FILOSOFI PBL DAN
STRATEGI
PEMBELAJARAN
Rahmatina B. Herman
Medical Education Unit
FK-UNAND
MEU FK-UNAND

BLOK 1
Bahan Bacaan:
1. Ellington, H. Selecting Appropriate
Teaching/Learning Methods. Robert Gordon
University
2. Boud, D. Devel...
Tujuan Pembelajaran
Input
Process → Learning
Output
Outcomes (Areas of competence)
Competencies
MEU FK-UNAND

Knowledge, S...
Metode Pembelajaran
1. Mass Instruction:
♦ Metode:

- Kuliah konvensional
- Presentasi film & video
- Siaran radio pendidi...
Metode Pembelajaran
2. Belajar individu/sendiri:
♦ Metode:

- Belajar sendiri dari buku teks / materi belajar dll
- Tugas,...
Metode Pembelajaran
3. Belajar grup:
♦ Metode:

- Kelas diskusi / grup tutorial
- Seminar
- Game & simulasi

♦ Peran dosen...
Strategi Pembelajaran
Adalah cara pembelajaran yang digunakan
termasuk:

1. Kurikulum
2. Konsep pembelajaran
Contoh:

MEU ...
Kurikulum
• What is a curriculum?
- Genn, 1995:
Everything that happens in relation to the
educational program

- Stewart,...
Kurikulum
• Types of curriculum?
- Formal:

Everything the developers intend

- Informal:
Essentially extra-curricular act...
Konsep Pembelajaran
Dua kategori utama:
1. Teacher-centered
fokus: transfer of knowledge

2. Student-centered
fokus: activ...
TEACHER CENTERED
TEACHING

MEU FK-UNAND

BLOK 1
Pembelajaran sistem teachercentered
•
•
•
•
•
•

Teacher-centered instructional strategies
Highly lecture-based
Discipline...
Teacher Centered
mhs

mhs

mhs

dosen

mhs

MEU FK-UNAND

mhs

BLOK 1
Teacher Centered

Dosen

mhs

mhs

mhs

mhs

mhs

mhs

mhs

mhs

Metoda didaktik satu arah (Sefton, 2001)
MEU FK-UNAND

BL...
“The scarcely tolerable burden of information
that is imposed taxes the memory but not the
intellect. The emphasis is on t...
STUDENT CENTERED
LEARNING
Problem-Based Learning
MEU FK-UNAND

BLOK 1
Apa itu PBL?
Suatu strategi pembelajaran:
menggunakan masalah sebagai stimulus untuk
menemukan atau mendapatkan informasi
...
Pembelajaran sistem PBL
• Student-centered instructional strategies
• Students have to identify, and search for, the
knowl...
Pembelajaran sistem PBL
“ The basic outline of the PBL process is:
- encountering the problem first,
- problem-solving wit...
Karakteristik PBL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Pembelajaran bersifat student-centered yang aktif;
Pembelajaran dilaksanakan melalui di...
Tujuan PBL
Membangun dan mengembangkan pembelajaran
mahasiswa yang memenuhi kriteria ketiga ranah
pembelajaran (taxonomy o...
“Problem-based learning (PBL) is grounded in
the belief that learning is most effective when
students are actively involve...
“Even if knowledge acquisition and
clinical skills are not improved by PBL,
the enhanced work environment for
students and...
Student Centered
tutor

student

student

student
module

student

MEU FK-UNAND

student

BLOK 1
mhs
mhs

mhs

mhs

mhs

mhs
mhs

mhs
tutor

Komunikasi antarpersonal, interaksi kompleks yang harus difasilitasi
seorang t...
Proses PBL (Harvard)
1.

Group receives written problem scenario

2.

Group defines the problem

3.

Group identifies the ...
Proses PBL (Maastricht)
1.

Students receive problem scenario and define the
problem

2.

Brainstorming used to identify e...
PBL

Konvensional

• Student centered

• Teacher centered

• Problem-based

• Information gathering

• Integrated

• Disci...
The Learning Pyramid
Average
Retention Rate

Lecture

5%

Reading
Audiovisual

10%

Demonstration

30%

Discussion group
P...
MEU FK-UNAND

BLOK 1
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Kp 1.2 filosofi pbl dan strategi pembelajaran

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Kp 1.2 filosofi pbl dan strategi pembelajaran

  1. 1. FILOSOFI PBL DAN STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN Rahmatina B. Herman Medical Education Unit FK-UNAND MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  2. 2. Bahan Bacaan: 1. Ellington, H. Selecting Appropriate Teaching/Learning Methods. Robert Gordon University 2. Boud, D. Developing Student Autonomy in Learning. 3. Burton, WH. The Guidance of Learning Activities 4. Biggs, JB and Moore, PJ. The Process of Learning 5. Savin-Baden, M and Major, CH. Foundations of problem-based learning MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  3. 3. Tujuan Pembelajaran Input Process → Learning Output Outcomes (Areas of competence) Competencies MEU FK-UNAND Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes BLOK 1
  4. 4. Metode Pembelajaran 1. Mass Instruction: ♦ Metode: - Kuliah konvensional - Presentasi film & video - Siaran radio pendidikan - Kerja studio & praktikum masal ♦ Peran dosen: - Menerangkan secara tradisional - Mengontrol semua aspek proses instruksi (cara, isi) ♦ Peran mahasiswa: - Sangat pasif - Tergantung pada apa yang diperoleh dari dosen, video, demonstrator, dll MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  5. 5. Metode Pembelajaran 2. Belajar individu/sendiri: ♦ Metode: - Belajar sendiri dari buku teks / materi belajar dll - Tugas, dll ♦ Peran dosen: - Produser / manajer pembelajaran - Memberikan support bila diperlukan ♦ Peran mahasiswa: - Sangat bertanggung jawab terhadap pembelajarannya - Mengontrol diri sendiri dalam hal: lama / frekwensi belajar, kedalaman belajar MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  6. 6. Metode Pembelajaran 3. Belajar grup: ♦ Metode: - Kelas diskusi / grup tutorial - Seminar - Game & simulasi ♦ Peran dosen: - Organiser aktivitas grup - Fasilitator - Supportive ♦ Peran mahasiswa: - Sangat bertanggung jawab terhadap pembelajarannya - Sangat dependen pada preparasi dan interaksi sesama MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  7. 7. Strategi Pembelajaran Adalah cara pembelajaran yang digunakan termasuk: 1. Kurikulum 2. Konsep pembelajaran Contoh: MEU FK-UNAND - Problem-based learning - Integrated curricula - Community-oriented curricula - Core and options / electives BLOK 1
  8. 8. Kurikulum • What is a curriculum? - Genn, 1995: Everything that happens in relation to the educational program - Stewart, 2000: A planned educational approach to reaching identified professional outcomes MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  9. 9. Kurikulum • Types of curriculum? - Formal: Everything the developers intend - Informal: Essentially extra-curricular activities - Hidden: Incidental, as opposed to intentional - Null: Things intended not to be there MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  10. 10. Konsep Pembelajaran Dua kategori utama: 1. Teacher-centered fokus: transfer of knowledge 2. Student-centered fokus: active learning MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  11. 11. TEACHER CENTERED TEACHING MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  12. 12. Pembelajaran sistem teachercentered • • • • • • Teacher-centered instructional strategies Highly lecture-based Discipline-based One-way communication Overload dengan informasi Rote-learning (memorize, recall) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  13. 13. Teacher Centered mhs mhs mhs dosen mhs MEU FK-UNAND mhs BLOK 1
  14. 14. Teacher Centered Dosen mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs Metoda didaktik satu arah (Sefton, 2001) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  15. 15. “The scarcely tolerable burden of information that is imposed taxes the memory but not the intellect. The emphasis is on the passive acquisition of knowledge, much of it to become outdated or forgotten, rather than on its discovery through curiosity and experiment.” (Education Committee, General Medical Council, UK, 1993) → ‘Tomorrow’s Doctors’ 1 MEU FK-UNAND BLOK
  16. 16. STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING Problem-Based Learning MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  17. 17. Apa itu PBL? Suatu strategi pembelajaran: menggunakan masalah sebagai stimulus untuk menemukan atau mendapatkan informasi yang diperlukan untuk memahami dan mencari solusinya MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  18. 18. Pembelajaran sistem PBL • Student-centered instructional strategies • Students have to identify, and search for, the knowledge that they need to deal with the problem • Two objectives for the student: - learning related to the problem - solving the problem • The knowledge arises from work on the problem MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  19. 19. Pembelajaran sistem PBL “ The basic outline of the PBL process is: - encountering the problem first, - problem-solving with clinical skills and identifying learning needs in an interactive process , - self-study, - applying newly gained knowledge to the problem, - summarizing what has been learned.” (Barrows, 1985) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  20. 20. Karakteristik PBL • • • • • • • • Pembelajaran bersifat student-centered yang aktif; Pembelajaran dilaksanakan melalui diskusi kelompok kecil Diskusi dipicu oleh masalah yang bersifat integrasi interdisiplin yang didasarkan pada pengalaman/kehidupan nyata; Diskusi secara aktif merangsang mahasiswa untuk menggunakan prior knowledge Mahasiswa terlatih untuk belajar mandiri dan diharapkan dapat menjadi dasar bagi pembelajaran seumur hidup; Pembelajaran berjalan secara efisien, karena informasi yang dikumpulkan melalui belajar mandiri sesuai dengan apa yang dibutuhkannya (need to know basis ); Feedback dapat diberikan sewaktu tutorial, sehingga dapat memacu mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan usaha pembelajarannya; Latihan keterampilan diberikan secara paralel. MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  21. 21. Tujuan PBL Membangun dan mengembangkan pembelajaran mahasiswa yang memenuhi kriteria ketiga ranah pembelajaran (taxonomy of learning domains ). - Di bidang kognitif (knowledges): berupa ilmu dasar dan ilmu terapan secara terintegrasi; - Di bidang psikomotor (skills): berupa scientific reasoning, critical appraisal, information literacy, self- directed learning, life-long learning; - Di bidang affektif (attitudes): berupa value of framework, hubungan antar-manusia, yang berkaitan masalah psikososial (psychosocial issues) ⇑ Teori Konstruktivis MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  22. 22. “Problem-based learning (PBL) is grounded in the belief that learning is most effective when students are actively involved and learn in the context in which the knowledge is to be used. Problems act as stimulus and focus for student activity. Problem-based learning is not simply the addition of problem solving activities to otherwise discipline-centered curricula, but a way of shaping the learning programme of professional practice.” (Boud and Feletti, 1997) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  23. 23. “Even if knowledge acquisition and clinical skills are not improved by PBL, the enhanced work environment for students and faculty that has been consistently found with PBL is a worthwhile goal.” (Albanese, 2000) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  24. 24. Student Centered tutor student student student module student MEU FK-UNAND student BLOK 1
  25. 25. mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs mhs tutor Komunikasi antarpersonal, interaksi kompleks yang harus difasilitasi seorang tutor dengan manajemen yang baik (Sefton, 2001) MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  26. 26. Proses PBL (Harvard) 1. Group receives written problem scenario 2. Group defines the problem 3. Group identifies the learning goals 4. Students work independently to achieve the learning outcomes 5. Group reconvenes and students build new learning on to prior knowledge 6. Group synthesizes and summarizes work. Students generalize from specific scenario to other situations MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  27. 27. Proses PBL (Maastricht) 1. Students receive problem scenario and define the problem 2. Brainstorming used to identify explanation for phenomena observed 3. Group reaches interim conclusions about the problem 4. Group formulates the learning objectives 5. Students work independently to achieve the learning process 6. Group synthesizes and summarizes work. Students generalize from specific scenario to other situations MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  28. 28. PBL Konvensional • Student centered • Teacher centered • Problem-based • Information gathering • Integrated • Discipline-based • Community-oriented • Hospital-based • Electives with core • Standard / uniform • Systematic • Apprenticeship MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  29. 29. The Learning Pyramid Average Retention Rate Lecture 5% Reading Audiovisual 10% Demonstration 30% Discussion group Practice by doing 50% Teach others 80% 20% 75% National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine, USA MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1
  30. 30. MEU FK-UNAND BLOK 1

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