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Human computer interaction by Atheer

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Human computer interaction by Atheer

  1. 1. Human-Computer Interaction Abstract Human-computer interaction (HCI) is the study of how people design, implement, and use interactive computer systems and how computers affect individuals, organizations, and society. This encompasses not only ease of use but also new interaction techniques for supporting user tasks, providing better access to information, and creating more powerful forms of communication. Table of contents Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................1 Understanding human – computer interaction (HCI) .....................................................................................1 Computer ..........................................................................................................................................................1 Input devices for interactive use ...................................................................................................................1 Output display devices for interactive use:...................................................................................................1 Processing:....................................................................................................................................................1 Interaction.........................................................................................................................................................2 Human ..............................................................................................................................................................2 Information is stored in memory: .................................................................................................................2 Information is processed and applied: ..........................................................................................................2 Model Human Processor ..................................................................................................................................2 Physical considerations in HCI design .............................................................................................................3 Why Do We Need HCI? ...................................................................................................................................3 Goals.................................................................................................................................................................4 References ........................................................................................................................................................5 Cover page
  2. 2. Introduction human-computer interaction (HCI) is the learning of how persons interact with calculating technology.Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the plan, evaluation and execution of communicativecalculating systems for human usage and with the learning of main phenomena surrounding them. Olson (2003) stated that,one major area of work in the field focuses on the design of computer systems. The goal is to produce software and hardware that is useful, usable, and aesthetically pleasing. Understanding human–computerinteraction (HCI) According to Warren (2013), designing for HCI means ensuring system functionality and usability, providing effective user interaction support, and enhancing a pleasant user experience.Furthermore, theoverarching goal is to achieve both organizational and individual user effectiveness and efficiency. To reach these goals, managers and developers need to be knowledgeable about the interplay among users, tasks, task contexts, information technology (IT), and the environments in which systems are used. Computer According to Parmar (2013), a computer system comprises various elements, each of which affects the user of the system. Input devices for interactive use, allowing text entry, drawing and selection from the screen: • Text entry: traditional keyboard, phone text entry, speech and handwriting. • Pointing: principally the mouse, but also touch pad, stylus, and others. • 3D interaction devices. Output display devices for interactive use: • Different types of screen mostly using some form of bitmap display. • Large displays and situated displays for shared and public use. • Digital paper may be usable in the near future. Processing: • The effects when systems run too slow or too fast, the myth of the infinitely fast machine. • Limitations on processing speed. 1
  3. 3. • Networks and their impact on system performance. Interaction The communication between the user and the system. Their interaction framework has four parts: • User • Input • System • Output According to Blackwell (n.d.), human-computer interaction is concerned with the joint performance of tasks by humans and machines, the structure of communication between human and machine, human capabilities to use machines (including the learnability of interfaces), algorithms and programming of the interface itself; engineering concerns that arise in designing and building interfaces; the process of specification, design, and implementation of interfaces; and design tradeoffs. Human-computer interaction thus has science, engineering, and design aspects. Human According to Dix (1993), humans are limited in their capacity to process information. This has important implications fordesign. Information is received and responses given via a number of input and output channels: • Visual channel • Haptic channel • Auditory channel •Movement Information is stored in memory: • Sensory memory Information is processed and applied: • Reasoning • Short-term (working) memory • Problem solving • Long-term memory • Skill acquisition • Error Model Human Processor Developed and tested via numerous experimental studies The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction 2
  4. 4. A simple “computer” architecture: - Perceptual processor storage of signals from senses + brief memory - Cognitive processor Working memory Long-term memory (LTM) Think, analyses, recall from LTM, store in STM - Motor processormodel human processor Transmit signals to muscles etc.(Bechhofer,1983). Physical considerations in HCI design 1_Vision,Jacob (1991) mentioned that, as we learn to become a systems analyst, we are becoming accustomed to designing screens and reports for sighted people. The use of color, fonts, graphics, software, and PowerPoint presentations for displays and printed reports as input and output. 2_Hearing, Rogers(2004) stated that, humans also have limits to the amount of stress their senses can withstand. Noisy laser printers and phone conversations can lead to overload on human hearing. 3_Touch,Rogers(2004) argued that, when using an HCI perspective to evaluate the usefulness of keyboards and other input devices, we can rate the human–computer fit as well as the dimensions examining the human–computer–task fit. The choices of human–computer interfaces, such as keyboards, direct manipulation, using a stylus, a mouse, and touch screens. Why Do We Need HCI? • Software forgets • Software is inflexible • Software is lazy • Software blames and abuses users 3
  5. 5. • Software won’t take responsibility • Software will thwart your goals and ambition (Rogers, 2004) . Goals According to Ceperley(2013), the goals of HCI are to produce usable and safe system, as well as functional systems. In order to produce computer system with good usability, developer must attempt to: • Understand the factors that determines how people use technology • Develop tools and technique to enable building suitable system • Achieve efficient, effective and safe interaction • Put people first Human-computer interaction arose as a field from intertwined roots in computer graphics, operating systems, human factors, ergonomics, industrial engineering, cognitive psychology, and the systems part of computer science. Parmar (2013) stated that, computer graphics was born from the use of CRT and pen devices very early in the history of computers. This led to the development of several human-computer interaction techniques. According to Parmar (2013), work on operating systems, meanwhile, developed techniques for interfacing input/output devices, for tuning system response time to human interaction times, for multiprocessing, and for supporting windowing environments and animation. This trends of development has currently given rise to "user interface management systems" and "user interface toolkits". 4
  6. 6. References Bechhofer, S. (1983). Human computer interaction. May 17, 2013 Retrieved from, http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~seanb/teaching/COMP10092/COMP10092-HCI.pdf Blackwell, A. (n.d.). Human Computer Interaction. Cambridge Computer Science Tripos.May 17, 2013 Retrieved from, http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/teaching/1011/HCI/HCI2010.pdf Ceperley, D., Dandekar, S & Eddy, J. (2013). What is HCI?May 17, 2013 Retrieved from, http://repont.tcc.virginia.edu/classes/200r/projects/fall_1999/hci/overview.html Dix, A. J., et al. (2003). Human-computer interaction. May 17, 2013 Retrieved from, http://www.hcibook.com/hcibook/downloads/pdf/exercises.pdf. Fallman, D. (2003). Design-oriented human computer interaction. New Horizons, 5(1). JACOB, R. J. K. (1991). The use of eye movements in HCI techniques:What you look at is what you get. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9(3). Pp. 152- 169. Olson, G. M & Olson, J. S. (2003). Human-computer interaction: Psychological aspects of the human use of computing. Annual Reviews Psychology. 54:491–516. Parmar, D. (2013). Human computer interaction. May 17, 2013 Retrieved from, http://sit.iitkgp.ernet.in/research/aut04seminar1/5r.pdf Rogers, E. (2004).Introduction toHuman-Computer Interaction (HCI). RAS/IFRR Summer School on"Human-Robot Interaction".2004. Warren, P. (2013). Understanding HCI methodologies. May 17, 2013 Retrieved from, http://www.uml.org.cn/jiaohu/pdf/undertst.pdf 5

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