Presented To: Sir Jahangir Akhtar Khan (Head of Electrical Engineering Department)
Group Members: Muhammad Imran (2006-EE-16) Ata-ul-Mustafa (2006-EE-17) Rana Muhammad Adeel (2006-EE-21) Muhammad Safdar (2006-EE-25)
Presentation Plan: Energy Power & Energy in Pakistan Solar Power Wind Power Nuclear Power Geothermal Power Tidal Power
Energy Energy is a property of every physicalsystem, describing its ability to performwork. When energy is released, it isconverted to either work (which impliesmotion of bodies or matter) or anotherform of energy such that the sum of work.
Forms of Energy: There are a lot of forms of energy existing inthis universe. Some of these are given below;Kinetic energyPotential energyThermal energyChemical energyRadiant energyNuclear energyElectrical energy
Energy may be;Renewable: Renewable energy resource is that to bereplaced rapidly by natural processes.Non-Renewable: Non-Renewable energy resource is that to be notreplaced or is replaced only very slowly by naturalprocesses.
There are lots of Alternatives Nuclear Solar Wind Geothermal Tidal Wave Hydroelectric Fuel
Energy Profile:The Country’s energy demand had grown at an annualconsumption growth rate of 4.8% in the past five yearsbut now it is expected to grow at 8 to 10% per annumtill the end of this decade.Most of power comes from oil and gas about 65% oftotal installed capacity. These resources are Non-Renewable, so we can’t trust on them any more.We need renewable and safe alternate resources.Pakistan has great potential for; - Wind (346,000 MW) - Solar (2.9 Million MW)
Description The sun is 150 million kilometers away and amazingly powerful. The Sun generates a large amount of energy due to a continuous thermonuclear fusion reaction occurring in its interior. In this interaction Hydrogen combine to form Helium and the excess energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The total energy emitted by the Sun per unit time (Solar luminosity) is L0 = 3.9x1026 Watts. In 1900, the photoelectric effect was discovered and in 1916, Millikan provided experimental proof of photoelectric effect.
Types of Solar cells/Panels There are basically three types of solar cells/ panels;Single Crystal Solar cell Polycrystalline Solar cell Amorphous Solar cell
Two main ways to harnessSolar Power1). Photovoltaic (PV) Technology: – It is the direct conversion of sun’s electromagnetic radiation into electricity.2). Concentrated Solar Power Technology: – Solar energy is concentrated and used to produce thermal energy. – This thermal energy heats water to make steam. – And then the steam is used to generate electricity.
1).Photovoltaic (PV) Technology: Sun’s light with energy greater than the band gap energy of Si (mostly used or other material from which the PV cell is formed) is absorbed. Energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice The energy excites the electron; it is free to move in the lattice without any resistance freely. A positive “hole” is left in the electron’s place This separation of electrons and holes creates a voltage and hence a current. Charge controller/voltage regulator regulates the charge. Batteries stores the energy. Inverter is used to convert electricity from DC to AC.
2). Solar Thermal (Concentrated Technology): On large scale use of solar power includes solar thermal technique, in which energy from sun is used to heat water and convert it into steam. This steam is then goes to generate electricity just as in fossil fuel or nuclear electric plants. Using solar technique, the electricity becomes 40% cheaper than from solar (photovoltaic) cell.
Solar Thermal (Concentrated)Technology: There are three kinds of concentrating solar power systems. This classification according to the way how they collect solar energy. Trough systems, Dish/engine systems Power tower systems.
Other Applications of SolarPower: The solar power technology has large potential and technical progress in daily use also, some examples are given below;1. Solar water heater (Geyser)2. Solar cooker3. Solar water desalination (Purification/water disinfector)4. Solar water pump5. Solar refrigeration unit6. Solar crop drying7. Solar space heating, ventilation & cooling.
Feasibility of Solar Power in Pakistan In Pakistan, about 70% of the population lives in some 50,000 villages dispersed around the country. Many of these villages are far from the main transmission lines of the national grid and, because of their relatively small populations. It is usually not economically viable to connect these villages to the grid. Solar energy, on the other hand, has excellent potential in areas of Pakistan that receive high levels of solar radiation throughout the year. Every day, for example, the country receives an average of about 19 Mega Joules per square metre of solar energy.
Feasibility of Solar (contd..) The maps show that minimum solar radiation is received in the North of Pakistan. Then it increases as we move southward and it reaches maximum in the center of Pakistan. After this solar radiation decreases slightly towards the coastal region. The Quetta Valley receives maximum solar radiation throughout the year. The nationwide average is 5.5 kwh/m2/day.
Alternate Energy Development ( Board (AEDB The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) had initiated SHS (Solar Home System) projects to provide villagers comforts of lighting, cooking and water disinfection through solar energy technologies. During the previous financial years, the Board has electrified 11 villages in all the provinces in the country. Village District Province No. of Village District Province No. of Name Houses Name HousesNarian Rawalpindi Punjab 53 Takht KalatKorian Rawalpindi Punjab 57 Balochistan 100 Killi Mama KillaAllah Baksh Macherzai SaifullaBazar Turbat Balochistan 121Dandar Basti Bugha D.G.Khan Punjab 100Lakhi bhair D.G.Khan Punjab 135 Pinpario Chachro Sindh 100Bharomal Chachro Sindh 115 Shnow Garri Kohat NWFP 100Jhanak Gujrat NWFP 120 Total 601 Total 400
SHS installed in Janak, NWFP SHS installed in Takht, BalochistanSHS installed in Shnow Garri,NWFP SHS installed in Bharomal, SindhSHS installed in Bugha Basti, Punjab Energy Savor installed in a house
AEDB (Future Plans) Based on success of this SHS program, the government had approved replication of this project in 400 villages in Balochistan(300) & Sindh(100) in next two years. Overall objective of this program is to develop technological and strategically implementation plan to electrify 6968 villages in Balochistan and 906 villages in Sindh (total of 7,874 villages) through Renewable Energy sources that are outside the 20 km radius of the national grid.
Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) On-going Projects (Solar): Solar Dryer with electric backup system for dehydration of apricots on commercial basis Community solar dryers for drying of dates Pilot project of rural electrification using solar energy Establishment of testing laboratory for photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal appliances and system Electrification of mosques and schools in remote rural areas through solar energy Pilot production of silicon solar cells and modules
PCRET (contd..) Future Plans (2005-10) (Photovoltaic): Electrification of 100 villages in remote areas using Solar Energy Electrification of 700 Mosques & Schools Provision of Solar refrigeration for Vaccine at Remote Rural Health Centers (500 units) Pilot project on solar electrification of street lights and traffic signals in urban areas (150 units)
Private Sector Pakistans First Solar Telenor Pakistan Powered Base Station Launches solar deployed by Warid powered repeater site Telecom