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Chapter 6 Ecology: Preserve the Animal Kingdom


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Biological Science

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Chapter 6 Ecology: Preserve the Animal Kingdom

  1. 1. Preserving the Animal Kingdom
  2. 2. Ecology - is the study of the relationships of organisms to their environment and to other organism.
  3. 3. ANIMALS AND THEIR ABIOTIC ENVIRONMENT  Habitat – environment  biotic – all living  abiotic – nonliving  Tolerance range – animals live within a certain range of values  Range of optimum – a certain range of values within the tolerance range  Limiting factor – out of an animals tolerance range  Taxis – animal’s response to an abiotic factor  phototaxis – respond to light
  4. 4. Energy - ability to do work  Heterotrophic - other feeder  Autotrophic - organism carry on photosynthesis or other carbon – fixing activities that supply their food source  Energy budget -total energy intake and a description of how that energy is used and lost
  5. 5. Temperature - influences the rates of chemical reactions in animal cells ( metabolic rate ) and affects the animal’s overall activity.
  6. 6. Torpor - is a time of decreased metabolism and lowered body temperature
  7. 7. Hibernation - occurs in small mammals
  8. 8. Winter sleep - occurs in some larger animals
  9. 9. Aestivation - is period of inactivity in some animals that must withstand extended periods of drying
  10. 10. Other Abiotic Factors Moisture light Geology and soil
  11. 11. Populations - groups of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area at the same time and have unique attributes. POPULATION GROWTH  Type 1 (convex) - survive to an old age , then die rapidly  Type 2 (diagonal) - have constant probability of death throughout their lives  Type 3 (concave) - experience very high juvenile mortality
  12. 12.  Exponential growth - population increases by the same ratio per unit time  Environmental resistance  Carrying capacity - symbolized by K  Logistic population growth - growth curves assume a sigmoid, or flattened S, shape and the population growth
  13. 13. POPULATION REGULATION - the conditions that an animal must meet to survive are unique for every species. Population Density  Density – independent factors - influence the number of animals in a population without regard to the number of individuals  Density – dependent factors - more severe when population density is high ( or sometimes very low ) than they are at other densities.
  14. 14. Intraspecific Competition - competition among members of the same species INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS  Herbivory and predation  Interspecific competition  Coevolution  Symbiosis
  15. 15. - competition among members of the same species Intraspecific Competition
  16. 16. Herbivory and Predation Herbivores – animals that feed on plants Predators – feed by killing and eating organism
  17. 17. - when members of different species compete for resources Interspecific competition
  18. 18. - when species are competing for the same resource or during predator – prey interaction Coevolution
  19. 19. symbiosis - arising through coevolution come from two different species living in continuing, intimate associations *Parasitism *Commensalism *Mutualism
  20. 20. - which one organism lives in or on second organism called host Parasitism
  21. 21. Commensalism - which one member of the relationship benefits , and the second is neither helped or harm
  22. 22. - relationship that benefits both members Mutualism
  23. 23. Other Interspecific Adaptations  Camouflage - occurs when animal’s patterns help hide the animal  Cryptic coloration  Countershading *Aposematic coloration -when an animal shows to the predator their condition by conspicuous coloration.  Mimicry - when species resembles one, or sometimes more than one, other species and gains protection by the resemblance
  24. 24. - when animal takes on color patterns of environment to prevent the animal by seeing from other animals • Cryptic coloration
  25. 25. Countershading - common in frog and toad
  26. 26. Mimicry - species resembles one or more than one , other species and gains protection by the resemblance
  27. 27. Communities - all populations living in an area  Dominant species - species that are responsible for establishing community characteristic  Community (species) diversity/richness - characterized by the variety of species contain. THE ECOLOGICAL NICHE - includes all the attributes of an animal’s lifestyle
  28. 28. Community Stability  Succession -a process by which the dominant members of the community change a community in predictable ways  Pioneer community - the first community to become established in an area.  Seral stage  Sere  Climax community - usually have complex structure and high species diversity
  29. 29. Food Chain - sequence of organism through which energy moves in an ecosystem TROPHIC STRUCTURE OF ECOSYSTEM
  30. 30. - complexly interconnected food chains Food webs
  31. 31. *BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Cycling within Ecosystem  The flow of chemical elements and compounds between living organisms and the physical environment.
  32. 32. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS Ecological Problems - Known process that has negative effects on the sustainability of the environmental quality necessary for well being of organisms living in it. Human Population Growth Environmental Pollution Resource Depletion And Biodiversity
  33. 33. Human population growth - is the root of virtually all environmental problems - tend to grow exponentially
  34. 34. Environmental Pollution  defined as the undesirable change in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of our air, land and water Classification of environmental pollution  Pollution can be broadly classified according to the components of environment that are polluted. 1. Air Pollution  any imbalance in the ratio of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
  35. 35. Air Pollution Human Effects on Air pollution:  Affects respiratory system  Skin cancer  Damage to eyes and immune system
  36. 36. 2.Water Pollution Any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for use. Sources of water pollution:
  37. 37. Human Effects on Air Pollution:  Waterborne diseases (typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis, jaundice)  The presence of acids/alkalies in water destroys the microorganisms, thereby hindering a self-purification process in the rivers or water bodies.
  38. 38. 3.Soil Pollution(Land Degradation) Due to:  Deforestation  Dumping of solid wastes
  39. 39. RESOURCE DEPLETION AND BIODIVERSITY  Biodiversity - the variety of living organisms in an ecosystem
  40. 40.  The problems of threatened biodiversity have solutions, but none of the solution is quick and easy. 1. Money 2. Realization 3. International ethics