INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS SYNTAX Presented by Fifth Group: Atef Nur M Zahri Rohmah Nurhayati ENGLISH DEPARTMENT MATHLA’UL ANWAR UNIVERSITY 2011-2012
What is Syntax ? The study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. the study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is one of the major components of grammar.
Phrase and Clause Structure Phrase structure is a group of words that has particular meaning when used together, or a rules is a type of phrase structure grammar. Clause structure is a smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition and contains minimally a subject and a verb.
Examples English + book English Book ( Phrase) I (s) + study (v) I study (Clause)
Sentences Structure Sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, and express a complete idea. Sentence structure divided be four form sentences, such as simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound-complex sentence.
Examples I like apple. ( simple sentence ) I like apple. (simple sentence) I don’t like durian. (simple sentence) I like apple, but I don’t like durian. (compound sentence)
Deep structure vs. Surface structure Surface structure can be defined as the syntactic form they take as actual sentences. In the other word, it is forms of sentences resulted from modification/ transformation. Consider this sentences : You close the door. (Active) The door is closed by you. (Passive) Close the door ! (Imperative)
They seem to be identical, since they have the same undelying abstract representation that is called Deep structure. Example : S NP VP Pron V NP D N You Close the door 1 2 3 4