Soil fertility management liminmg


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Soil fertility management liminmg

  1. 1. Alexander W. Fagyan Department of Soil science SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why we study Soil fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It increases our capability to determine with greater precision the soil and crop nutrient status as a basis for formulating the fertilizer that is needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why we manage Soil fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide adequate nutrition for plants </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Soil Fertility vs. Soil Productivity <ul><li>SOIL FERTILITY </li></ul><ul><li>Status of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Amount and availability of plant food elements </li></ul><ul><li>(Measured in terms of soil chemical analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>SOIL PRODUCTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Produce specified crop under specified systems of management </li></ul><ul><li>(measured in terms of growth and yield) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Essential Nutrient Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macronutrients/Macroelements </li></ul></ul><ul><li> C, H, O </li></ul><ul><li> N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients/Microelements </li></ul><ul><li> B, Mo, Mn, Cl, Zn, Cu, and Fe </li></ul><ul><li>Other nutrients with beneficial effects </li></ul><ul><li>Si, Na, Co and Vn </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Soil Management </li></ul><ul><li>A group of farming methods for maximizing the benefits we get from soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Fertility Management Practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Liming </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Nutrient management </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fertilizer Application
  7. 7. <ul><li>Evaluation of Soil Fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Diagnostic Technique </li></ul><ul><li>a. Soil analysis (use of soil test kit) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Nutrient deficiency symptom </li></ul><ul><li> c. Microbial method </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Diagnostic Technique </li></ul><ul><li> a. Laboratory soil test/soil chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>b. Plant tissue analysis </li></ul><ul><li> c. Fertilizer field trials </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Soil Analysis . Rapid method in assessing the needs of the crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Phases of Soil Analysis </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Guides in the collection of soil samples </li></ul><ul><li>1. Samples may be taken when soil is dry or wet </li></ul><ul><li>2. Collect soil samples away from roads, fences, or manure piles </li></ul><ul><li>3. Do not mixed: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Light or dark colored soils </li></ul><ul><li>b. Areas that vary in past treatment or crop yield </li></ul><ul><li>c. Different textures </li></ul><ul><li>d. Different slopes </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Materials needed in soil sampling </li></ul><ul><li>1. Tools - shovel, trowel, bolo </li></ul><ul><li>2. Container - pail, plastic bags </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sack for mixing soil sample </li></ul><ul><li>4. Marker for labeling soil samples </li></ul><ul><li>5. Plastic straws for tying plastic bags </li></ul>
  11. 11. Soil Sampling Procedure <ul><li>Make a map of the farm showing the sampling areas </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the farms into areas </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling areas should be uniform in: </li></ul><ul><li>Cropping history </li></ul><ul><li>Past lime and fertilizer treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Soil texture orchard Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> Cabbage </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>4. Collect spot soil sample from each area </li></ul><ul><li> (9) (10) </li></ul><ul><li> (8) </li></ul><ul><li> (7) </li></ul><ul><li>(6) </li></ul><ul><li>(4) </li></ul><ul><li> (5) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) </li></ul><ul><li> (2) </li></ul><ul><li> (1) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Slope
  14. 14. <ul><li>Label collected soil samples </li></ul><ul><li>Give information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of farmer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date of sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of farm: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing address: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date collected: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop to be planted: </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Interpretation and Fertilizer computation </li></ul><ul><li>Soil analysis results: </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen = low </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus = low </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium = insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient recommendation = 140 + 140 + 140 </li></ul><ul><li>for potato </li></ul><ul><li> Area to be fertilized = 500 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>How many kilograms or bags of a given fertilizer are needed to satisfy the nutrient recommendation for 500 square meter. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Amount of fertilizer = Amount of recommended nutrient Kg/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>(grams, kilograms,or bags) Percent of element contained in the fert. </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of BSU compost = 140 kg/ha x 100 = 7,000 kg/ha 2 % </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>How many kilograms of BSU compost is needed for 500 square meter </li></ul><ul><li>1 hectare = 10,000 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 kg = kilogram of BSU compost </li></ul><ul><li> 10,000 m 2 500 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Kilogram of BSU compost = 500m2 x 7,000 kg = 350 kg </li></ul><ul><li> 10,000 m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Bags of BSU compost = 350 kg = 7 bags 50 kg/bag </li></ul>
  17. 17. b. Nutrient deficiency symptom <ul><li>It requires experience </li></ul><ul><li>Some nutrient deficiency symptoms are </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to identify </li></ul><ul><li>Plants may not show hunger signs, not unless the deficiency becomes acute (Hidden hunger) </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormalities in plants may not always mean nutrient deficiencies </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Guide to Plant Nutrient-deficiency symptom </li></ul><ul><li>Beets, cabbage, potatoes and legumes </li></ul>Symptoms appearing first on older leaves Lack of 1. Leaves at first green, then often reddish P 2. Tip Chlorosis, leaves turn yellow-brown from tip inwards, older leaves brown, plant light green N 3. Marginal necrosis: leaves with brown margin, hang down limply K 4. Large chlorotic spots in beets, cabbage, legumes: leaves yellow between veins; finally brown In potatoes: leaf center spotted yellow-brown, margin remains green for long time Mg 5. Small necrotic spots: in beets and cabbage; respectively yellow and yellow-brown spots entire leaf Mn
  19. 19. Symptoms appearing first on younger leaves Lack of 1. yellow-green leaves with light yellow veins S 2. Yellow leaves green veins Fe <ul><li>Small necrotic spots: </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes: brown-black points specially on </li></ul><ul><li>underside of leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes: brown or gray spots on liight-green </li></ul><ul><li>leaves </li></ul>Mn Mn 4. Clamped heart in cabbage: deformed leaf and warped young leaves in young plants spoon shaped leaves Mo 5. White-leaf in legumes Cu
  20. 20. <ul><li>1. Nitrogen deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Stunted growth </li></ul><ul><li>Foliage pale green </li></ul><ul><li>Older leaves yellow and die </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Fermented plant juice (FPJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cut camote tops, kangkong, alugbati </li></ul><ul><li>or sunflower </li></ul><ul><li>2. Finely chop 2 kilo of preferred </li></ul><ul><li>ingredient. Mix with 1 kilo crude </li></ul><ul><li>sugar </li></ul><ul><li>3. Place in container (clay jar/plastic) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cover the container with a clean </li></ul><ul><li>sheet of paper and tie with a string. </li></ul><ul><li> Put container in a cool place to ferment for 7 days. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>5. Gather the concoction after 7 days. Mix 2 tablespoon with 1 liter of water. Spray on leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus deficiency </li></ul><ul><li> Older leaves dull purple </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Source: Calcium, Phosphate: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Boil 2 kilos of animal bones </li></ul><ul><li> to separate meat and fat. Air dry </li></ul><ul><li>2. Broil until charcoal black. Cool </li></ul><ul><li>3. Place in a plastic container with 5 gallons </li></ul><ul><li> of coconut vinegar without color. </li></ul><ul><li> Cover for 30 days </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mix 2 tablespoons of the juice </li></ul><ul><li>to 1 liter of water. Sprinkle on plants </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Potassium deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Older leaves severe marginal </li></ul><ul><li>Scorch and forward curling of leaf margins </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bronzing” due to spotting </li></ul><ul><li>and scorching of leaves (potato) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Leaflets curled backward; </li></ul><ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis and brown </li></ul><ul><li>marginal scorch; </li></ul><ul><li>Scorched margins </li></ul><ul><li>curled forward </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Fermented fruit juice (FFJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chop 1 kilo of ripe fruit- bananas, </li></ul><ul><li>mangoes, papaya, or avocado. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not include skin </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li> 2. Put chopped fruits inside </li></ul><ul><li> container and mix </li></ul><ul><li> with 1 kilo sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with clean sheet </li></ul><ul><li>of paper and tie with a string. </li></ul><ul><li>Place in cool and shaded area. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferment for 7 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Mix 2 tablespoons of juice </li></ul><ul><li>to 1 liter of water. Spray to leaves and soil </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Calcium Deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Death of growing point </li></ul><ul><li> and die-back of main stem from tip; </li></ul><ul><li>die-back of leaves, progressing </li></ul><ul><li> from terminal leaflets </li></ul><ul><li> and of flower and fruiting trusses. </li></ul><ul><li>Defloration </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Sources/Solution: Calcium decoction </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Panfry 2 kilos of eggshells </li></ul><ul><li>until blackened </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cool and place in a </li></ul><ul><li>container (plastic or jar). Mix </li></ul><ul><li>with 5 gallons of coconut </li></ul><ul><li>vinegar without color. Cover </li></ul><ul><li>for 20 days </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mix 2 tablespoons of juice </li></ul><ul><li>to 1 liter of water. Sprinkle on plants, soil/compost </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Magnesium deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves yellow between veins </li></ul><ul><li>Source: compounds containing </li></ul><ul><li> magnesium (dolomite) </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>6. Boron deficiency symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal (end)/buds growing </li></ul><ul><li>point may die </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Browning of curd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of cauliflower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browning/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hollow stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of cauliflower </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>Hollow stem of broccoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollow petiole of celery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit/flower fall in bell pepper, beans </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Possible causes of nutrient deficiencies: </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient amount of available nutrient due to </li></ul><ul><li>chemical factors, ie. High soil pH n low soil test </li></ul><ul><li>Underdeveloped root system </li></ul><ul><li>cool, wet, dry, or compacted soil </li></ul><ul><li>Root injury </li></ul>
  33. 33. Why acid soils should be limed? <ul><li>To correct soil acidity </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic N-fixation by legumes is generally reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Highly acidic clay soils are less well aggregated </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of nutrients such as P and Mo is reduced </li></ul>
  34. 34. Benefits derived from liming the soil <ul><li>Corrects soil acidity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces aluminum and other metal (Mn. Fe, Cu) toxicities </li></ul><ul><li>Improves physical properties of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates microbial activity in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Increases availability of several nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>To control some soil borne diseases. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Why acid soils should be limed? </li></ul><ul><li>To correct soil acidity. Benguet soils grown with vegetables are acidic </li></ul><ul><li>Atok = 4.3 - 4.9 pH value </li></ul><ul><li>Buguias = 4.1 - 5.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Kabayan = 4.5 - 5.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Kapangan = 4.1 - 6.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Mankayan = 4.0 – 4.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Tublay = 4.0 - 4.3 </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>pH requirement of some crops grown in the Philippines </li></ul>Crop pH requirement Crop pH requirement Crop pH requirement Abaca 6-0-7.0 Coffee 4.5-7.0 Peanut 6.0-6.5 Amaplaya 6.0-6.7 Corn 5.3-7.3 Potato 4.8-6.5 Bean (baguio, lima, string 5.5-6.5 Ginger 6.0-6.8 Sweet Pepper 5.8-7.0 Cabbage 6.0-6.5 Lettuce 5.5-7.0 Sweet potato 5.0-7.0 Carrot 6.0-6.8 Pea (Garden pea, cow pea 6.0-7.5 5.5-7.0 Squash 5.5-7.0 Cauliflower 5.5-6.6 Okra 6.0-6.5 Tomato 5.5-6.5 Celery 6.0-7.0 Onion 5.8-6.5 Tobacco 5.5-6.5
  37. 37. <ul><li>Reduces aluminum and other metal (Mn. Fe, Cu) toxicities </li></ul>2008 (cabbage) 2009 (celery) Initial Final Initial Final Solid 1.25 1.03 1.09 1.11 Liquid 1.24 1.00 1.06 1.09 Control 1.31 1.01 1.22 1.27 Just before planting 1.24 1.01 1.06 1.06 One week before planting 1.25 1.00 1.04 1.09 Two weeks before planting 1.27 1.01 1.08 1.10 Three weeks before planting 1.17 1.02 1.06 1.06 Foure weeks before planting 1.20 1.04 1.06 1.08
  38. 38. <ul><li>Improves physical properties of the soil (Bulk density, g/m3) </li></ul>2009 2006 2008 Initial Final Solid 1.09 1.09 1.49 1.51 Liquid 1.07 1.02 1.49 1.50 Control 1.19 1.04 1.91 1.94 Just before planting 1.12 1.01 1.24 1.26 One week before planting 1.05 1.01 1.28 1.31 Two weeks before planting 1.03 1.01 1.48 1.58 Three weeks before planting 1.04 1.02 1.64 1.68 Four weeks before planting 1.05 0.99 1.35 1.38
  39. 39. <ul><li>To control some soil borne disease </li></ul><ul><li>Number of cabbage plants infested with clubroot as affected by the different rates of lime (Cabaling and Fagyan, 2001) </li></ul>Ton/hectare Irisan lime (Ca(OH)2) Mean/66 plants No lime 6.89 5.92 5.77 11.84 3.89 17.76 5.44
  40. 40. <ul><li>Neutralizing power of some liming materials in their pure form: </li></ul>Liming Material Neutralizing Power CaCO 3 – Calcite 100 Ca(OH) 2 – Hydrated lime 134 CaO – Burnt lime, quick lime 178 MgCO 3 .CaCO 3 – Dolomite 109 MgO 250 MgCO 3 119 Mg(OH) 2 172 Other sources: oyster shells, wood ash
  41. 41. <ul><li>How much Lime should be applied to raise the pH to 6.5 (Cabaling Jr. and Fagyan, 2001) </li></ul>Place found Initial pH Lime requirement t/ha Ca(OH) 2 Poblacion 4.4 5.92 Guioeng 4.3 8.88 Lo-o 4.1 11.84 Nan-agto 4.6 5.92 Nabalicong 5.6 Bayoyo 4.2 8.88 Sinipsip 4.4 8.88 Bangao 4.8 8.88 Akiki 4.2 11.84
  42. 42. <ul><li>Method s of lime application </li></ul><ul><li>One half of the recommended </li></ul><ul><li> rate could be applied </li></ul><ul><li>with ½ plowed under </li></ul><ul><li>and ½ harrowed </li></ul><ul><li>Lime should be mixed </li></ul><ul><li>uniformly with the surface </li></ul><ul><li>layer or plow layer </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Not a way of Lime application </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Lime should be applied at least a month before planting </li></ul>Final pH 2006 2008 (Quino and Fagyan) 2009(Compala) initial Final Solid 5.1 5.4 5.5 5.6 Liquid 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.7 No lime 4.6 4.5 4.7 5.3 Just before planting 4.7 5.2 5.4 5.8 One week before planting 4.9 5.4 5.6 5.8 Two weeks 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.6 Three weeks 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.6 Four weeks before planting 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7 INITIAL 4.6 5.7
  45. 45. Frequency of application <ul><li>The texture of the soil and the kind of lime influence the frequency of application </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy soils should be limed frequently, but in lighter amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Fine lime should be applied more often </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse lime which has slower reaction than fine-textured lime should be applied more often </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Detrimental influence of Liming </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce crop yield due to unavailability of nutrient elements </li></ul><ul><li>P fixation </li></ul>