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pepe752

  1. 1. Authentic learning for effective human services practice Dr. Alan Knowles Grant MacEwan College, Canada & Neil Ballantyne Institute for Research & Innovation in Social Services
  2. 2. Authentic learning <ul><li>A strategy to address problem of perceived divide between the classroom learning & the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Situated learning </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to promote deep learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Real-life versus classroom-based problem solving (Lebow & Wager, 1994) 5. Problems typically seem artificial with low relevance for students 5. Problems are perceived as real and worth solving. 4. Involves competitive relations & individual assessment. 4. Involves cooperative relations & shared consequences. 3. Problems lack depth, complexity & duration 3. Problems have depth, complexity and duration. 2. Problems are largely abstract & decontextualized. 2. Problems are embedded in a specific & meaningful context. 1. Involves ‘te xtbook’ examples and well structured conditions. 1. Involves ill-formulated problems and ill structured conditions. Classroom Real-life
  4. 4. Authentic learning <ul><li>“ Authentic learning typically focuses on real-world, complex problems and their solutions, using role-playing exercises, problem-based activities, case studies, and participation in virtual communities of practice.” </li></ul>Lombardi, 2007 p. 2
  5. 5. Authentic learning & communities of practice <ul><li>Authentic learning “encourages students to compare their personal interests with those of a working disciplinary community”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C a n I see myself becoming a member of this culture? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would motivate me? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would concern me? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would I work with the people around me? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would I make a difference?” </li></ul></ul>Lombardi (2007, p4)
  6. 6. Situated learning <ul><li>“… the notion of learning knowledge and skills in contexts that reflect the way the knowledge will be useful in real life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Collins (1988,p. 2) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Knowledge construction is facilitated by learning environments that… <ul><ul><li>provide multiple representations of reality, which avoid oversimplification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on knowledge construction, not reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>present authentic tasks (contextualising rather than abstract instruction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide real world, case based learning environments rather than pre-determined instructional sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster reflective practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>enable context and content-dependent knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation, not competition </li></ul>Jonassen (1994)
  8. 8. 10 Design elements for authentic activities <ul><li>Real-world relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Ill-defined problems </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sources & perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection (metacognition) </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Polished products </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple interpretations & outcomes </li></ul>(Lombardi, 2007; Herrington et. al 2003)
  9. 9. Multimedia & Authenticity <ul><li>“ By transforming information into various forms such as audio and video and engaging in collaborative experiences, students can construct their own meaning and develop robust skills related to solving complex ill-structured problems” </li></ul>Woo,Herrington, & Reeves (2007, p.37)
  10. 10. Illustrations of authentic learning <ul><li>Authentic learning used in many areas of professional education including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurse education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social work education </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sharing authentic learning materials <ul><li>Multimedia is expensive to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing content makes sense: it is reusable </li></ul><ul><li>Involving service users in design & quality assurance helps ensure genuine authenticity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Features of the Margaret Stonehouse Case Scenario
  13. 13. Development Process <ul><li>Project funded by the MacEwan Online Curriculum Development Fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Began with discussion and consultation with SW faculty about types of needed resources and scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Developed ideas around focus of scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Built a development team </li></ul><ul><li>Began working on project Fall ’05; completed June 06. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Establishment of a development team including… <ul><ul><li>Faculty developer, author & designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic artist / web designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videographer / video production and editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editor (text) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Flash & Html consultants (digitized streaming video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Nations Consultant – content, scene development, cultural components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community based agency consultants (2 nd Stage Housing), Director and Program Supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The actors were graduates of the SWP, a current student, a supervisor in the field, a relative who is trained as an actor. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Work included: regular (bi-weekly) meetings with the Instr. Designer; regular meetings with the Aboriginal Consultant, 2 meetings with the Community Agency Consultants (one near the beginning of scenario writing; one near the end, just prior to video shoot) </li></ul><ul><li>Writing draft scenes / focus for each scene (flexible and improvised </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting, preparing and planning with the actors </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Meeting with graphic artist / web page designer re themes; concepts; pedagogical model, interactivity, draft graphics and mock ups of page design </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling video shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Post shoot video editing </li></ul><ul><li>Final Web page editing </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Piloting in 1 st course, additional feedback from practitioners and agency supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation and review & suggestions by IRISS Learning Technology Team. Additional editing, navigation adjustments </li></ul>
  19. 19. 41.1 41.4 10 3.3 3.3 110 B 20 45 25 5 5 202 F2F 40 55 5 -- -- 202 B I didn’t enjoy using the multimedia case study 34.5 51.7 13.8 -- -- 110 B 15 55 5 25 -- 202 F2F 40 40 10 5 5 202 B There are no real differences learning from text-based or multimedia case studies -- -- 17.2 24.1 58.6 110 B -- 15 35 50 202 F2F 4.8 -- 4.8 33.3 57 202 B The multimedia case study increased my understanding of the complexities of practice more than the text-based case studies -- -- 6.9 48.3 48 110 B N= 30 5 20 40 30 5 202 F2F N= 20 -- -- 9.5 19 71.4 202 B N= 21 Using the multimedia case study significantly enhanced my learning SD D N A SA % Agreement
  20. 20. -- -- 13.8 44.8 41.1 110 B 5 15 30 35 15 202 F2F -- -- 19 23.8 57.1 202 B It was easier to learn from the multimedia case than from the text-based cases 27.6 55.2 6.9 10.3 -- 110 B 25 40 25 7.5 2.5 202 C N=42 The text-based case studies were more engaging and motivating than the multimedia case studies 3.4 3.4 6.9 55.2 31 110 B -- 10 20 55 15 202 F2F -- -- 19 14.3 66.7 202 B The multimedia seemed more realistic than text-based case studies 3.4 6.9 24.1 44.8 20.7 110 B -- 15 45 40 -- 202 F2F -- -- 19 28.6 54.4 202 B More of our problem-based learning should incorporate multimedia SD D N A SA % Agreement
  21. 21. Recent literature debate <ul><li>Cognitive load & learning </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence on minimally guided instruction </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with subjective measures </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for educational design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scaffolding for authentic learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for educational research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>robust experimental designs </li></ul></ul></ul>

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