Satellite RF Communication

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Successful systems engineering requires a broad understanding of the important principles of modern satellite communications and onboard data processing. This course covers both theory and practice, with emphasis on the important system engineering principles, tradeoffs, and rules of thumb. The latest technologies are covered, including those needed for constellations of satellites.
This course is recommended for engineers and scientists interested in acquiring an understanding of satellite communications, command and telemetry, onboard computing, and tracking.

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Satellite RF Communication

  1. 1. Professional Development Short Course On: Satellite RF Communications and Onboard Processing Instructor: Robert C. Moore Eric Hoffman http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm ATI Course Schedule: http://www.aticourses.com/satellite_rf_communications.htm ATI's Satellite RF Communications: 349 Berkshire Drive • Riva, Maryland 21140 888-501-2100 • 410-956-8805 Website: www.ATIcourses.com • Email: ATI@ATIcourses.com
  2. 2. Satellite RF Communications and Onboard Processing Effective Design for Today’s Spacecraft Systems April 14-16, 2009 Beltsville, Maryland $1490 (8:30am - 4:00pm) quot;Register 3 or More & Receive $10000 each Off The Course Tuition.quot; Summary Course Outline Successful systems engineering requires a broad 1. RF Signal Transmission. Propagation of radio understanding of the important principles of modern waves, antenna properties and types, one-way radar satellite communications and onboard data processing. range equation. Peculiarities of the space channel. This course covers both theory and practice, with Special communications orbits. Modulation of RF emphasis on the important system engineering principles, carriers. tradeoffs, and rules of thumb. The latest technologies are covered, including those needed for constellations of 2. Noise and Link Budgets. Sources of noise, satellites. effects of noise on communications, system noise temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio, bit error rate, link This course is recommended for engineers and margin. Communications link design example. scientists interested in acquiring an understanding of satellite communications, command and telemetry, 3. Special Topics. Optical communications, error onboard computing, and tracking. Each participant will correcting codes, encryption and authentication. Low- receive a complete set of notes. probability-of-intercept communications. Spread- spectrum and anti-jam techniques. Instructors 4. Command Systems. Command receivers, decoders, and processors. Synchronization words, Eric J. Hoffman has degrees in electrical engineering and error detection and correction. Command types, over 40 years of spacecraft experience. He command validation and authentication, delayed has designed spaceborne communications commands. Uploading software. and navigation equipment and performed 5. Telemetry Systems. Sensors and signal systems engineering on many APL satellites conditioning, signal selection and data sampling, and communications systems. He has analog-to-digital conversion. Frame formatting, authored over 60 papers and holds 8 patents in these fields and served as APL’s Space commutation, data storage, data compression. Dept Chief Engineer. Packetizing. Implementing spacecraft autonomy. Robert C. Moore worked in the Electronic Systems Group of 6. Data Processor Systems. Central processing the APL Space Department for 42 years units, memory types, mass storage, input/output (1965-2007). He designed embedded techniques. Fault tolerance and redundancy, radiation microprocessor systems for space hardness, single event upsets, CMOS latch-up. applications (SEASAT-A, Galileo, TOPEX, Memory error detection and correction. Reliability and NEAR, FUSE, MESSENGER) and cross-strapping. Very large scale integration. autonomous fault protection for the Choosing between RISC and CISC. MESSENGER mission to Mercury and the 7. Reliable Software Design. Specifying the New Horizons mission to Pluto. Mr. Moore holds four U.S. requirements. Levels of criticality. Design reviews and patents. He teaches the command-telemetry-processing code walkthroughs. Fault protection and autonomy. segment of quot;Space Systemsquot; at the Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering. Testing and IV&V. When is testing finished? Configuration management, documentation. Rules of This course will give you a thorough understanding of the thumb for schedule and manpower. important principles and modern technologies behind today’s satellite communications and onboard computing 8. Spacecraft Tracking. Orbital elements. systems. Tracking by ranging, laser tracking. Tracking by range rate, tracking by line-of-site observation. Autonomous What You Will Learn satellite navigation. • The important systems engineering principles and latest 9. Typical Ground Network Operations. Central technologies for spacecraft communications and onboard and remote tracking sites, equipment complements, computing. command data flow, telemetry data flow. NASA Deep • The design drivers for today’s command, telemetry, Space Network, NASA Tracking and Data Relay communications, and processor systems. Satellite System (TDRSS), and commercial • How to design an RF link. operations. • How to deal with noise, radiation, bit errors, and spoofing. 10. Constellations of Satellites. Optical and RF • Keys to developing hi-rel, realtime, embedded software. crosslinks. Command and control issues. Timing and • How spacecraft are tracked. tracking. Iridium and other system examples. • Working with government and commercial ground stations. • Command and control for satellite constellations. Register online at www.ATIcourses.com or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.956.8805 Vol. 97 – 55
  3. 3. www.ATIcourses.com Boost Your Skills 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 21140 with On-Site Courses Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805 Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 Email: ATI@ATIcourses.com The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly competitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presented on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.asp For Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm
  4. 4. Spacecraft Command System March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 2
  5. 5. Encryption / Decryption Model March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 3
  6. 6. End-to-End Command Flow March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 4
  7. 7. Spacecraft Telemetry System ACQUISITION PROCESSING TRANSMISSION SENSORS COMPRESSORS ENCODER CONDITIONERS FORMATTERS MODULATOR SELECTORS STORAGE TRANSMITTER CONVERTERS ANTENNA March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 5
  8. 8. Allan Deviation of Precision Frequency Standards March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 6
  9. 9. Telemetry Multiple Access • Frequency division multiple access (FDMA): different data on different sub-carrier frequencies • Time division multiple access (TDMA): a cyclic data frame is defined in which different bit fields in the frame are assigned to different users • Code division multiple access (CDMA): coding techniques are used to avoid interference between different users. Each different coding algorithm is decoded using a separate decoder (e.g., ±90º, ±180º phase shift; orthogonal binary pseudo-random modulations; frequency- hopping) • Polarization division multiple access (PDMA): two signal sources use orthogonal polarizations of single carrier • Space division multiple access (SDMA): spot-beam antennas provide spatial separation of RF links March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 7
  10. 10. Sub-Commutation and Super-Commutation Data type 1 is super-commutated. It is sampled more than once in each minor frame. Data types 2a, 2b, and 2c are sampled less often. They are sub-commutated in three successive minor frames. March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 8
  11. 11. Structure of a Typical Packetized Telemetry Frame March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 9
  12. 12. Structure of a Typical Real-Time Communications Bus Schedule 125 real-time slots, each 8 ms in duration Instrument short data: 256-byte packets, 13 Hz maximum Instrument long data: 1024-byte packets, 15 Hz maximum Instrument command: 250-byte packets, 15 Hz maximum RT reset (slot 58) occurs at 1/8 Hz (i.e., every 8 seconds) March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 10
  13. 13. Spacecraft Data Processing and Storage (Sampler) Robert C. Moore 443-778-8485 robert.moore@jhuapl.edu Copyright © 2004 Robert C. Moore
  14. 14. Spacecraft Data Processing System March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 12
  15. 15. Spacecraft Block Diagram March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 13
  16. 16. Block Diagram of Error-Correcting Logic March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 14
  17. 17. Earth-Orbit Radiation Environment • Low altitude (200 – 500 km), low inclination (i ≤ 28°) – 100 – 1k rad(Si)/year. Design to 10k rad(Si)/year. Incident charged particles, Van Allen Belts, make SEUs an important concern at low inclination. • Low altitude (200 – 1000 km), high inclination (i > 28°) – 1k – 10k rad(Si)/year. Design to 100k rad(Si)/year. More protons from Van Allen Belts, so use Adams ten percent worst case environment for SEU calculations. • Medium altitude (1000 – 4000 km) – 100k – 1M rad(Si)/year. Design to 1M rad(Si)/year. Almost no geomagnetic shielding. Must use the most radiation-tolerant parts available. • High altitude (> 5000 km); e.g., geosynchronous (36,000 km) – 1k – 5k rad(Si)/year. Design to 50k rad(Si)/year. Spacecraft charging occurs as Earth’s magnetic field interacts with Solar wind, so SEU effects are dominated by the Adams ten-percent worst-case environment. March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 15
  18. 18. Cross-Strapping Redundant Systems (Box-level) No single-point failure should be able to drag down both sides! March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 16
  19. 19. Hot Tips for Flight Software March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 17
  20. 20. Hybrid Image Compression Algorithm March 2004 Command / Telemetry / Data Processing (Sampler) 18
  21. 21. Boost Your Skills with On-Site Courses Tailored to Your Needs The Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep you current in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highly competitive marketplace. For 20 years, we have earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and have presented on-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our training increases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best. ATI’s on-site courses offer these cost-effective advantages: • You design, control, and schedule the course. • Since the program involves only your personnel, confidentiality is maintained. You can freely discuss company issues and programs. Classified programs can also be arranged. • Your employees may attend all or only the most relevant part of the course. • Our instructors are the best in the business, averaging 25 to 35 years of practical, real- world experience. Carefully selected for both technical expertise and teaching ability, they provide information that is practical and ready to use immediately. • Our on-site programs can save your facility 30% to 50%, plus additional savings by eliminating employee travel time and expenses. • The ATI Satisfaction Guarantee: You must be completely satisfied with our program. We suggest you look at ATI course descriptions in this catalog and on the ATI website. Visit and bookmark ATI’s website at http://www.ATIcourses.com for descriptions of all of our courses in these areas: • Communications & Computer Programming • Radar/EW/Combat Systems • Signal Processing & Information Technology • Sonar & Acoustic Engineering • Spacecraft & Satellite Engineering I suggest that you read through these course descriptions and then call me personally, Jim Jenkins, at (410) 531-6034, and I’ll explain what we can do for you, what it will cost, and what you can expect in results and future capabilities. Our training helps you and your organization remain competitive in this changing world. Register online at www.aticourses.com or call ATI at 888.501.2100 or 410.531.6034

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