Data privacy as a tool for international police cooperation MODAP Conference, “Privacy: Beginning or the End” Sabanci Univ...
1 .  General Context  2. INTERPOL’s mission and tools  3. Challenges related to data processing  4. A global legal framewo...
1. General context  <ul><li>Globalisation of “new” crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Need for multilateral police co-operation  </l...
<ul><li>“ To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities” </li></ul><...
<ul><ul><li>a global secured police telecommunication network ,  </li></ul></ul>2.  INTERPOL’s tools
<ul><ul><li>A set of GLOBAL DATABASES: stolen motor vehicles - stolen works of art - stolen passeports -  fingerprints - f...
<ul><ul><li>INTERPOL NOTICES : requests for police cooperation for  specific purposes  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>arrest  iden...
Operational support : logistical and technical support to member countries with complex ongoing investigations.  Comprehen...
<ul><ul><li>188 member countries with differences in legal culture, technology experience and requirements for data protec...
<ul><li>global exchange of police information presupposes  a  TRUST  environment to encourage the largest  international p...
4. A global legal framework   <ul><li>A global legal framework: </li></ul><ul><li>general rules relating to the observance...
4. A global legal framework   <ul><li>Specific INTERPOL principles of data processing  :  </li></ul><ul><li>a. Principle o...
4. A global legal framework <ul><li>4.2. Specific INTERPOL principles of data processing  :  </li></ul><ul><li>a. .. </li>...
<ul><li>Ongoing continuous review (change in circumstances, new information) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-perspective in nature...
5. A multilayered controlling mechanism <ul><li>At internal level:  by the General Secretariat  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At n...
5. Controlling mechanisms  at internal level <ul><li>Controls organised by INTERPOL General Secretariat :   </li></ul><ul>...
5. Controlling mechanism at internal level <ul><li>Discretionary power of INTERPOL General Secretariat :   </li></ul><ul><...
5. Controlling mechanism at internal level <ul><li>Developed structured training program :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establi...
5. Controlling mechanism at internal level <ul><li>Organisation of regional conferences and working groups :   </li></ul><...
5. Controlling mechanisms  at internal level <ul><li>Benefits expected :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  a) decrease in the risk...
5. Controlling mechanisms  at  national  level <ul><li>NCBs service standards :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  a) Appointment o...
5. External controlling mechanism <ul><li>By  the Commission for the Control of Interpol’s Files “CCF” (1/8) </li></ul><ul...
5. External  controlling mechanism <ul><li>Independent and impartial body (CCF) </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed by applicable...
5. External  controlling mechanism <ul><li>Independent and impartial body (CCF) </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed by applicable...
5. External  controlling mechanism <ul><li>Content of control  </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.  compliance...
5. External controlling mechanism: requests from individuals <ul><li>Who are the requesting parties ? </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
5. External controlling mechanism: requests from individuals - procedure  <ul><ul><li>Control of the information processed...
5. External review: advice role of CCF  Communication of the CCF findings to INTERPOL General Secretariat (conclusions on ...
Conclusion The adoption of a comprehensive set of rules and development  of mechanisms to monitor their implementation cre...
Thank you  [email_address] Interpol :  http://interpol.int CCF :  http://interpol.int/Public/ccf/default.asp
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  • Under international law: right to conclude treaties, to present and receive international claims - In national legal systems: right to enter into contractual relationships, to acquire goods, to bring an action in court
  • Data protection as_a_tool_for_international_police_cooperation.modap.20110620.istanbul

    1. 1. Data privacy as a tool for international police cooperation MODAP Conference, “Privacy: Beginning or the End” Sabanci University, Istanbul, 20-21 June 2011 INTERPOL Caroline Goemans-Dorny, Counsel Office of Legal Affairs
    2. 2. 1 . General Context 2. INTERPOL’s mission and tools 3. Challenges related to data processing 4. A global legal framework 5. Effective implementation: a multilayered controlling mechanism Conclusion Outline
    3. 3. 1. General context <ul><li>Globalisation of “new” crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Need for multilateral police co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>INTERPOL as an international organization, with a universal dimension (188 member countries) </li></ul><ul><li>legal personality, distinct from its Member States </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>“ To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law crimes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exchange of police information = core activity </li></ul></ul>2. INTERPOL’s mission (Article 2 Constitution)
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>a global secured police telecommunication network , </li></ul></ul>2. INTERPOL’s tools
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>A set of GLOBAL DATABASES: stolen motor vehicles - stolen works of art - stolen passeports - fingerprints - fugitives - child abuse image database - DNA </li></ul></ul>2. INTERPOL’s tools
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>INTERPOL NOTICES : requests for police cooperation for specific purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>arrest identification </li></ul><ul><li>locate threat </li></ul><ul><li>warn dangerous persons missing </li></ul><ul><li>17,518 published Notices and diffusions in 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80,257 valid Notices et diffusions in 2010 </li></ul></ul>2. INTERPOL’s tools
    8. 8. Operational support : logistical and technical support to member countries with complex ongoing investigations. Comprehensive training programs: on the field and at the General Secretariat 2. INTERPOL’s tools
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>188 member countries with differences in legal culture, technology experience and requirements for data protection (technical and policital challenges) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New crimes, more complex criminality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>four categories of actors relating to processing: General Secretariat, National Central Bureaus, Authorized National Institutions , International Organizations </li></ul>3. Challenges relating to data processing
    10. 10. <ul><li>global exchange of police information presupposes a TRUST environment to encourage the largest international police cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>need for guarantees, a comprehensive legal framework, implementing measures and controlling mechanisms </li></ul>3. Challenges relating to data processing
    11. 11. 4. A global legal framework <ul><li>A global legal framework: </li></ul><ul><li>general rules relating to the observance of fundamental human rights (INTERPOL’s Constitution) </li></ul><ul><li>specific rules on data processing reflecting the international protection standards (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>creation of an independent supervisory board – Commission for the control of INTERPOL’s files (1982) </li></ul><ul><li>pioneer role of INTERPOL </li></ul>
    12. 12. 4. A global legal framework <ul><li>Specific INTERPOL principles of data processing : </li></ul><ul><li>a. Principle of NATIONAL SOVEREIGNITY : “ the limits of the laws existing in the different countries - Art.2(2) Constitution “ </li></ul><ul><li>b. Principle of NEUTRALITY : strictly forbidden to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character - Art. 3 Constitution - mulitlayered legal review </li></ul>
    13. 13. 4. A global legal framework <ul><li>4.2. Specific INTERPOL principles of data processing : </li></ul><ul><li>a. .. </li></ul><ul><li>b. .. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Principle of TRANSPARENCY : right of the source of information to control the further processing of its information </li></ul><ul><li>d. COORDINATING ROLE of the INTERPOL National Central Bureaus in each member country </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Ongoing continuous review (change in circumstances, new information) </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-perspective in nature (police operational needs, legal examination) </li></ul><ul><li>Review is subject to various checks and balances (Appeal and supervision by Interpol’s different institutional bodies) </li></ul>5. A Multilayered controlling mechanism
    15. 15. 5. A multilayered controlling mechanism <ul><li>At internal level: by the General Secretariat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At national level: by INTERPOL Members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At external level, by and independent body : the Commission for the Control of Interpol’s files (CCF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> At any stage of the processing of information : </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 5. Controlling mechanisms at internal level <ul><li>Controls organised by INTERPOL General Secretariat : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Automatic/technical: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>through security measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>on determined procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>through an alert system (generated by a thesaurus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Manual controls on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specific issues of concern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specific categories of files (potential identified risks) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 5. Controlling mechanism at internal level <ul><li>Discretionary power of INTERPOL General Secretariat : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) In case of doubts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precautionary measures (blocking access, withdrawal from INTERPOL’s website, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation of sources of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation of the CCF for advice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) In case of non compliance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deletion of the information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to accept a specific processing of the information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information of the source concerned </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 5. Controlling mechanism at internal level <ul><li>Developed structured training program : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of common professional standards with strategic objectives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To share common understanding of DP value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid any abusive use of information and of INTERPOL’s facilities: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Key role of training in INTERPOL’s mission: “police training and development” is 1 of the 4 core functions of INTERPOL </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 5. Controlling mechanism at internal level <ul><li>Organisation of regional conferences and working groups : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) To identify and share difficulties met by users (users advisory groups) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) To adopt common solutions (resolutions of the General Secretariat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous assistance to NCBs to ensure that DP principles are known, understood and respected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Helpdesk (operational and legal) at the disposal of users (24h/24) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 5. Controlling mechanisms at internal level <ul><li>Benefits expected : </li></ul><ul><ul><li> a) decrease in the risk of infringement of fundamental human rights. b) More confidence in the way the information is handled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Increased flow of data sharing </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. 5. Controlling mechanisms at national level <ul><li>NCBs service standards : </li></ul><ul><ul><li> a) Appointment of a National Security Officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application of INTERPOL’s standards at national level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights of access to INTERPOL’s databases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation of national controls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Regular Cross controls/peer evaluations between countries (including reports to INTERPOL’s General Secretariat) c) Identification of “good practices” to be shared </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 5. External controlling mechanism <ul><li>By the Commission for the Control of Interpol’s Files “CCF” (1/8) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 roles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Processing of individual requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 members: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a) appointed for 3 years b) Ideally from different regions and holding different nationalities </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. 5. External controlling mechanism <ul><li>Independent and impartial body (CCF) </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed by applicable texts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence of members (bound by professional secrecy, prohibition to accept or solicit instructions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended powers of investigation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. free and unlimited access to INTERPOL’s files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. right to initiate spot checks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. right to consult the GS, the NCBs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 5. External controlling mechanism <ul><li>Independent and impartial body (CCF) </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed by applicable texts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality of the CCF files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessions held in camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of the CCF to issue its own rules of procedure… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific budget for the activity of the CCF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent Secretariat </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. 5. External controlling mechanism <ul><li>Content of control </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. compliance of information processed through INTERPOL’s channels with INTERPOL’s rules (finality, accuracy, non discrimination, proportionality, retention period, concrete interest for the police at international level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. respect of procedures applicable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. functioning of the databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHEN? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. at the request of the General Secretariat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. at its own initiative (right to initiate spot checks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. In the context of an individual request </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. 5. External controlling mechanism: requests from individuals <ul><li>Who are the requesting parties ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the subject of the request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>his/her duly mandated representative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the purposes of the requests ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requests for simple access to INTERPOL’s files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requests challenging INTERPOL’s files </li></ul></ul><ul><li> In this context, the CCF ensures that affected individuals have an effective and adequate remedy (control, update or deletion of information) = preservation of INTERPOL’s judicial immunity </li></ul>
    27. 27. 5. External controlling mechanism: requests from individuals - procedure <ul><ul><li>Control of the information processed by INTERPOL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= independent study by the CCF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation of the General Secretariat or of the sources of the information controlled in case of questions or doubts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>= request for further information, documents, comments on challenges, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. 5. External review: advice role of CCF Communication of the CCF findings to INTERPOL General Secretariat (conclusions on compliance, recommendations on necessary actions to be taken) Controls over the follow-up of the CCF recommendations Answers to the requesting parties (in case of requests for access and of complaints)  Controls are aimed at protecting fundamental human rights and advising INTERPOL whenever necessary
    29. 29. Conclusion The adoption of a comprehensive set of rules and development of mechanisms to monitor their implementation create a climat of TRUST and CONFIDENCE that: -minimize the risk of abusive use in relation to the processing of information; -strenghten confidence between member countries when they cooperate via INTERPOL channels. -INTERPOL data processing rules include a redress mechanism for individuals. observance of data privacy is a tool for effective international police co-operation
    30. 30. Thank you [email_address] Interpol : http://interpol.int CCF : http://interpol.int/Public/ccf/default.asp

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