Slide3 europe


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Slide3 europe

  1. 1. EUROPEWorld Regional Geography
  2. 2. EUROPE IN GENERALNATURAL ENVIRONMENT Western coastal countries – oceanic temperate climate (mild winters and warm summers). From Norway to Spain.  Winter (-1ºC-4ºC), summer (15-27ºC) Mediterranean Sea coastland countries – subtropical winter rain climate.  Winter (4-10ºC), Summer (21-27ºC) Central and Eastern Europe – continental temperate climate (winter can be severe cold).
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Impacts on industrialization  The Industrial Revolution pollute major rivers.  Thames River of England revived only in the 1990s.  Acid pollution along Czech, Poland and East German (Black Triangle) Energy sources  Coal and oil caused great pollution. Global Environmental Action  Global effort to reduce pollution include Rio Earth Summit 1992 and Kyoto Protocol 1997. Mediterranean Sea  Pollution due to increase population growth crowding coastal location, industrialization and industrialization.
  4. 4. THE RISE OF EUROPEAN GLOBAL POWER Capitalism : free market origins of Mediterranean and western Europe. A practice of individual and corporations owning businesses and keeping profit. The Era of Colonialism and Imperialism : eg, Portuguese and Spanish discovered and conquered new lands. Industrial Revolution Mid 1700s From Great Britain  Netherlands Belgium Northern France  Western Germany Nationalism and Wars World War 1 in 1914 (war between European powers)
  5. 5.  AFTER 1945  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).  The cooperation between noncommunist nations (Western, Northern and Mediterranean) NATO in 1949.  Later established European Economic Community (EEC) now known as European Union (EU).
  6. 6. SUBREGION I: WESTERN EUROPE Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Republic of Ireland, Switzerland, United Kingdom. France & U.K : most powerful countries. Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg : the low countries (below sea level). Austria, Switzerland & Liechtenstein: Alpine countries. Germany : younger nation-state, existed 1871. Was divided into West & East Germany.
  7. 7. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTii. Sophisticated manufacturing; a) Automobile, example:  French – Renault, Peugeot-Citroen  Italian – Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini  Swedish – Volvo, Saab  German – Volkswagen, Porsche, BMW, Audi, Daimler-Benz (Merc)  British – Rolls Royce, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Bentley, MG Rover c) Airplane – Airbuss Service Industries  Producer services – market research, advertising, accounting, legal, banking, insurance.
  8. 8. SUBREGION II: NORTHERN EUROPE Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden. (SCANDINAVIAN) Sweden: the largest and strongest. Denmark :  although the smallest but has strong global connections.  Most parts are inhibited.  Rely mostly on fishing. Norway:  mountainous country.  Known for “VIKING” heritage.  Discovered oil and gas in the 1970s.
  9. 9. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Four (4) largest Scandinavian countries: Sweden is the most industrialized u Finland is known for new industries like Nokia w Denmark is known for its high tech industries s Norway is known for its oil and gas
  10. 10.  Sweden – the most industrialized in Northern Europe  SKF, Ericsson, ABB  Automobile VOLVO, SAAB  Service sector: financial, educational, medical services  Sawmill industry Finland  Nokia  Glassware, metal, machinery, shipbuilding Denmark – major agriculture country  dairy & livestock products  LEGO toy  Fishing (largest in EU)  Timber, mining industries Norway  Fishing and shipping
  11. 11. SUBREGION III: MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE Four large : Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain. Five small : Andorra, Monaco, Vatican City, San Marino, Malta
  12. 12. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT3) Agriculture  Olive  Grapes  Citrus Fruits and figs  Grains for pasta  Portugal is the world’s largest cork producer5) Tourism  Italy & Spain : 40-50 million tourist per year  Portugal & Greece :12-13 million tourist per year.  Venice : more tourist than residents  Face problem due to the rising of sea level.
  13. 13. SUBREGION IV: EAST CENTRAL EUROPEAlbania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Macedonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia. Least developed compared to other subregions. Communism. Breakup of “Yugoslavia” later known as Serbia and Montenegro. Ethnic tension – war and massive human rights violations.  Ethnic cleansing  Genocidal rape
  14. 14. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT After WWII – imposed communist economic policies. Under Soviet control till 1989 Agriculture Later industrialised Joseph Stalin insisted on specialization  Northern part focuses on industry  Southern part focuses on agriculture After 1989 adopts capitalist practices (Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Baltic countries)
  15. 15. THE END