only XAS)Laser systemChamber withgas jet /nMonoLight spectrometerExperimental chamberwith electron spectrometerSampleMirrorDelay lineParametricamplifierDthe CITIUS Light SourceCoherent “Legend Elite Duo”seed laser Micra and two amplifyingstages: Evolution 30 (Q-SwitchedNd:YLF) laser Evolution HE (Q-Switched Nd:YLF) laser100Hz, 1 kHz, 5 kHz and 10 kHzrepetition-rate.3.1mJ and <40fs at 5 kHzTwo thirds of the energy is used forHHG,one third as a pump for OPA or IR partin the pump-probe experimentsHHG chamber with gas jetMonochromator and recombinationchamberExperimental chamberPath of the IR pump (or OPA) with delayline
IRMA – L.U.R.E. SOLEILM. Sacchi et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2791 (2003)- Two circle goniometer- UHV- Applied magnetic field up to 1500 Oe- Temperature control (-20 120 ˚C)- Detection: PD and CEM on the goniometerMCP or CCD at fixed angleS. Valencia, et al. New Journal of Physics 8 (2006) 254Permalloya test: X-Ray Magnetic Scattering with IRMA-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30-0.25-0.20-0.15-0.10-0.050.000.050.220.127.116.11norm.scatteredintensity(arb.units)H (Oe)hyst. loop for Dt < 0 pshyst. loop for Dt > 1.0 ps-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.00.050.100.15 Data: Data9_DModel: ExpDec1Equation: y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + y0Weighting:y No weightingChi^2/DoF = 0.00012R^2 = 0.91514y0 0.02588 ±0.00423A1 0.08695 ±0.00616t1 0.21437 ±0.02642pump probe delay (ps)Data9_DExpDec5_BLinearFit2_Data9DI++ I-I+- I-Hysteresis loops as afunction of the delay:demagnetizationWE CAN PERFORMEXPERIMENTS ONMAGNETISM
ULLA: end-station with a hemisphericalelectron spectrometer SES 200(collaboration with Uppsala University)Temporal characterization of the EUVpulsesCross correlation measurement in gasphase (side bands)LAPE on aKr gas jetHH 15 (23.1 eV)+Ti:Sa (1.55 eV)Δt = 35 fs !!!characterization: photoemission with ULLA
CITIUS END-STATIONDesign:1. Fast Entry2. Conventional surface preparationstage3. Measuring stage:SPECTROMETERS- ARPES / XPS- time and angle resolved Time ofFlight electron analyzercryogenic manipulator (L-He) 10 KJune 2012Experiment in MAX-LAB (Sweden)The state-of-the-art SCIENTA SPECTROMETERS
SCIENTA ARTOF 10k Spectrometer• New type of electronspectrometer• ARTOF 10k (AngleResolved Time OfFlight)– Outstanding energyresolution– Excellent angularresolution– Up to 250 timeshigher transmission
WHAT WILL BE POSSIBLE TO DO...Data acquired at ArtemisCentral Laser FacilityR.A.L. Didcot - Oxford (U.K.)Bi2Se3topologicalinsulatorM. Bianchi etal., NatureCommunications 1, Articlenumber: 128