Tourism buyer behaviour ppfinal


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Tourism buyer behaviour ppfinal

  1. 1. 9/24/2011 Chapter 4 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Chapter 4 Objectives Behavior Outline 1. Name the elements of the stimulus- response model of consumer behavior.  A model of consumer behavior 2. Outline the major characteristics affecting  Personal characteristics affecting consumer consumer behavior, and list some of the behavior specific cultural, social, personal, and psychological factors that influence  Consumer involvement in the buying decision consumers.  Purchasing decision process 3. Explain the buyer decision process and discuss need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, the purchase decision, and post-purchase behavior. Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Key Concepts Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior Aspirational groups  Learning Model of Consumer Behavior Attitudes  Lifestyles  Marketing stimuli (product, price, place, Beliefs  Membership groups promotion) Brand image  Motives and  Other stimuli (economic, technological, Buyer characteristics motivation political, cultural) Cognitive dissonance  Opinion leaders  Buyer’s black box (buyer characteristics and Consumer buying  Perception buyer decision process) behavior  Personality  Buyer’s responses (product choice, brand Consumer involvement  Psychographics choice, dealer choice, purchase timing, Consumer market  Reference groups purchase amount) Culture  Role Decision processes  Self-concept Family life cycle  Social class Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior Behavior Cultural Factors Personal Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behavior, comprising the  Cultural basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors that a person learns continuously  Social in a society.  Personal  International cultures: the values, attitudes, and  Psychological behaviors can vary dramatically by country.  Social class: relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. 1
  2. 2. 9/24/2011 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior Behavior Social Factors Personal Factors  Groups and reference groups: serve as a point of reference in forming a person’s attitudes  Age and life-cycle stage and behaviors.  Occupation  Family: the most important consumer-buying  Economic situation organization in American society.  Lifestyle  Roles and status: activities that a person is expected to perform according to the persons  Personality and self-concept around him or her, and the esteem (status) given to the roles by society. Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior Behavior Psychological Factors Purchasing Decision Process  Motivation 1. Need recognition  Perception 2. Information search  Learning 3. Evaluation of alternatives  Beliefs and attitudes 4. Purchase decision 5. Post-purchase behaviorUNDERSTANDING CLIENT BEHAVIOUR FIVE Ws Effective information gathering is fundamental to WHO?selling Who will be staying at the hotel? How many guest or attendees? Familiarity and skill with rates, availability, policies and What is their nature of their organization or group?facilities are essential, but no amount of information about WHAT?the hotel can supplant the need for effective questioning What would they like to do or see? It is important to be able to utilize client time in the most What is their budget?efficient and productive manner WHEN? When will they arrive? Information must be gathered quickly and accurately How many days will they stay?and analyzed correctly. When will they depart?The majority of client needs can be elicited from five basic W WHERE?questions Where in the hotel would they prefer to stay? WHO WHERE Which meeting or banquet rooms will they need? What activities or tours they might desire? WHAT WHY WHY? WHEN Why will the group be staying in the hotel? 2
  3. 3. 9/24/2011COMPLEX BUYING DECISIONS LOW INVOLVEMENT BUYING DECISIONSE.g. selecting a convention site, buying a same dayexcursion, a long haul holiday E.g. a traveller in distress is given a hotel to stay close toDeep level of commitment, detailed search for the airport, a second holiday at a favourite Mediterraneaninformation and extensive comparison of alternatives destinationFive stages Need arousal-has a need to be fulfilled arousal- Information processing and comprehension Not highly involved in any aspect of the information Evaluation- Evaluation-analysing the options gathering, evaluation or selection process. Information Selection search will be limited Outcome: in the hospitality trade, the true measureof outcome is customer satisfaction The airline paid for the accommodation although the guest was the end user Developing repetitive behavior in clients is an importantREPETITIVE /ROUTINE buying decisions marketing objective that requires a comprehensive effort of Many customers adopt a regular pattern of the entire hotel staff.behaviuor out of convenience Two basic processes are required: Purchase of a tried and test short break. Previous  Persuasion of first time trierssatisfactory experience and a good understanding ofthe destinations  Consistent quality Learn from experiences and form their behavior on Motivation for repetitive behavior is based on cumulativewhat they have learnt experienceE.g. a business traveler might regularly patronize 4 or 5 Maintaining customer loyalty requires that guests’ satisfactionhotel chains depending on availability outweigh any negative experiences Travel motivations and buyer behaviour Effective marketing in competitive conditions is UNFORTUNATELY IN A HOTEL STAY ONE impossible without some understanding of buyers’NEGATIVE EXPERIENCE CAN OVERSHADOW ALL motivations and decision processOTHER ASPECTS OF THE PROPERTY OR STAFF Understanding the key triggers which lead to the purchase of a tourism offering (visit/holidays) will be UNLESS CAREFUL ATTENTION IS PAID OUT increasingly recognized as one of the key successOF EVERY ASPECT OF HOTEL OPERATION,CONSISTENCY TENDS TO BE DIMINISHED OVER factors by competitive organizations.TIME WHO buys tourism offerings? REGULAR MAINTENANCE, NEW STAFF TO HOW does the buying process work?RECEIVE THOROUGH ORIENTATION AND WHAT are the main factors affecting choice of anTRAINING TO MAINTAIN A CONSISTENT LVEL OF offering?SERVICE WHERE do people buy tourism services? WHEN do they buy them or when are the critical stages in the buying process? 3
  4. 4. 9/24/2011 Traveller typologiesTOURISM TYPOLOGIESFive distinct types of people who experience travel in different waysregardless of origin or destination  ALLOCENTRICS Explorer type of person who seeks underdeveloped andGALLUP ORGANISATION unspoilt destinations Adventurers (44%- 18-34 yrs) (44%- 18-Meet new people and experience different cultures  PSYCHOCENTRICS WorriersAfraid to fly, less educated and affluent, travel domestically, female (half over Not at all adventuresome, seeking the familiar ratherthe age of 50) than the unusual Dreamers (women-50 +) (women-Oriented towards relaxation than adventure, modest income/education, rely  MIDCENTRICSon maps and guidebooks Those who lie somewhere in the middle of the EconomisersSeek value in travel and do not pay extra for specialist amenities and spectrumservices/men with average income level and education IndulgersWilling to pay for additional comfort and service when they travel Plog, Plog, 1974Equally divided between men and women IMPACT OF EXTERNAL INFLUENCES 4. Lifestyle 1. Culture By profiling groups of people by the way they live, it is Most people seek to satisfy their desires in a way, which possible to predict their travel motivations and fits societal norms purchases Awareness of cultural shifts Fulfilled Achievers Strivers Church, media, language, societal practices and Experiencers subcultures Believers Makers Actualisers Strugglers 2. Age and Gender 5. Life Cycle Different values and requirements Travel patterns and destinations vary as people move their life cycle 3. Social class Occupation and disposable income increase the 6. Reference groups propensity to travel Sharing values and expectations with others in a variety of social groups Motivations to travel CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS  Business/work related motives  Awareness e.g. pursuit of private and public sector business, conferences and meetings  Search and comprehension  Physical/physiological motives Resting/relaxing/generally unwinding from stress of everyday life  Attitude development  Cultural/psychological /personal education motives  Evaluation of alternatives Visiting destinations for sake of their cultural and or natural heritage  Social/interpersonal and ethnic motives  Purchase Enjoying the company of friends and relatives  Adoption and post purchase behaviour  Entertainment/amusement/pleasure/pastime motives Visiting theme parks, watching sport, undertake leisure shopping  Religious motives Participating in pilgrimages Undertaking retreats for meditation and study 4
  5. 5. 9/24/2011 1. Demographic/economic/social position ROLE ADOPTION Act as constraints or limits within which individuals’ 1. Initiator: sees the need to satisfy a desire for travel motivations and buying behaviuor take place 2. Psychographic attitudes 2. Influencer: expresses preferences in choice Dimensions such as confident or diffident, gregarious/loner, location assertive/submissive, tense or relaxed and these are used 3. Decider: financial control in product formulation and in promotional messages 3. Attitudes 4. Buyer: visits the travel agent and sorts details E.g. for some people, cruise ships are an ideal form of 5. User: those who go on holiday vacation, whereas other prefer fishing and hunting in the Buyer characteristics and decision process wild Understanding of attitudes is also an essential aspect of product positioning4. Needs, wants, goalsAssociate leisure and tourism with the fulfillment of selfdevelopment needsVacation travel tends to be regarded among those who canafford it as more of a necessity than a luxury5. MotivationThe hospitality sector must understand customers’ needs Good marketing aims to achieve subsequent salesand attitudes and this will enable them to trigger theirdecisions by targeting communication on their motivating through harnessing product satisfaction as often asinfluences the most powerful means of influencing future buyer behaviour6. Purchase choices/decisions/outputsAction on purchases is linked to the motivational needswhich in turn are linked to the buyers’ characteristics7. Filters in the buying decision processBarriers to communication8. Post purchase feelingsA good experience of an airline with a punctual flight andfriendly service is likely to influence future choices PROJECT PROJECT Based on your own experience, describe in detail an Successful hospitality marketing often depends on the ability to create new customer needs. For example, the largest limited- limited- example of each of the following types of buying service chain, Quality Inns, recently began installing microwave decisions in hospitality marketing ovens and minibars in all guest rooms and personal computers and fax machines, telephone and TV speakers in bathrooms in (a) Complex specially priced rooms. (b) Low involvement In the near future, amenities that were considered luxuries (c) Repetitive may become standard features, fulfilling needs that previously did not exist. Discuss the implications of these new challenges for the hospitality industry. 5