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Chapter 2                                         Perception       CONSUMER       BEHAVIOR, 9e       Michael R. SolomonCop...
Learning Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should  understand why: • Perception is a three-stage process that  ...
Learning Objectives (continued) • Subliminal advertising is a controversial—      but largely ineffective—way to talk to  ...
Sensation and Perception • Sensation is the immediate      response of our sensory      receptors (eyes, ears, nose,      ...
Figure 2.1 Perceptual Process                                                                       We receive external   ...
Hedonic Consumption • Hedonic consumption:      multisensory, fantasy,      and emotional aspects      of consumers’      ...
Sensory Systems • Our world is a      symphony of colors,      sounds, odors, tastes • Advertisements,      product packag...
Vision                                                 • Color provokes emotion                                           ...
Vertical-Horizontal Illusion • Which line is longer:      horizontal or vertical? • Answer: both lines are      same lengt...
Scents                                                        Odors create mood and                                       ...
Sound Sound affects people’s feelings and behaviors • Phonemes: individual sounds that might be      more or less preferre...
Touch • Haptic senses—or “touch”—is the most      basic of senses; we learn this before vision      and smell • Haptic sen...
Table 2.1 Tactile-Quality Associations      Perception                           Male                        Female       ...
Taste • Flavor houses develop      new concoctions for      consumer palates • Cultural changes      determine desirable  ...
Exposure • Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes      within range of someone’s sensory receptors • We can concentrate, ig...
Sensory Thresholds • Psychophysics: science that focuses on how      the physical environment is integrated into      our ...
Differential Threshold • The ability of a sensory      system to detect changes      or differences between two      stimu...
Subliminal Perception • Subliminal perception occurs when      stimulus is below the level of the      consumer’s awarenes...
Subliminal Techniques • Embeds: figures that are inserted into      magazine advertising by using high-speed      photogra...
Attention • Attention is the extent to which processing      activity is devoted to a particular stimulus • Consumers are ...
Personal Selection Factors          Perceptual vigilance                                            Perceptual defense    ...
Factors Leading to Adaptation                       Intensity                                       Duration              ...
Stimulus Selection Factors • We are more likely to notice stimuli that differ      from others around them • So, marketers...
Creating Contrast with Size10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   2-24
Interpretation • Interpretation refers to the meaning we      assign to sensory stimuli, which is based on      a schema10...
Stimulus Organization • Gestalt: the whole is greater than the sum of      its parts       • Closure: people perceive an i...
Application of the Figure-Ground Principle10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   2...
Semiotics • Semiotics: correspondence between signs      and symbols and their role in the      assignment of meaning • Ma...
Figure 2.3 Semiotic Relationships10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall   2-29
Perceptual Positioning • Brand perceptions = functional attributes +      symbolic attributes • Perceptual map: map of whe...
Positioning Strategy • Examples of brand positioning          Lifestyle                         Grey Poupon is “high class...
Chapter Summary • Perception is a three-stage process that      translates raw stimuli into meaning. • Products and messag...
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  1. 1. Chapter 2 Perception CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. SolomonCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: • Perception is a three-stage process that translates raw stimuli into meaning. • Products and commercial messages often appeal to our senses, but we won’t be influenced by most of them. • The design of a product today is a key driver of its success or failure.10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) • Subliminal advertising is a controversial— but largely ineffective—way to talk to consumers. • We interpret the stimuli to which we do pay attention according to learned patterns and expectations. • Marketers use symbols to create meaning.10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-3
  4. 4. Sensation and Perception • Sensation is the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture). • Perception is the process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-4
  5. 5. Figure 2.1 Perceptual Process We receive external stimuli through our five senses10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-5
  6. 6. Hedonic Consumption • Hedonic consumption: multisensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumers’ interactions with products • Marketers use impact of sensations on consumers’ product experiences10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-6
  7. 7. Sensory Systems • Our world is a symphony of colors, sounds, odors, tastes • Advertisements, product packages, radio and TV commercials, billboards provide sensations10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-7
  8. 8. Vision • Color provokes emotion • Reactions to color are biological and cultural • Color in the United States is becoming brighter and more complex • Trade dress: colors associated with specific companies10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-8
  9. 9. Vertical-Horizontal Illusion • Which line is longer: horizontal or vertical? • Answer: both lines are same length10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-9
  10. 10. Scents Odors create mood and promote memories: • Coffee = childhood, home • Cinnamon buns = sex Marketers use scents: • Inside products • In promotions (e.g., scratch ‘n sniff)10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-10
  11. 11. Sound Sound affects people’s feelings and behaviors • Phonemes: individual sounds that might be more or less preferred by consumers • Example: “i” brands are “lighter” than “a” brands • Muzak uses sound and music to create mood • High tempo = more stimulation • Slower tempo = more relaxing10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-11
  12. 12. Touch • Haptic senses—or “touch”—is the most basic of senses; we learn this before vision and smell • Haptic senses affect product experience and judgment • Kinsei engineering is a Japanese philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into design elements10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-12
  13. 13. Table 2.1 Tactile-Quality Associations Perception Male Female Fine High class Wool Silk Low class Denim Cotton Coarse Heavy Light10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-13
  14. 14. Taste • Flavor houses develop new concoctions for consumer palates • Cultural changes determine desirable tastes • The more respect we have for ethnic dishes, the more spicy food we desire10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-14
  15. 15. Exposure • Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes within range of someone’s sensory receptors • We can concentrate, ignore, or completely miss stimuli • Cadillac’s 5 second ad10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-15
  16. 16. Sensory Thresholds • Psychophysics: science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world • Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a given sensory channel10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-16
  17. 17. Differential Threshold • The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli • Minimum difference between two stimuli is the j.n.d. (just noticeable difference) • Example: packaging updates must be subtle enough over time to keep current customers10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-17
  18. 18. Subliminal Perception • Subliminal perception occurs when stimulus is below the level of the consumer’s awareness. • Rumors of subliminal advertising are rampant—though there’s little proof that it occurs. • Most researchers believe that subliminal techniques are not of much use in marketing.10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-18
  19. 19. Subliminal Techniques • Embeds: figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by using high-speed photography or airbrushing. • Subliminal auditory perception: sounds, music, or voice text inserted into advertising.10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-19
  20. 20. Attention • Attention is the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus • Consumers are often in a state of sensory overload • Marketers need to break through the clutter10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-20
  21. 21. Personal Selection Factors Perceptual vigilance Perceptual defense Adaptation10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-21
  22. 22. Factors Leading to Adaptation Intensity Duration Discrimination Exposure Relevance10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-22
  23. 23. Stimulus Selection Factors • We are more likely to notice stimuli that differ from others around them • So, marketers can create “contrast” through: Size Color Position Novelty10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-23
  24. 24. Creating Contrast with Size10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-24
  25. 25. Interpretation • Interpretation refers to the meaning we assign to sensory stimuli, which is based on a schema10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-25
  26. 26. Stimulus Organization • Gestalt: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts • Closure: people perceive an incomplete picture as complete • Similarity: consumers group together objects that share similar physical characteristics • Figure-ground: one part of the stimulus will dominate (the figure) while the other parts recede into the background (ground)10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-26
  27. 27. Application of the Figure-Ground Principle10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-27
  28. 28. Semiotics • Semiotics: correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning • Marketing messages have three basic components: • Object: product that is the focus of the message • Sign: sensory image that represents the intended meanings of the object • Interpretant: meaning derived10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-28
  29. 29. Figure 2.3 Semiotic Relationships10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-29
  30. 30. Perceptual Positioning • Brand perceptions = functional attributes + symbolic attributes • Perceptual map: map of where brands are perceived in consumers’ minds • Used to determine how brands are currently perceived to determine future positioning10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-30
  31. 31. Positioning Strategy • Examples of brand positioning Lifestyle Grey Poupon is “high class” Price leadership Southwest Airlines is “no frills” Attributes Bounty is “quicker picker upper” Product class Mazda Miata is sporty convertible Competitors Northwestern Insurance is the “quiet company Occasions Wrigley’s gum used when smoking not permitted Users Levi’s Dockers targeted to men in 20s and 30s Quality At Ford, “Quality is Job 1”10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-31
  32. 32. Chapter Summary • Perception is a three-stage process that translates raw stimuli into meaning. • Products and messages may appeal to our senses. • The design of a product affects our perception of it. • Subliminal advertising is controversial. • We interpret stimuli using learned patterns. • Marketers use symbols to create meaning.10/21/12Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2-32

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