Rocket City Rising <ul><li>Huntsville & the Early Space Race, 1940-1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Waring  </li></ul><ul><u...
Textile Town <ul><li>Huntsville  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13,150 pop. 1940 </li></ul></ul>
Redstone Arsenal
Keller Motors <ul><li>1948-1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Redstone Bldg. 481  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(now 4471)  </li></ul></ul><ul...
 
“ Watercress Capital of the World”
German Army Missilery
US Army Missilery <ul><li>Operation Paperclip, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Hermes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fort Bliss/Whit...
Cold War
Cold War <ul><li>Spring 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R-1 launch (Soviet V-2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aug. 1949 </li></ul><ul>...
Militarization <ul><li>Apr. 14 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NSC-68 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ko...
Army Missilery <ul><li>Apr. 1949 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocketry begins at Redstone Arsenal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oct. 194...
Army Missilery  <ul><li>Organizational features </li></ul><ul><li>State factory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German:  “everything...
Army Missilery <ul><li>Wernher von Braun  </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter </li></ul><ul><li>Collier’s  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ...
Soviets in Space <ul><li>Aug. 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R-7, 1 st  Soviet ICBM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oct. 1957 </li></ul...
Army in Space <ul><li>Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter-C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redston...
Army in Space <ul><li>Dec. 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanguard delays & failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flopnik, Stayputnik...
Army in Space <ul><li>Jan. 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explorer 1 by Juno-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter-C  + 4 th  s...
Soviet Progress <ul><li>1958-1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 more Sputniks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1959 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Army to NASA <ul><li>Oct. 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Army & NASA compete for ABMA </li></ul><...
Politics of Space <ul><li>Eisenhower  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan. 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We must guard against t...
Race to Moon <ul><li>Apr. 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK...
Saturn Boom <ul><li>HSV population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13,150 in 1940  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16,437 in 1950 </li></...
“ Space Reconstruction” <ul><li>African-Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18% HSV pop.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% Marsha...
Thank You! <ul><li>[email_address]   </li></ul><ul><li>Dunar & Waring’s book,  Power to Explore: MSFC, 1960-1990 </li></ul...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Rocket City Rising: Huntsville & the Early Space Race, 1940-1963

1,803 views

Published on

Presentation by Stephen Waring (University of Alabama in Huntsville) at the Von Braun Memorial Symposium in Huntsville, Alabama, 22 October 2008.

<a href="http://astronautical.org/vonbraun/vonbraun-2008/session3">http://astronautical.org/vonbraun/vonbraun-2008/session3</a>

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,803
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
18
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Rocket City Rising: Huntsville & the Early Space Race, 1940-1963

    1. 1. Rocket City Rising <ul><li>Huntsville & the Early Space Race, 1940-1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Waring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UAHuntsville </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Textile Town <ul><li>Huntsville </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13,150 pop. 1940 </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Redstone Arsenal
    4. 4. Keller Motors <ul><li>1948-1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Redstone Bldg. 481 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(now 4471) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Super Chief” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 “woodies” </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. “ Watercress Capital of the World”
    6. 7. German Army Missilery
    7. 8. US Army Missilery <ul><li>Operation Paperclip, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Hermes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fort Bliss/White Sands, NM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1946-54 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>58 V-2 flights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bumper, 2-stage V-2 </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Cold War
    9. 10. Cold War <ul><li>Spring 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R-1 launch (Soviet V-2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aug. 1949 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joe-1, Soviet A-bomb </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Militarization <ul><li>Apr. 14 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NSC-68 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1910-1930: 1% of GNP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960: 10% of GNP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 of 7 jobs in military-industrial complex </li></ul>
    11. 12. Army Missilery <ul><li>Apr. 1949 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocketry begins at Redstone Arsenal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oct. 1949 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send White Sands team to HSV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apr. 1 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrival White Sands team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July 1950 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redstone project begins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>June 1951 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 workers on arsenal </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Army Missilery <ul><li>Organizational features </li></ul><ul><li>State factory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German: “everything-under-one-roof” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US: “arsenal system” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GI Bill engineers & scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue-collar artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contractors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incl. Thiokol, Chrysler, Rocketdyne/North American Aviation </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Army Missilery <ul><li>Wernher von Braun </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter </li></ul><ul><li>Collier’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Man will Conquer Space Soon” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1952-1954 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disney shows 1955-1957 </li></ul>
    14. 15. Soviets in Space <ul><li>Aug. 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R-7, 1 st Soviet ICBM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oct. 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sputnik </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nov. 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laika </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Army in Space <ul><li>Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter-C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redstone & two upper stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aug. 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nose cone into space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Defense restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy’s Vanguard </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Army in Space <ul><li>Dec. 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanguard delays & failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flopnik, Stayputnik </li></ul><ul><li>ABMA go-ahead </li></ul>
    17. 18. Army in Space <ul><li>Jan. 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explorer 1 by Juno-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter-C + 4 th stage </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Soviet Progress <ul><li>1958-1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 more Sputniks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1959 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Luna to moon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mar. 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mannequin test flight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apr. 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yuri Gagarin sub-orbital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aug. 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vostok 2–days in orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oct. 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ivan, 58 megaton bomb </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Army to NASA <ul><li>Oct. 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Army & NASA compete for ABMA </li></ul><ul><li>ABMA contractor to NASA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>July 1960 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABMA transfer to NASA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mercury-Redstone, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 sub-orbital flights, Dec. 1960-July 1961 </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Politics of Space <ul><li>Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan. 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared “scientific-technological elite” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later said he was thinking of von Braun (& E. Teller) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960 Election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK vs. Nixon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ missile gap” </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Race to Moon <ul><li>Apr. 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK to Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Saturn Boom <ul><li>HSV population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13,150 in 1940 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16,437 in 1950 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>72,365 in 1960 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>143,700 in 1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HSV growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1945 - 12 industries & 3,500 homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1964 - over 40 industries & 30,000 homes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HSV per capita income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of national average in 1960 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% in 1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural changes </li></ul>
    23. 24. “ Space Reconstruction” <ul><li>African-Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18% HSV pop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% Marshall labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gov. Geo. Wallace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Schoolhouse door,” June 11, 1963 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White House to HSV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desegregate! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governor, would you like to go to the moon? </li></ul><ul><li>GW: “well, you guys might not bring me back!” </li></ul><ul><li>More impact on HSV culture than MSFC labor force </li></ul>
    24. 25. Thank You! <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Dunar & Waring’s book, Power to Explore: MSFC, 1960-1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free online: history.msfc.nasa.gov </li></ul></ul>

    ×