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Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Assignment on
Collective Bargaining
Course Code: ART-2213
Course Title: Professional Ethics
Submission Date: 28.11.2012
Presented By
Md. Atiqur Rahman
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Leading University
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All praises to Almighty Allah, the most Gracious, the most Beneficent and the
most Merciful, who enabled us to complete this assignment.
We feel great pleasure in expressing our since gratitude to our teacher, for his
guidance and support for providing us an opportunity to complete a productive
research study of our topic.
3
Contents
Collective Bargaining.....................................................................................................................................4
The collective bargaining process comprises of five core steps:..................................................................4
Prepare......................................................................................................................................................4
Discuss.......................................................................................................................................................4
Propose.....................................................................................................................................................5
Bargain ......................................................................................................................................................5
Settlement ................................................................................................................................................5
Bargaining Form and Tactics.........................................................................................................................5
Distributive bargaining..............................................................................................................................5
Integrative bargaining...............................................................................................................................5
Attitudinal restructuring...........................................................................................................................6
Intra-organizational bargaining ................................................................................................................6
Characteristics of Collective Bargaining........................................................................................................6
Importance of Collective Bargaining.............................................................................................................7
Importance to employees.........................................................................................................................7
Importance to employers .........................................................................................................................8
Importance to society...............................................................................................................................8
Levels of Collective Bargaining......................................................................................................................8
National level ............................................................................................................................................9
Sector or industry level.............................................................................................................................9
Company/enterprise level ........................................................................................................................9
Bargaining Dead Locks ..................................................................................................................................9
Strikes:.......................................................................................................................................................9
Lockouts....................................................................................................................................................9
Third party involvement .........................................................................................................................10
CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................................................10
Reference....................................................................................................................................................11
4
Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining generally includes negotiations between the two parties
(employees’ representatives & employer’s representatives). Collective bargaining
consists of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees that
determine the conditions of employment. Often employees are represented in the
bargaining by a union or other labor organization. The result of collective bargaining
procedure is called the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA). Collective agreements
may be in the form of procedural agreements or substantive agreements. Procedural
agreements deal with the relationship between workers and management and
the procedures to be adopted for resolving individual or group disputes. This will
normally include procedures in respect of individual grievances, disputes and
discipline. Frequently, procedural agreements are put into the company rule
book which provides information on the overall terms and conditions of employment
and codes of behavior. A substantive agreement deals with specific issues, such as
basic pay, overtime premiums, bonus arrangements, holiday entitlements, hours of work,
etc. In many companies, agreements have a fixed time scale and a collective bargaining
process will review the procedural agreement when negotiations take place on
pay and conditions of employment.
The collective bargaining process comprises of five core steps:
Prepare
This phase involves composition of a negotiation team. The negotiation team should
consist of representatives of both the parties with adequate knowledge and skills
for negotiation. In this phase both the employer’s representatives and the union examine
their own situation in order to develop the issues that they believe will be most important.
The first thing to be done is to determine whether there is actually any reason to
negotiate at all. A correct understanding of the main issues to be covered and
intimate knowledge of operations, working conditions, production norms and other
relevant conditions is required.
Discuss
Here, the parties decide the ground rules that will guide the negotiations. A process well
begun is half done and this is no less true in case of collective bargaining. An
environment of mutual trust and understanding is also created so that the collective
bargaining agreement would be reached.
5
Propose
This phase involves the initial opening statements and the possible options that exist to
resolve them. In a word, this phase could be described as ‘brainstorming’. The exchange
of messages takes place and opinion of both the parties is sought.
Bargain
Negotiations are easy if a problem solving attitude is adopted. This stage comprises
the time when ‘what ifs’ and ‘supposals’ are set forth and the drafting of
agreements take place.
Settlement
Once the parties are through with the bargaining process, a consensual agreement is
reached upon wherein both the parties agree to a common decision regarding the problem
or the issue. This stage is described as consisting of effective joint implementation of the
agreement through shared visions, strategic planning and negotiated change.
Bargaining Form and Tactics
A collective bargaining process generally consists of four types of activities
 Distributive bargaining
 Integrative bargaining
 Attitudinal restructuring
 Intra-organizational bargaining
Distributive bargaining
It involves haggling over the distribution of surplus. Under it, the economic issues like
wages, salaries and bonus are discussed. In distributive bargaining, one party’s gain is
another party’s loss. This is most commonly explained in terms of a pie. Disputants can
work together to make the pie bigger, so there is enough for both of them to have as
much as they want, or they can focus on cutting the pie up, trying to get as much as they
can for themselves. In general, distributive bargaining tends to be more competitive. This
type of bargaining is also known as conjunctive bargaining.
Integrative bargaining
This involves negotiation of an issue on which both the parties may gain, or at least
neither party loses. For example, representatives of employer and employee sides may
bargain over the better training programmed or a better job evaluation method. Here, both
the parties are trying to make more of something. In general, it tends to be more
6
cooperative than distributive bargaining. This type of bargaining is also known as
cooperative bargaining.
Attitudinal restructuring
This involves shaping and reshaping some attitudes like trust or distrust, friendliness or
hostility between labor and management. When there is backlog of bitterness
between both the parties, attitudinal restructuring is required to maintain smooth
and harmonious industrial relations. It develops bargaining environment and creates trust
and cooperation among the parties
Intra-organizational bargaining
It generally aims at resolving internal conflicts. This is a type of maneuvering to
achieve consensus with the workers and management. Even within the union,
there may be differences between groups. For example, skilled workers may feel that
they are neglected or women workers may feel that their interests are not
looked after properly. Within the management also, there may be differences.
Trade unions maneuver to achieve consensus among the conflicting groups.
Characteristics of Collective Bargaining
 It is a group process, wherein one group, representing the employers, and the
other, representing the employees, sit together to negotiate terms of employment.
 Negotiations form an important aspect of the process of collective bargaining i.e.,
there is considerable scope for discussion, compromise or mutual give and take in
collective bargaining.
 Collective bargaining is a formalized process by which employers and
independent trade unions negotiate terms and conditions of employment and the
ways in which certain employment-related issues are to be regulated at national,
organizational and workplace levels.
 Collective bargaining is a process in the sense that it consists of a number of steps.
It begins with the presentation of the charter of demands and ends with reaching
an agreement, which would serve as the basic law governing labor management
relations over a period of time in an enterprise. Moreover, it is flexible process and
not fixed or static. Mutual trust and understanding serve as the byproducts
of harmonious relations between the two parties.
7
 It a bipartite process. This means there are always two parties involved
in the process of collective bargaining. The negotiations generally take place
between the employees and the management. It is a form of participation.
 Collective bargaining is a complementary process i.e. each party needs something
that the other party has; labor can increase productivity and management can pay
better for their efforts.
 Collective bargaining tends to improve the relations between workers
and the union on the one hand and the employer on the other.
 Collective Bargaining is continuous process. It enables industrial democracy to be
effective. It uses cooperation and consensus for settling disputes rather than
conflict and confrontation.
 Collective bargaining takes into account day to day changes, policies,
potentialities, capacities and interests.
 It is a political activity frequently undertaken by professional negotiators.
Importance of Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining includes not only negotiations between the employers and unions
but also includes the process of resolving labor-management conflicts. Thus, collective
bargaining is, essentially, a recognized way of creating a system of industrial
jurisprudence. It acts as a method of introducing civil rights in the industry, that is, the
management should be conducted by rules rather than arbitrary decision making. It
establishes rules which define and restrict the traditional authority exercised by the
management.
Importance to employees
 Collective bargaining develops a sense of self respect and responsibility among
the employees.
 It increases the strength of the workforce, thereby, increasing their bargaining
capacity as a group.
 Collective bargaining increases the morale and productivity of employees.
 It restricts management’s freedom for arbitrary action against the employees.
Moreover, unilateral actions by the employer are also discouraged.
8
 Effective collective bargaining machinery strengthens the trade unions movement.
 The workers feel motivated as they can approach the management on various
matters and bargain for higher benefits.
 It helps in securing a prompt and fair settlement of grievances. It provides a
flexible means for the adjustment of wages an employment conditions to
economic and technological changes in the industry, as a result of which the
chances for conflicts are reduced.
Importance to employers
 It becomes easier for the management to resolve issues at the bargaining level
rather than taking up complaints of individual workers.
 Collective bargaining tends to promote a sense of job security among employees
and thereby tends to reduce the cost of labor turnover to management.
 Collective bargaining opens up the channel of communication between the
workers and the management and increases worker participation indecision
making.
 Collective bargaining plays a vital role in settling and preventing industrial
disputes.
Importance to society
 Collective bargaining leads to industrial peace in the country.
 It results in establishment of a harmonious industrial climate which supports
which helps the pace of a nation’s efforts towards economic and social
development since the obstacles to such a development can be reduced
considerably.
 The discrimination and exploitation of workers is constantly being checked.
 It provides a method or the regulation of the conditions of employment of those
who are directly concerned about them.
Levels of Collective Bargaining
Collective bargaining operates at three levels:
 National level
 Sector or industry level
 Company/enterprise level
9
National level
Economy-wide (national) bargaining is a bipartite or tripartite form of negotiation
between union confederations, central employer associations and government agencies. It
aims at providing a floor for lower-level bargaining on the terms of employment, often
taking into account macroeconomic goals
Sector or industry level
Sector oral bargaining, which aims at the standardization of the terms of employment in
one industry, includes a range of bargaining patterns. Bargaining may be either broadly
or narrowly defined in terms of the industrial activities covered and may be either split up
according to territorial subunits or conducted nationally.
Company/enterprise level
The third bargaining level involves the company and/or establishment. As a
supplementary type of bargaining, it emphasizes the point that bargaining levels need not
be mutually exclusive.
Bargaining Dead Locks
Strikes
 There is a chance of strike after labour negotiation if bargaining demands of
employee are not met by the management.
 The right of employees to strike in support of their bargaining demands is
protected by the Landrum-Griffin Act.
 A lawful labour dispute may result work stoppage by employees, which may not
violation of an existing agreement between management and the union.
Lockouts
 After expiry of collective bargaining agreement, when employers desires to hold
economic pressure on union to settle a contract on terms favorable to the
employers, by law, employer can lock out its employees.
 It also is a legal for a company to replace the locked outworker’s with temporary
replacement in order to continue operations during the lockout. However, the use
of permanent replacement is not permissible
.
10
Third party involvement
A bargaining dead locks produce when the parties fail to reach at the stage of settlement.
Litigation/third party involved to resolve the issue.
CONCLUSION
From the above details we can see that how collective bargaining is formed and done. It
is legal tool for the labor to fight their rights. Management realizes that the positive role
of trade union has helped in implementation of their policies. It considers the workers as
valuable assets of the corporation and union activities as their genuine right. The labor
union feels that good industrial relations are key to the success of any organization.
Workers have the responsibility to put their best efforts and management has to reward
them by giving them fair share in the profits and meeting their legitimate and law full
demands.
11
Reference
eaq.sagepub.com/content/43/4/433
www.uwlax.edu/faculty/ross/mgt485.htm
smlr.rutgers.edu/syl-fl11-37575100-06-ck-intro
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2755438
usfweb2.usf.edu/.../collective-bargaining/uff-agreement-2010-201
www.cca4me.org/.../50bargaining/Fifty_Collective_Bargaining_Issue
www.washingtonpolicy.org/.../study-seattles-collective-bargaining
www.apwu.org › Home › Departments & Divisions › Clerk Division
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_bargaining
www.law.cornell.edu/wex/collective_bargaining

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Collective bargaining

  • 1. Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Assignment on Collective Bargaining Course Code: ART-2213 Course Title: Professional Ethics Submission Date: 28.11.2012 Presented By Md. Atiqur Rahman Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Leading University
  • 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All praises to Almighty Allah, the most Gracious, the most Beneficent and the most Merciful, who enabled us to complete this assignment. We feel great pleasure in expressing our since gratitude to our teacher, for his guidance and support for providing us an opportunity to complete a productive research study of our topic.
  • 3. 3 Contents Collective Bargaining.....................................................................................................................................4 The collective bargaining process comprises of five core steps:..................................................................4 Prepare......................................................................................................................................................4 Discuss.......................................................................................................................................................4 Propose.....................................................................................................................................................5 Bargain ......................................................................................................................................................5 Settlement ................................................................................................................................................5 Bargaining Form and Tactics.........................................................................................................................5 Distributive bargaining..............................................................................................................................5 Integrative bargaining...............................................................................................................................5 Attitudinal restructuring...........................................................................................................................6 Intra-organizational bargaining ................................................................................................................6 Characteristics of Collective Bargaining........................................................................................................6 Importance of Collective Bargaining.............................................................................................................7 Importance to employees.........................................................................................................................7 Importance to employers .........................................................................................................................8 Importance to society...............................................................................................................................8 Levels of Collective Bargaining......................................................................................................................8 National level ............................................................................................................................................9 Sector or industry level.............................................................................................................................9 Company/enterprise level ........................................................................................................................9 Bargaining Dead Locks ..................................................................................................................................9 Strikes:.......................................................................................................................................................9 Lockouts....................................................................................................................................................9 Third party involvement .........................................................................................................................10 CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................................................10 Reference....................................................................................................................................................11
  • 4. 4 Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining generally includes negotiations between the two parties (employees’ representatives & employer’s representatives). Collective bargaining consists of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees that determine the conditions of employment. Often employees are represented in the bargaining by a union or other labor organization. The result of collective bargaining procedure is called the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA). Collective agreements may be in the form of procedural agreements or substantive agreements. Procedural agreements deal with the relationship between workers and management and the procedures to be adopted for resolving individual or group disputes. This will normally include procedures in respect of individual grievances, disputes and discipline. Frequently, procedural agreements are put into the company rule book which provides information on the overall terms and conditions of employment and codes of behavior. A substantive agreement deals with specific issues, such as basic pay, overtime premiums, bonus arrangements, holiday entitlements, hours of work, etc. In many companies, agreements have a fixed time scale and a collective bargaining process will review the procedural agreement when negotiations take place on pay and conditions of employment. The collective bargaining process comprises of five core steps: Prepare This phase involves composition of a negotiation team. The negotiation team should consist of representatives of both the parties with adequate knowledge and skills for negotiation. In this phase both the employer’s representatives and the union examine their own situation in order to develop the issues that they believe will be most important. The first thing to be done is to determine whether there is actually any reason to negotiate at all. A correct understanding of the main issues to be covered and intimate knowledge of operations, working conditions, production norms and other relevant conditions is required. Discuss Here, the parties decide the ground rules that will guide the negotiations. A process well begun is half done and this is no less true in case of collective bargaining. An environment of mutual trust and understanding is also created so that the collective bargaining agreement would be reached.
  • 5. 5 Propose This phase involves the initial opening statements and the possible options that exist to resolve them. In a word, this phase could be described as ‘brainstorming’. The exchange of messages takes place and opinion of both the parties is sought. Bargain Negotiations are easy if a problem solving attitude is adopted. This stage comprises the time when ‘what ifs’ and ‘supposals’ are set forth and the drafting of agreements take place. Settlement Once the parties are through with the bargaining process, a consensual agreement is reached upon wherein both the parties agree to a common decision regarding the problem or the issue. This stage is described as consisting of effective joint implementation of the agreement through shared visions, strategic planning and negotiated change. Bargaining Form and Tactics A collective bargaining process generally consists of four types of activities  Distributive bargaining  Integrative bargaining  Attitudinal restructuring  Intra-organizational bargaining Distributive bargaining It involves haggling over the distribution of surplus. Under it, the economic issues like wages, salaries and bonus are discussed. In distributive bargaining, one party’s gain is another party’s loss. This is most commonly explained in terms of a pie. Disputants can work together to make the pie bigger, so there is enough for both of them to have as much as they want, or they can focus on cutting the pie up, trying to get as much as they can for themselves. In general, distributive bargaining tends to be more competitive. This type of bargaining is also known as conjunctive bargaining. Integrative bargaining This involves negotiation of an issue on which both the parties may gain, or at least neither party loses. For example, representatives of employer and employee sides may bargain over the better training programmed or a better job evaluation method. Here, both the parties are trying to make more of something. In general, it tends to be more
  • 6. 6 cooperative than distributive bargaining. This type of bargaining is also known as cooperative bargaining. Attitudinal restructuring This involves shaping and reshaping some attitudes like trust or distrust, friendliness or hostility between labor and management. When there is backlog of bitterness between both the parties, attitudinal restructuring is required to maintain smooth and harmonious industrial relations. It develops bargaining environment and creates trust and cooperation among the parties Intra-organizational bargaining It generally aims at resolving internal conflicts. This is a type of maneuvering to achieve consensus with the workers and management. Even within the union, there may be differences between groups. For example, skilled workers may feel that they are neglected or women workers may feel that their interests are not looked after properly. Within the management also, there may be differences. Trade unions maneuver to achieve consensus among the conflicting groups. Characteristics of Collective Bargaining  It is a group process, wherein one group, representing the employers, and the other, representing the employees, sit together to negotiate terms of employment.  Negotiations form an important aspect of the process of collective bargaining i.e., there is considerable scope for discussion, compromise or mutual give and take in collective bargaining.  Collective bargaining is a formalized process by which employers and independent trade unions negotiate terms and conditions of employment and the ways in which certain employment-related issues are to be regulated at national, organizational and workplace levels.  Collective bargaining is a process in the sense that it consists of a number of steps. It begins with the presentation of the charter of demands and ends with reaching an agreement, which would serve as the basic law governing labor management relations over a period of time in an enterprise. Moreover, it is flexible process and not fixed or static. Mutual trust and understanding serve as the byproducts of harmonious relations between the two parties.
  • 7. 7  It a bipartite process. This means there are always two parties involved in the process of collective bargaining. The negotiations generally take place between the employees and the management. It is a form of participation.  Collective bargaining is a complementary process i.e. each party needs something that the other party has; labor can increase productivity and management can pay better for their efforts.  Collective bargaining tends to improve the relations between workers and the union on the one hand and the employer on the other.  Collective Bargaining is continuous process. It enables industrial democracy to be effective. It uses cooperation and consensus for settling disputes rather than conflict and confrontation.  Collective bargaining takes into account day to day changes, policies, potentialities, capacities and interests.  It is a political activity frequently undertaken by professional negotiators. Importance of Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining includes not only negotiations between the employers and unions but also includes the process of resolving labor-management conflicts. Thus, collective bargaining is, essentially, a recognized way of creating a system of industrial jurisprudence. It acts as a method of introducing civil rights in the industry, that is, the management should be conducted by rules rather than arbitrary decision making. It establishes rules which define and restrict the traditional authority exercised by the management. Importance to employees  Collective bargaining develops a sense of self respect and responsibility among the employees.  It increases the strength of the workforce, thereby, increasing their bargaining capacity as a group.  Collective bargaining increases the morale and productivity of employees.  It restricts management’s freedom for arbitrary action against the employees. Moreover, unilateral actions by the employer are also discouraged.
  • 8. 8  Effective collective bargaining machinery strengthens the trade unions movement.  The workers feel motivated as they can approach the management on various matters and bargain for higher benefits.  It helps in securing a prompt and fair settlement of grievances. It provides a flexible means for the adjustment of wages an employment conditions to economic and technological changes in the industry, as a result of which the chances for conflicts are reduced. Importance to employers  It becomes easier for the management to resolve issues at the bargaining level rather than taking up complaints of individual workers.  Collective bargaining tends to promote a sense of job security among employees and thereby tends to reduce the cost of labor turnover to management.  Collective bargaining opens up the channel of communication between the workers and the management and increases worker participation indecision making.  Collective bargaining plays a vital role in settling and preventing industrial disputes. Importance to society  Collective bargaining leads to industrial peace in the country.  It results in establishment of a harmonious industrial climate which supports which helps the pace of a nation’s efforts towards economic and social development since the obstacles to such a development can be reduced considerably.  The discrimination and exploitation of workers is constantly being checked.  It provides a method or the regulation of the conditions of employment of those who are directly concerned about them. Levels of Collective Bargaining Collective bargaining operates at three levels:  National level  Sector or industry level  Company/enterprise level
  • 9. 9 National level Economy-wide (national) bargaining is a bipartite or tripartite form of negotiation between union confederations, central employer associations and government agencies. It aims at providing a floor for lower-level bargaining on the terms of employment, often taking into account macroeconomic goals Sector or industry level Sector oral bargaining, which aims at the standardization of the terms of employment in one industry, includes a range of bargaining patterns. Bargaining may be either broadly or narrowly defined in terms of the industrial activities covered and may be either split up according to territorial subunits or conducted nationally. Company/enterprise level The third bargaining level involves the company and/or establishment. As a supplementary type of bargaining, it emphasizes the point that bargaining levels need not be mutually exclusive. Bargaining Dead Locks Strikes  There is a chance of strike after labour negotiation if bargaining demands of employee are not met by the management.  The right of employees to strike in support of their bargaining demands is protected by the Landrum-Griffin Act.  A lawful labour dispute may result work stoppage by employees, which may not violation of an existing agreement between management and the union. Lockouts  After expiry of collective bargaining agreement, when employers desires to hold economic pressure on union to settle a contract on terms favorable to the employers, by law, employer can lock out its employees.  It also is a legal for a company to replace the locked outworker’s with temporary replacement in order to continue operations during the lockout. However, the use of permanent replacement is not permissible .
  • 10. 10 Third party involvement A bargaining dead locks produce when the parties fail to reach at the stage of settlement. Litigation/third party involved to resolve the issue. CONCLUSION From the above details we can see that how collective bargaining is formed and done. It is legal tool for the labor to fight their rights. Management realizes that the positive role of trade union has helped in implementation of their policies. It considers the workers as valuable assets of the corporation and union activities as their genuine right. The labor union feels that good industrial relations are key to the success of any organization. Workers have the responsibility to put their best efforts and management has to reward them by giving them fair share in the profits and meeting their legitimate and law full demands.