EUROPE IN GENERALNATURAL ENVIRONMENT Western coastal countries – oceanic temperate climate (mild winters and warm summers). From Norway to Spain. Winter (-1ºC-4ºC), summer (15-27ºC) Mediterranean Sea coastland countries – subtropical winter rain climate. Winter (4-10ºC), Summer (21-27ºC) Central and Eastern Europe – continental temperate climate (winter can be severe cold).
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Impacts on industrialization The Industrial Revolution pollute major rivers. Thames River of England revived only in the 1990s. Acid pollution along Czech, Poland and East German (Black Triangle) Energy sources Coal and oil caused great pollution. Global Environmental Action Global effort to reduce pollution include Rio Earth Summit 1992 and Kyoto Protocol 1997. Mediterranean Sea Pollution due to increase population growth crowding coastal location, industrialization and industrialization.
THE RISE OF EUROPEAN GLOBAL POWER Capitalism : free market origins of Mediterranean and western Europe. A practice of individual and corporations owning businesses and keeping profit. The Era of Colonialism and Imperialism : eg, Portuguese and Spanish discovered and conquered new lands. Industrial Revolution Mid 1700s From Great Britain Netherlands Belgium Northern France Western Germany Nationalism and Wars World War 1 in 1914 (war between European powers)
AFTER 1945 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The cooperation between noncommunist nations (Western, Northern and Mediterranean) NATO in 1949. Later established European Economic Community (EEC) now known as European Union (EU).
SUBREGION I: WESTERN EUROPE Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Republic of Ireland, Switzerland, United Kingdom. France & U.K : most powerful countries. Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg : the low countries (below sea level). Austria, Switzerland & Liechtenstein: Alpine countries. Germany : younger nation-state, existed 1871. Was divided into West & East Germany.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTii. Sophisticated manufacturing; a) Automobile, example: French – Renault, Peugeot-Citroen Italian – Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini Swedish – Volvo, Saab German – Volkswagen, Porsche, BMW, Audi, Daimler-Benz (Merc) British – Rolls Royce, Jaguar, Aston Martin, Bentley, MG Rover c) Airplane – Airbuss Service Industries Producer services – market research, advertising, accounting, legal, banking, insurance.
SUBREGION II: NORTHERN EUROPE Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden. (SCANDINAVIAN) Sweden: the largest and strongest. Denmark : although the smallest but has strong global connections. Most parts are inhibited. Rely mostly on fishing. Norway: mountainous country. Known for “VIKING” heritage. Discovered oil and gas in the 1970s.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Four (4) largest Scandinavian countries: Sweden is the most industrialized u Finland is known for new industries like Nokia w Denmark is known for its high tech industries s Norway is known for its oil and gas
Sweden – the most industrialized in Northern Europe SKF, Ericsson, ABB Automobile VOLVO, SAAB Service sector: financial, educational, medical services Sawmill industry Finland Nokia Glassware, metal, machinery, shipbuilding Denmark – major agriculture country dairy & livestock products LEGO toy Fishing (largest in EU) Timber, mining industries Norway Fishing and shipping
SUBREGION III: MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE Four large : Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain. Five small : Andorra, Monaco, Vatican City, San Marino, Malta
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT3) Agriculture Olive Grapes Citrus Fruits and figs Grains for pasta Portugal is the world’s largest cork producer5) Tourism Italy & Spain : 40-50 million tourist per year Portugal & Greece :12-13 million tourist per year. Venice : more tourist than residents Face problem due to the rising of sea level.
SUBREGION IV: EAST CENTRAL EUROPEAlbania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Macedonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia. Least developed compared to other subregions. Communism. Breakup of “Yugoslavia” later known as Serbia and Montenegro. Ethnic tension – war and massive human rights violations. Ethnic cleansing Genocidal rape
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT After WWII – imposed communist economic policies. Under Soviet control till 1989 Agriculture Later industrialised Joseph Stalin insisted on specialization Northern part focuses on industry Southern part focuses on agriculture After 1989 adopts capitalist practices (Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Baltic countries)