Evolutionary Psychology    Dr. Atiqul Haq Mazumder MD (Psychiatry) Part III StudentDepartment of Psychiatry, BSMMU        ...
“In the distant future . . . psychologywill be based on a new foundation, that of thenecessary acquirement of each mental ...
‘Evolutionary psychologyis the combination of twosciences -- evolutionarybiology and cognitivepsychology’.Introducing Evol...
Origins of               Modern Humans• Homo Erectus  – Migrated from Africa to Asia (1.8 MYA)
Increases in brain size                   during evolutionardipithecus   Australopithe-   homo          homo       Neander...
Milestones in the Origins of     Modern Humans
Milestones in the Origins of     Modern Humans
The three theories of theorigins of complex adaptive        mechanisms
1. Creationism
2. Seeding theory
3. Evolution by natural selection
Evolution Before Darwin• Change over time in organic structures:  evolution• Characteristics seemed to have a purpose  (po...
Darwin’s Theory of        Natural Selection• The explanatory challenge:   1. why change takes place   2. how new species e...
The answer--natural selection:Variation, inheritance, differential           reproduction
The key to natural selection: Differentialreproductive success because of heritable variants; everyone has ancestors, but ...
Natural selection provided          3 key answers• Explained change over time: descent with  modification• Explained the a...
Sexual Selection
Intersexual Selection:Preferential Mate Choice
Likelihood of Agreeing to Have Sex With SomeoneYou Find Attractive as a Function of Time Known                            ...
Sexual Selection Components• Intrasexual  Competition
“The core tenets ofevolutionarypsychology..”- David M. Buss (2005)
Core Tenets of Evolutionary           Psychology• 1. All behavior is a function of  psychological mechanisms + input to  t...
Core Tenets of Evolutionary           Psychology• 2. All psychological mechanisms, at some  basic level, originate from ev...
Core Tenets of Evolutionary           Psychology• 3. Natural and sexual selection are the  most important evolutionary pro...
Core Tenets of Evolutionary       Psychology  …All Species have a Nature
Core Tenets of Evolutionary           Psychology• 4. Evolved psychological mechanisms can  be described as information pro...
Core Tenets of Evolutionary           Psychology• 5. Evolved psychological mechanisms are  instantiated in the brain.
Core Tenets of Evolutionary           Psychology• 6. Evolved psychological mechanisms are  functional: Designed to solve s...
‘Connection do exist: our arts, our philosophies, ourliterature are the product of  human minds interacting  with one anot...
1975   1978
‘Gene-culture coevolution’ -Edward O Wilson (1978)
‘Evolutionarypsychology is…   capitalist propaganda’    -1985
‘Marxist dialectical theory should beapplied in biology’      -1985
‘Our bodies are the  vehicles of our      genes’    ‘Altruism’ ‘Cannibal spider’   ‘Junk DNA’‘Segregation gene’
-2001
‘Next revolutionary book on evolution   after Darwin’       -2006
2006 Best seller
‘evolution disproves the ideas behind       intelligent design’ -2006
standard socialscience model   (SSSM)      vs.The new science  of the mind     (1992)
John tooby & Leda Cosmides
Principle 1. The brain is aphysical system. It functionsas a computer. Its circuitsare designed to generatebehavior that i...
Principle 2. Our neuralcircuits were designed bynatural selection to solveproblems that our ancestorsfaced during our spec...
Principle 3. Consciousness is just thetip of the iceberg; most of what goeson in your mind is hidden from you. Asa result,...
Principle 4. Different neuralcircuits are specialized forsolving different adaptiveproblems.
Principle 5. Our modernskulls house a stone agemind.
‘The Blank Slate Theory’- John Locke ( British Philosopher, 1632-1704 )‘Man is a blank slate onwhich culture writes’- Emil...
StevenPinker, 2003
Thomas R. Insel, M.D.,Director of the NationalInstitute of Mental Health(NIMH) since 2002
Prairie voles      vs.Mountain voles    -1993
‘For nearly all measurespersonality, heritability ishigh in western society:identical twins raised apartare much more simi...
‘Two Identical twins raised      apart met first’   -From Blank Slate            by      Steven Pinker
by Martha Stout,     2005
Robert D. Hare,1999
Psychopaths, as far we know, cannot be cured.Indeed, the psychologists Marine Rice has shown   that has shown that certain...
Jack Henry Abbott, 2005
‘Cultural determinism can  be as cruel as genetic       determinism’   -Matt Ridley, 2003
‘Epigenetics’ ‘Neuroplasticity’‘Malleable gene’
presence or absence of epigenetic factors attarget sites controls whether particular genes can    generate proteins, the w...
‘Science is discovering that while we may have fixed set of genes in Chromosomes, which  of those Genes is active has   gr...
Josephine Tesauro, left, active and healthy at 92, is part of a study  trying to determine why some people age better than...
With no more than a change in diet, laboratory agouti mice (left) were   prompted to give birth to young (right) that diff...
Nature vs. Nurture           No  Nature via nurture         Yes We are the minders of our               genes   Evolutiona...
Thank you!
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychology
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Evolutionary psychology

  1. 1. Evolutionary Psychology Dr. Atiqul Haq Mazumder MD (Psychiatry) Part III StudentDepartment of Psychiatry, BSMMU Dhaka
  2. 2. “In the distant future . . . psychologywill be based on a new foundation, that of thenecessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation.” --Charles Darwin, 1859
  3. 3. ‘Evolutionary psychologyis the combination of twosciences -- evolutionarybiology and cognitivepsychology’.Introducing EvolutionaryPsychology, Dylan Evans & OscarZarate, Totem Books, New York,2000
  4. 4. Origins of Modern Humans• Homo Erectus – Migrated from Africa to Asia (1.8 MYA)
  5. 5. Increases in brain size during evolutionardipithecus Australopithe- homo homo Neandertal modern cus habilis erectus humanbrain size: brain size: brain size: brain brain size: brain300 ccs 310-530 ccs 580-752 size: 1200-1450 size: ccs 775-1225 ccs 1350 ccs ccs
  6. 6. Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans
  7. 7. Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans
  8. 8. The three theories of theorigins of complex adaptive mechanisms
  9. 9. 1. Creationism
  10. 10. 2. Seeding theory
  11. 11. 3. Evolution by natural selection
  12. 12. Evolution Before Darwin• Change over time in organic structures: evolution• Characteristics seemed to have a purpose (porcupines, turtles, skunks)
  13. 13. Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection• The explanatory challenge: 1. why change takes place 2. how new species emerge 3. what the functions are of parts
  14. 14. The answer--natural selection:Variation, inheritance, differential reproduction
  15. 15. The key to natural selection: Differentialreproductive success because of heritable variants; everyone has ancestors, but not everyone leaves descendants
  16. 16. Natural selection provided 3 key answers• Explained change over time: descent with modification• Explained the apparent purposive quality of component parts: adaptive function• United all species into one grand tree of descent: including humans
  17. 17. Sexual Selection
  18. 18. Intersexual Selection:Preferential Mate Choice
  19. 19. Likelihood of Agreeing to Have Sex With SomeoneYou Find Attractive as a Function of Time Known 3 2 Likelihood of Intercourse 1 women 0 men 1 eve 1 year 1 hr 6 mo 3 mo 1 mo 1 day 5 years 2 years 1 wk -1 -2 -3
  20. 20. Sexual Selection Components• Intrasexual Competition
  21. 21. “The core tenets ofevolutionarypsychology..”- David M. Buss (2005)
  22. 22. Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 1. All behavior is a function of psychological mechanisms + input to those mechanisms
  23. 23. Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 2. All psychological mechanisms, at some basic level, originate from evolutionary processes
  24. 24. Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 3. Natural and sexual selection are the most important evolutionary processes responsible for creating psychological mechanisms
  25. 25. Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology …All Species have a Nature
  26. 26. Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 4. Evolved psychological mechanisms can be described as information processing devices. Inputs Decision Rules Outputs
  27. 27. Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 5. Evolved psychological mechanisms are instantiated in the brain.
  28. 28. Core Tenets of Evolutionary Psychology• 6. Evolved psychological mechanisms are functional: Designed to solve statistically recurrent adaptive problems
  29. 29. ‘Connection do exist: our arts, our philosophies, ourliterature are the product of human minds interacting with one another, and thehuman mind is a product of human brain, which is organized in part by the human genome and has evolved by the physical process of evolution’. -JOHN Brockman (2008)
  30. 30. 1975 1978
  31. 31. ‘Gene-culture coevolution’ -Edward O Wilson (1978)
  32. 32. ‘Evolutionarypsychology is… capitalist propaganda’ -1985
  33. 33. ‘Marxist dialectical theory should beapplied in biology’ -1985
  34. 34. ‘Our bodies are the vehicles of our genes’ ‘Altruism’ ‘Cannibal spider’ ‘Junk DNA’‘Segregation gene’
  35. 35. -2001
  36. 36. ‘Next revolutionary book on evolution after Darwin’ -2006
  37. 37. 2006 Best seller
  38. 38. ‘evolution disproves the ideas behind intelligent design’ -2006
  39. 39. standard socialscience model (SSSM) vs.The new science of the mind (1992)
  40. 40. John tooby & Leda Cosmides
  41. 41. Principle 1. The brain is aphysical system. It functionsas a computer. Its circuitsare designed to generatebehavior that is appropriateto your environmentalcircumstances.
  42. 42. Principle 2. Our neuralcircuits were designed bynatural selection to solveproblems that our ancestorsfaced during our speciesevolutionary history.
  43. 43. Principle 3. Consciousness is just thetip of the iceberg; most of what goeson in your mind is hidden from you. Asa result, your conscious experiencecan mislead you into thinking that ourcircuitry is simpler that it really is.Most problems that you experience aseasy to solve are very difficult to solve-- they require very complicatedneural circuitry.
  44. 44. Principle 4. Different neuralcircuits are specialized forsolving different adaptiveproblems.
  45. 45. Principle 5. Our modernskulls house a stone agemind.
  46. 46. ‘The Blank Slate Theory’- John Locke ( British Philosopher, 1632-1704 )‘Man is a blank slate onwhich culture writes’- Emile Durkheim ( French Sociologist,1858-1917 ), 1895
  47. 47. StevenPinker, 2003
  48. 48. Thomas R. Insel, M.D.,Director of the NationalInstitute of Mental Health(NIMH) since 2002
  49. 49. Prairie voles vs.Mountain voles -1993
  50. 50. ‘For nearly all measurespersonality, heritability ishigh in western society:identical twins raised apartare much more similarthan the fraternal twinsraised apart.’-William R. Clark, MichaelGrunstein, 2000-11-09
  51. 51. ‘Two Identical twins raised apart met first’ -From Blank Slate by Steven Pinker
  52. 52. by Martha Stout, 2005
  53. 53. Robert D. Hare,1999
  54. 54. Psychopaths, as far we know, cannot be cured.Indeed, the psychologists Marine Rice has shown that has shown that certain harebrain ideas for therapy, such as boosting their self esteem and teaching them social skills, can even make more dangerous. -Steven Pinker, 2003
  55. 55. Jack Henry Abbott, 2005
  56. 56. ‘Cultural determinism can be as cruel as genetic determinism’ -Matt Ridley, 2003
  57. 57. ‘Epigenetics’ ‘Neuroplasticity’‘Malleable gene’
  58. 58. presence or absence of epigenetic factors attarget sites controls whether particular genes can generate proteins, the workhorses of most physiological processes. -Douglas Steinberg, Determining Nature vs. Nurture : Molecular evidence is finally emerging to inform the long-standing debate, Scientific American Mind, 17, 12 - 14 (2006)
  59. 59. ‘Science is discovering that while we may have fixed set of genes in Chromosomes, which of those Genes is active has great deal to do which oursubjective experiences, and how we process them’ -Dawson Church, 2009
  60. 60. Josephine Tesauro, left, active and healthy at 92, is part of a study trying to determine why some people age better than others, even when they are closely related.Live Long? Die Young? Answer Isn’t Just in Genes, GINA KOLATA, The NewYork Times, August 31, 2006, Online link: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/31/health/31age.html
  61. 61. With no more than a change in diet, laboratory agouti mice (left) were prompted to give birth to young (right) that differed markedly in appearance and disease susceptibility. DNA Is Not Destiny, The new science of epigenetics rewrites the rules of disease,heredity, and identity; Ethan Watters, Discover Magazine, Nov. 2006 issue, Online link: http://discovermagazine.com/2006/nov/cover/?searchterm=Randy%20Jirtle
  62. 62. Nature vs. Nurture No Nature via nurture Yes We are the minders of our genes Evolutionary psychologydescribes what human nature is like - it does not prescribe what humans should do।
  63. 63. Thank you!

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