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A06 constitution and_new_republic


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A06 constitution and_new_republic

  2. 2. GUIDING QUESTIONSGUIDING QUESTIONS How and why did theHow and why did the Constitution replace theConstitution replace the Articles of Confederation?Articles of Confederation? To what extent was theTo what extent was the Constitution a radicalConstitution a radical departure from the Articles ofdeparture from the Articles of Confederation?Confederation?
  3. 3. Constitutional ConventionConstitutional Convention ““Founding Fathers”Founding Fathers” Virginia PlanVirginia Plan Great CompromiseGreat Compromise SlaverySlavery Three-FifthsThree-Fifths CompromiseCompromise Slave tradeSlave trade Fugitive SlavesFugitive Slaves IndependenceIndependence Hall, Phila-Hall, Phila- delphia in 1800delphia in 1800 "Scene at the Signing of"Scene at the Signing of the Constitution." Bythe Constitution." By Howard Chandler Christy.Howard Chandler Christy.
  4. 4. Features of the ConstitutionFeatures of the Constitution 1.1. Concern aboutConcern about Concentrated PowerConcentrated Power • ““Federal” systemFederal” system – Problem of sovereigntyProblem of sovereignty • Separation of powerSeparation of power • Checks and balancesChecks and balances
  5. 5. System of Checks and BalancesSystem of Checks and Balances
  6. 6. Features of the ConstitutionFeatures of the Constitution 2.2. Concern about the Power ofConcern about the Power of the Peoplethe People • ““filters”filters” • Electoral CollegeElectoral College ConstitutionConstitution LEGISLATIVELEGISLATIVE SenateSenate EXECUTIVEEXECUTIVE PresidentPresident JUDICIALJUDICIAL Supreme CourtSupreme Court HouseHouse
  7. 7. ARTICLES vs. THE CONSTITUTIONARTICLES vs. THE CONSTITUTION ARTICLESARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONOF CONFEDERATION CONSTITUTIONCONSTITUTION Sovereignty  Sovereignty   StatesStates PeoplePeople Representation of states Representation of states  EqualEqual Population & equalPopulation & equal Executive Executive  NoneNone PresidentPresident Federal courtsFederal courts NoneNone Supreme Ct & systemSupreme Ct & system Passing laws Passing laws  2/3 approval2/3 approval Majority ea. house + Pres.Majority ea. house + Pres. Amending documentAmending document UnanimousUnanimous 2/3 ea. House Congress +2/3 ea. House Congress + ¾ states¾ states Interstate commerceInterstate commerce (Regulation of trade)(Regulation of trade) No powerNo power CongressCongress Levying taxesLevying taxes States onlyStates only CongressCongress Raising an army Raising an army  StatesStates CongressCongress Disputes between states Disputes between states  StatesStates Supreme CourtSupreme Court
  8. 8. Ratification of the ConstitutionRatification of the Constitution & the Bill of Rights& the Bill of Rights RatificationRatification FederalistsFederalists Anti-FederalistsAnti-Federalists Federalist PapersFederalist Papers Bill of RightsBill of Rights Cover page fromCover page from The Federalist, 1788The Federalist, 1788
  9. 9. Ratification of the ConstitutionRatification of the Constitution
  10. 10. Votes of State Ratifying ConventionsVotes of State Ratifying Conventions
  11. 11. ANALYZING THEANALYZING THE CONSTITUTIONCONSTITUTION Did the Constitution reflect theDid the Constitution reflect the goals of the American Revolution?goals of the American Revolution? OR: Was it a counter-revolutionaryOR: Was it a counter-revolutionary document established to benefit thedocument established to benefit the traditional political and economictraditional political and economic elites?elites?
  12. 12. SHAPING THESHAPING THE NATIONALNATIONAL GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT How did George Washington andHow did George Washington and Alexander Hamilton set up a stableAlexander Hamilton set up a stable national government?national government?
  13. 13. TerritorialTerritorial Growth toGrowth to 17901790
  14. 14. SHAPING THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENTSHAPING THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT George WashingtonGeorge Washington The “indispensable man”The “indispensable man” Enormous statureEnormous stature Revolution, ConstitutionRevolution, Constitution ““virtue”virtue” Stayed above the frayStayed above the fray First President – precedentsFirst President – precedents Stature to office of PresidentStature to office of President CabinetCabinet (Hamilton, Jefferson)(Hamilton, Jefferson) Two termsTwo terms Restrained use of power:Restrained use of power: legislation; vetolegislation; veto Whiskey Rebellion (1794)Whiskey Rebellion (1794) George WashingtonGeorge Washington Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860), oil on canvas, 1795Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860), oil on canvas, 1795 National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian InstitutionNational Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
  15. 15. SHAPING THESHAPING THE NATIONALNATIONAL GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT Alexander HamiltonAlexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792 (Courtesy of Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette Collection of(Courtesy of Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette Collection of Americana)Americana)
  16. 16. Hamilton’s Financial PlanHamilton’s Financial Plan 1)1) “Funding the Debt”“Funding the Debt” – at face value– at face value ($50M)($50M) 2)2) Assumption of state debtsAssumption of state debts ($25M)($25M) 3)3) National BankNational Bank – (First) Bank of the United States– (First) Bank of the United States 4)4) High Protective TariffHigh Protective Tariff 5)5) Sources of Revenue:Sources of Revenue: tariff, public land sales, excise tax ontariff, public land sales, excise tax on whiskeywhiskey Purposes:Purposes: a)a) Place national gov’t on firm financial standing,Place national gov’t on firm financial standing, b)b) Give wealthy stake in success of new national gov’tGive wealthy stake in success of new national gov’t c)c) Promote growth of industrial activity and urban areasPromote growth of industrial activity and urban areas
  17. 17. Hamilton'sHamilton's FinancialFinancial StructureStructure SupportedSupported byby RevenuesRevenues
  18. 18. The DealThe Deal • Washington, D.C.Washington, D.C. PierrePierre L’Enfant’sL’Enfant’s plan forplan for Washington,Washington, D.C.D.C.
  20. 20. EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIESEMERGENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES How did differing views of what theHow did differing views of what the nation should become lead to thenation should become lead to the rise of America’s first politicalrise of America’s first political parties?parties?
  21. 21. Emergence Of Political PartiesEmergence Of Political Parties Founders’ dislike of partiesFounders’ dislike of parties Democratic-Republicans – usually “Republicans”Democratic-Republicans – usually “Republicans” FederalistsFederalists ““First Party System”:First Party System”: Feds & Reps (1790s-c. 1816)Feds & Reps (1790s-c. 1816)
  22. 22. International ProblemsInternational Problems War Between France andWar Between France and BritainBritain (1793-1815)(1793-1815) Jay’s TreatyJay’s Treaty (1795)(1795) Attacks on US shipsAttacks on US ships FortsForts TradeTrade Pinckney’s TreatyPinckney’s Treaty (1796)(1796) Washington’s FarewellWashington’s Farewell AddressAddress (Sept 1796)(Sept 1796)
  23. 23. International Issues Lead toInternational Issues Lead to Domestic DiscordDomestic Discord Election of 1796Election of 1796 John AdamsJohn Adams (Pres. 1797-1801)(Pres. 1797-1801) XYZ AffairXYZ Affair Quasi WarQuasi War with Francewith France (1797-1801)(1797-1801) Alien and Sedition ActsAlien and Sedition Acts (1798)(1798) Virginia and KentuckyVirginia and Kentucky ResolutionsResolutions (fall 1798)(fall 1798) John AdamsJohn Adams (Library of Congress)(Library of Congress)
  24. 24. Conflict in the Northwest Territory 1790-96Conflict in the Northwest Territory 1790-96
  25. 25. The Election of 1800The Election of 1800
  26. 26. SourcesSources Brinkley 10eBrinkley 10e ources/0030724791_ayers/maps/7.1.htmlources/0030724791_ayers/maps/7.1.html Faragher,Faragher, Out of ManyOut of Many, 3, 3rdrd Ed.;Ed.; Divine,Divine, America Past & PresentAmerica Past & Present 7e7e Henretta,Henretta, America’s HistoryAmerica’s History 5e from5e from Nash,Nash, The American PeopleThe American People 6e6e