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  1. 1. Mentoring in the public sector Lisa C. Ehrich & Brian C. Hansford QUT, Australia <ul><li>The public sector - definition </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of this research: structured review of mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Formalised mentoring programs in the public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative outcomes of mentoring for mentors , mentees and the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Implications & Conclusion </li></ul>
  2. 2. Focus of Research <ul><li>Explore mentoring in the public sector to determine its nature, purpose and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Examined public sector websites from Australia and overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Located 25 research based papers on mentoring in the public sector </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Public Sector <ul><li>Represents authorities and agencies at various levels of government that serve the government in power (Corbett 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Public servants act in the national interest and are accountable to the govt and public </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mentoring in public sector defined <ul><li>2-way process concerned with developing staff and fostering learning </li></ul><ul><li>According to Bhatta & Washington (2003:213) it is: </li></ul><ul><li>a developmental intervention; and </li></ul><ul><li>‘ transfer’ or socialisation process </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definitions (cont) <ul><li>Different from mentoring in the private sector </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector: purpose of sector is ‘service’; managers are accountable to politicians, general public </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector: purpose is profitability </li></ul>
  6. 6. Formalised programs in public sector <ul><li>Mentoring of new staff </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring of new, existing or aspiring leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring as an affirmative action (AA) strategy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research Sample <ul><li>Comprehensive search: Proquest, Ebsohost, AEI, ERIC, PsycLIT, APAISA, AIMMAT, Google Scholar </li></ul><ul><li>Located 25 research based papers published during 1991 to 2006 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methodology <ul><li>Structured review: a predetermined set of criteria, namely a set of coding categories, used to analyse research papers </li></ul><ul><li>Coded papers according to: </li></ul><ul><li>Country </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions used </li></ul><ul><li>Type of program (ie leaders, graduates or AA) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative outcomes of mentoring for mentor, mentee and organisation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sample = 25 research based papers <ul><li>8 Australia, 8 USA, 4 UK,3 Canada, 1 New Zealand, 1 Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>21 papers provided definitions: mentoring is a helpful, supportive, developmental relationship between a more experienced person and a less experienced person </li></ul><ul><li>17 studies: leaders/aspiring leaders (7 of which had an AA component) </li></ul><ul><li>3 studies: graduates / new employees (1 of which was for women only) </li></ul><ul><li>3 studies: multiple levels of staff </li></ul><ul><li>2 studies: children at risk </li></ul>
  10. 10. 25 Studies <ul><li>23 reported positive outcomes for mentees </li></ul><ul><li>10 reported positive outcomes for mentors </li></ul><ul><li>17 reported negative outcomes for the mentee </li></ul><ul><li>10 reported negative outcomes for the mentor </li></ul><ul><li>13 reported positive outcomes for the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>5 reported negative outcomes for the organisation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Positive outcomes for mentees = 23 17 13 13 12 9 8 8 6 5 4 4 2 2 2 2 Improved skills / knowledge / challenging assignments Support / empathy / friendship / encouragement Career affirmation / commitment / planning Increased confidence / esteem Enjoyment / satisfaction Induction / socialisation / reduced isolation Networking Discussion / sharing advice Promotion / career advancement Feedback / reinforcement Encourage independence / risk taking / new ideas Exposure / visibility / coaching Improved attitudes /motivation Better work family balance Protection / caretaker
  12. 12. Positive Outcomes for Mentors = 10 <ul><li>Interpersonal skills/relationship 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Improved skills / job performance 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with role/career 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased confidence / motivation 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of knowledge/values 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Greater insight into self and others 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Networking 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment /stimulation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection / reappraisal of beliefs 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance / ideas / support 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering others 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to serve as role model 1 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Negative outcomes for Mentees = 17 <ul><li>Lack of mentor knowledge/training 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatch of mentor / mentee 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of time 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors who exploit / out of touch 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender related problems 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of mentor support / interest 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Clash between mentor & others 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary relationship 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors who do not develop mentee </li></ul><ul><li>independence 1 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Negative outcomes for Mentors = 10 <ul><li>Lack of time 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Jealousy / negative attitudes 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of support from others 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of training/understanding 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of proximity 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict: advice Vs assessment 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration with mentee performance 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Feel useless when relationship ends 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic expectations of mentees 1 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Positive outcomes for the Organisation = 13 <ul><li>Improved culture / dynamics / comm. 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Improved skills of staff 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower absenteeism 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of staff 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Imp roved PR, profile of organisation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving org. goals 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Identified children at risk 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding org’s knowledge base 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Greater sense of belonging 1 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Negative outcomes for the organisation = 5 <ul><li>Maintaining/ attracting mentors 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Funding 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Time to coordinate 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Time taken away from class 1 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Discussion <ul><li>Programmes – range of purposes and targetted a range of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Majority focused on leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: adult development more so than purely promotion (although 5 studies identified promotion as an outcome for mentees </li></ul><ul><li>Common positive outcomes for mentors and mentees: skills, confidence, support enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Common negative issues: time, mentoring training / understanding, poor matching </li></ul>
  18. 18. Implications & Conclusion <ul><li>Need to invest sufficient resources and time </li></ul><ul><li>Articulating goals and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Training for mentors </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully selecting and matching mentors and mentees </li></ul><ul><li>Senior management to support and promote the program </li></ul>