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Produced Water | Session XI - Dave Stewart


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Critical View of Technology Requirements

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Produced Water | Session XI - Dave Stewart

  1. 1. Critical View of Technology Requirements
  2. 2. Overview • Energy issue with produced water and its associated costs – Produced water and hydraulic fracturing flowback water is generally mineralized and contains particulates and dissolved organic compounds – Water brought to the surface as part of the E&P operation – Depending on the source, the water amounts can be significant, such as unconventional plays of coal bed methane or tight sands • What are the different types of produced water? • Can produced water be recycled? • Is the drought in the Western US an issue with energy development? • What issues need to be solved in the future?
  3. 3. Discussion Outline • Introduction • Volumes of produced water • Water conflicts with energy development • Role of agriculture • Cost implications • Summary
  4. 4. The global situation for water is not improving and will be an impediment to industrialized growth over time.
  5. 5. Water Use as a Function of Overall Water Management Water Use in Western US Agricultural Use Municipal Other Fracking  What is the percentage of total fracking and energy development = 0.14% of total use in the US typical - (example is Colorado)  Largest use is Agricultural at 85%  Second highest use is Municipal and Industrial at 7%  All others is 8%  This 0.14% equals the amount of water used on an annual basis by the City of Denver.
  6. 6. So what is the issue? Can’t we get more water from Agriculture? • Agricultural use is increasing • Environmental groups are fighting fracking and energy development in general Agricultural use has to increase • Municipal uses are increasing • Oil and Gas can out bid all others • Water from Agriculture will be a PR nightmare
  7. 7. Projected Water Shortages Reference: USBR - Water 2025 Study • Areas of red are water short • Note that in the western US, there is an opportunity to utilize produced water for beneficial use
  8. 8. Projected Produced Water Volumes Produced Water Volumes: • US – 21 Bbbl/yr • Wyo – 2.36 Bbbl/yr • CO – 0.38 Bbbl/yr • Ut – 0.15 Bbbl/yr Recent data in Colorado suggests dramatic increase in volumes
  9. 9. Brackish Water in the US • Efforts to find new untapped water supplies in the US • NAS study on desalination • Constraints are not the technology, but the financial, environmental and social factors • Participation is needed by all in the development of this resource to limit any significant issues associated with this treatment
  10. 10. Inland Desalination a Now-Attainable Solution Saline Aquifers Resources
  11. 11. Problem • Drought is still an issue • Energy Development can demand water in short supply
  12. 12. What is the impact of the drought on energy production?  Availability of water in Permian Basin with extended drought  Colorado River basin issues  Municipal water supplies are stretched already Lake JB Thomas 0.50% full (0.1% 6 months ago) EV Spence Reservoir 5.1% full (0.2% 6 months ago) OH Ivie Reservoir 20.7% full  Requirement for District is to supply water for drinking and public safety – water for E&P operations is not a concern and very limited at this point  “If you don’t have water, you can’t attract industry” – Guy Andrews – Economic Development Director – Odessa Texas Full Reservoir Current Conditions
  13. 13. Treatment Issues • Treatment to what standard? • Frack water makeup? • Discharge to a surface water or tributary groundwater – 40 CFR 435 • Disposal is Class II injection well • Disposal is surface water pond
  14. 14. Beneficial Use of Produced Water • Upper Colorado River Basin (Green River Play) – at 2 bbl’s/MCF – 70,000,000 AF or potentially 500,000 to 1,000,000 AF per year • Potential users are entities on the lower Colorado River Basin • Need all entities within the Colorado River Basin to cooperate • Discussions with State Engineers of the Upper Colorado River Basin
  15. 15. Produced Water as an Asset • Historically, produced water has been treated as a waste product – Current methods of disposal – reinjection (Class II Injection Wells), evaporation ponds and direct discharge – are being challenged due to adverse environmental impacts • Plan to turn this wastewater into an asset - a marketable product - by: – Treating for surface discharge – Conceiving a unique water delivery system - augmenting tributary water supplies with non-tributary water – Pioneering a path through the numerous legal and regulatory obstacles
  16. 16. Ownership of Produced Water • Colorado Example – Tributary – Non-Tributary Groundwater – HB 1303 – how does this apply in Colorado – COGCC Rules (907) – State Engineer • Agreement on non-tributary status (Fossil water in other states) – CDPHE Technical Review, Permit and approval – Landowner issue – Water Rights & Court • Other Western States – Prior appropriation – First in Use – First in Right
  17. 17. Permitting Requirements
  18. 18. Example Projects • Wellington Colorado Project – Ag irrigation and hydraulic fracturing make up water • CBM Project – Wyoming – water reuse and sale of produced water as augmentation water on the Colorado River • Energy – Carbon Capture Project Wyoming – recovery of lithium from dewatering operation
  19. 19. Issues that need to be solved in the future • Brine disposal and potential recovery of chemicals • New technologies that will separate salts and organics at a lower energy requirement • Better utilization of water and its management • Adoption of water reuse and recycling
  20. 20. Summary & Conclusions – What have we learned?  Water use for E&P operations is critical to the future of the industry  Produced Water can meet surface water discharge requirements  State Wide permits are available in some states and allow for expedited permitting  Discharge standards can be daunting but with careful design can be met  Be aware of what you add to your fracking fluids as this is what you will need to remove  Brine reuse and recycling should be considered  Harvesting of metals should be considered in the future to offset costs
  21. 21. • Water Rights associated with produced water turn this waste into an asset • Produced Water Reuse • Site specific • Formation will add constituents that might be an issue • Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Water Reuse • Viability highly dependant • Transportation Economics • Disposal Economics & Availability • Treatment Economics (TDS – key driver) Summary & Conclusions – What have we learned?
  22. 22. Summary & Conclusions – What have we learned?  Treatment – becoming more refined  Customized to influent characteristics & output req.  Mobile or Centralized depending on volumes and transportation  Pre-treatment removal is key to success  Organics  Hardness & Metals  Particulates  Bacteria Control  If organics and scaling compounds removed, reuse may be achieved without TDS removal in some cases  Water reuse will likely become SOP in many areas