Investments in the Future: NASA's Technology Programs


Published on

Robert D. Braun, 2010 American Astronautical Society Goddard Memorial Symposium

Published in: Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Investments in the Future: NASA's Technology Programs

  1. 1. Investments in the Future: <br />NASA’s Technology Programs<br />Robert D. Braun<br />NASA Chief Technologist<br />March 11, 2010<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />NASA Innovation and Technology Initiative<br />NASA Office of the Chief Technologist<br />Space Technology Program<br />Technology Integration<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Augustine Committee Input<br />In 2009, the Augustine Committee strongly endorsed increased investment in innovative technologies and approaches to achieving broadly defined NASA and national goals<br />This technology and innovation investment was included in all new Program Options suggested by the Augustine Committee <br />The Committee strongly believes it is time for NASA to reassume its crucial role of developing new technologies for space. Today, the alternatives available for exploration systems are severely limited because of the lack of a strategic investment in technology development in past decades. NASA now has an opportunity to develop a technology roadmap that is aligned with an exploration mission that will last for decades. If appropriately funded, a technology development program would re-engage the minds at American universities, in industry and within NASA. The investments should be designed to increase the capabilities and reduce the costs of future exploration. This will benefit human and robotic exploration, the commercial space community, and other U.S. government users.<br />3<br /><br />*Underline highlight added. <br />
  4. 4. Recent NRC Recommendations (1 of 2)<br />In 2009, the NRC report “America’s Future in Space” specifically speaks to this issue in one of its six key recommendations: <br />4. Advanced space technology. NASA should revitalize its advanced technology development program by establishing a DARPA-like organization within NASA as a priority mission area to support preeminent civil, national security (if dual-use), and commercial space programs. The resulting program should:<br />a. Be organizationally independent of major development programs;<br />b. Serve all civil space customers, including the commercial sector;<br />c. Conduct an extensive assessment of the current state and potential of civil space technology; and<br />d. Conduct cutting-edge fundamental research in support of the nation’s space technology base.<br />4<br /><br />*Underline highlight added. <br />
  5. 5. Recent NRC Recommendations (2 of 2)<br />In 2009, the Congressionally mandated NRC report “Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts” also speaks to this issue: <br />Key Recommendations:<br /><ul><li>NASA should reestablish a NIAC-like entity (“NIAC2”)…to seek out visionary, far-reaching, advanced concepts with the potential of significant benefit to accomplishing NASA’s charter and to begin the process of maturing these advanced concepts for infusion into NASA’s missions
  6. 6. NIAC2 should report to the Office of the Administrator, be outside mission directorates, and be chartered to address NASA-wide mission and technology needs. To increase NIAC2’s relevance, NASA mission directorates should contribute thematic areas for consideration. The committee also recommends that a NIAC2 organization should be funded and administered separately from NASA development programs, mission directorates, and institutional constraints.
  7. 7. Future NIAC2 proposal opportunities be open to principal investigators or teams both internal and external to NASA</li></ul>*Underline highlight added. <br /><br />5<br />
  8. 8. NASA Innovation Initiative Goals*<br /><ul><li>Revitalize NASA as a preeminent R&D organization through significant investment in longer term technical or process innovations
  9. 9. Encourage innovative application of NASA capabilities to address broader national needs such as energy, weather and climate, Earth science, health and wellness, national security, and STEM education
  10. 10. Stimulate a vibrant commercial space sector through helping to create new types of engagement, creation of new markets, and investments in future technologies
  11. 11. Generate excitement about NASA’s work by investing in a large number of highly creative activities with potential for disruptive breakthroughs
  12. 12. Provide exciting hands-on work for students and new employees</li></ul>*Internal NASA assessment in Summer/Fall 2009<br />6<br />
  13. 13. Why Invest in Technology & Innovation?<br />Many positive outcomes are likely from a long-term NASA advanced concepts & broad technology development program with mission-focused, crosscutting, game-changing and early-stage innovation components.<br />A more vital and productive aeronautics and space future than our country has today <br />A means to focus NASA intellectual capital on significant national needs<br />A spark to a technology-based economy<br />An international symbol of our country’s scientific and technological leadership<br />A motivation for many of the country’s best young minds to pursue educational programs and careers in engineering and science<br />While these efforts are high risk and not all will succeed, when taken in total, the benefits will be significant for NASA and the Nation. <br />Individual project failure must be acceptable for innovation to flourish<br />We must develop a program that extracts knowledge even in cases of failure<br />Consider the following examples:<br />Mars Pathfinder<br />Orion Thermal Protection System Development<br />Human Mars exploration<br />Bloom Energy<br />7<br />
  14. 14. 8<br />
  15. 15. Planetary Exploration Flight Projects<br />In Development Within 2 Years of Mars Pathfinder Landing<br />9<br />
  16. 16. Direct Results of the Orion TPS ADP<br />PICA<br />Competitive materials R&D resulted in multiple viable materials & systems <br />ACC<br />TPS ADP arcjet tests revealed catastrophic failure mode of initial MSL TPS <br />3DQP<br />Avcoat: Selected for the Orion<br />Avcoat<br />PhenCarb<br />MSL shifts to a new TPS ADP <br />developed TPS material <br />PICA: Selected for MSL & Dragon<br /><ul><li>New NASA TPS experts
  17. 17. Multiple TPS firms
  18. 18. Large scale manufacturing
  19. 19. TRL = 5-6 ablative TPS
  20. 20. Promising new TPS concepts
  21. 21. Technology transfer to commercial space industry</li></ul>Large article arcjet testing demonstrated during TPS ADP is now a necessary TPS tool<br />10<br />
  22. 22. The Value of Technology InvestmentsMars Mission Example<br />Notes:<br /><ul><li>Approximate results only.
  23. 23. Further assessments required.
  24. 24. Results are cumulative and thus dependent on combinations/sequences of technologies applied
  25. 25. The change between points shows the relative mass savings for that particular technology</li></ul>14<br />Improved Cryogenic Boil-off<br />12<br />Cargo Aerocapture at Mars<br />10<br />Advanced Propulsion<br />Closed-Loop Life Support<br />8<br />ISRU Propellants<br />Normalized Mass Savings<br />Nuclear Surface Power<br />6<br />Maintenance & Spares<br />Advanced Avionics<br />DRA 5.0 Reference<br />4<br />ISS at Assembly Complete<br />2<br />Without technology investments, the mass required to initiate a human Mars mission in LEO is approximately eight times the mass of the International Space Station<br />Technology investments of the type proposed in the FY 2011 budget are required to put such a mission within reach<br />11<br />
  26. 26. Nine Years after NASA Mars Oxygen Generator Development……<br />12<br />Space technology modified to generate clean power at Ebay Headquarters in San Jose, CA. Similar fuel cell systems deployed at five other customer sites. Image from<br />Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Described<br />
  27. 27. National Aeronautics and Space Administration<br />Office of the Administrator<br />Chief Financial Officer*<br />Chief Scientist<br />Advisory Groups<br />NAC ASAP<br />Chief Information Officer*<br />Inspector General<br />Chief Technologist<br />Diversity and Equal Employment Opportunity<br />Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs*<br />Chief, Safety and Mission Assurance<br />Chief Engineer<br />Independent Program and Cost Evaluation<br />Chief Health and Medical Officer<br />Education<br />Office of Communications*<br />International and Interagency Affairs<br />Small Business Programs<br />General Counsel<br />Science Mission Directorate<br />Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate<br />Mission Support Directorate<br />Johnson Space Center<br />Ames Research Center<br />Kennedy Space Center<br />Dryden Flight Research Center<br />Space Operations Mission Directorate<br />Exploration Systems Mission Directorate<br />Budget Management and Systems Support<br />Internal Controls and Management Systems<br />Langley Research Center<br />Glenn Research Center<br />NASA Shared Services Center<br />Headquarters Operations<br />Marshall Space Flight Center<br />Goddard Space Flight Center<br />Program and Institutional Integration<br />Human Capital Management<br />Stennis Space Center<br />Jet Propulsion Laboratory<br />Note: <br />* Center functional office directors report to Agency functional AA. Deputy and below report to Center leadership. <br />Infrastructure<br />Procurement<br />11/13/09<br />February 22, 2010<br />Protective Services <br />
  28. 28. Office of Chief TechnologistRoles/Responsibilities<br />OCT has six main goals and responsibilities:<br />Principal NASA advisor and advocate on matters concerning Agency-wide technology policy and programs.<br />Up and out advocacy for NASA research and technology programs. Communication and integration with other Agency technology efforts.<br />Direct management of Space Technology program.<br />Coordination of technology investments across the Agency, including the mission-focused investments made by the NASA mission directorates. Perform strategic technology integration.<br />Change culture towards creativity and innovation at NASA Centers, particularly in regard to workforce development.<br />Document/demonstrate/communicate societal impact of NASA technology investments. Lead technology transfer and commercialization opportunities across Agency.<br />14<br /><ul><li> Mission Directorates continue to manage mission-focused technology for directorate missions and future needs
  29. 29. Beginning in FY 2011, activities associated with the Innovative Partnerships Program are integrated into the Office of the Chief Technologist</li></li></ul><li>NASA Office of the Chief Technologist<br />HQ – Overall Program Management<br />Chief Technologist (CT)<br />Deputy CT<br />Financial Management<br />Partnership Development<br />Strategic Integration<br />Communications<br />Early-Stage Innovation<br />Game Changing Technology<br />Crosscutting<br />Capability Demonstrations<br />Space Tech Research Grants<br />NIAC2<br />SBIR/STTR<br />Centennial Challenges<br />Center Innovation Fund<br />Technology Demonstrations<br />Edison Small Sat Missions<br />Flight Opportunities<br />Game-Changing Development<br />Small Sat Technologies<br />Management & Implementation<br />Management & Implementation<br />Management & Implementation<br />Flight Demos, <br />Projects / Activities<br />Projects / Activities<br />Projects / Activities<br />Centers - Project Implementation<br />15<br />
  30. 30. The Space Technology Program shall advance non-mission-focused technology currently at low-to-mid Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), in some cases to flight-ready status.<br />The Space Technology Program shall meet the Nation’s needs for new technologies to support future NASA missions in science and exploration, as well as the needs of other government agencies and the Nation’s space industry in a manner similar to the way NACA aided the early aeronautics industry. There shall be multiple customers for Space Technology program products.<br />The Space Technology Program shall employ a portfolio approach to innovation that ensures opportunities for technology investment and maturation over the entire TRL spectrum.<br />The Space Technology Program shall sponsor research in academia, industry, and NASA field Centers based on the quality of research proposed at those institutions and in a manner that supports competition and balance. <br />16<br />NASA Space TechnologyFoundational Principles<br />
  31. 31. NASA Space Technology Program Elements<br />Early-Stage Innovation: Creative ideas regarding future NASA systems and/or solutions to national needs.<br />Game Changing Technology: Prove feasibility of novel, early-stage idea that has potential to revolutionize a future NASA mission and/or fulfill national need.<br />Crosscutting Capability Demonstration: Maturation to flight readiness of cross-cutting capabilities that advance multiple future space missions, including flight test projects where in-space demonstration is needed before the capability can transition to direct mission application.<br />17<br />*Both competitive and guided program approaches will be used in the Game Changing Technology and Crosscutting Capability Demonstration program elements. The Early-Stage Innovation program element will be entirely competed. <br />
  32. 32. NASA Space TechnologyProgram Elements<br />TRL<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />Early-Stage Innovation<br /><ul><li> System Concepts and Analyses
  33. 33. Foundational Disciplinary Advances
  34. 34. Technology Enablers
  35. 35. Benefits/Feasibility Assessments</li></ul>Game-Changing Technology<br /><ul><li> New Capabilities </li></ul> (Systems & Subsystems, Not Components)<br /><ul><li> Large Scale
  36. 36. Quantitative Performance
  37. 37. Hardware Validation
  38. 38. Risk Results in Moderate Failure Rate</li></ul>Crosscutting Capability Demo.<br /><ul><li> Relevant Environment Testing
  39. 39. 7120 Flight Processes
  40. 40. Not Mission Specific Technology
  41. 41. 25% Cost Share Req. for Flight Tests</li></li></ul><li>NASA Space Technology Program<br />TRL<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />Visions of the Future<br />Possible<br />Solution<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Is it Flight-Ready?<br />Does it WORK?<br />Idea<br />Possible<br />Solution<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Mission Directorates, OGAs, Industry<br />Idea<br />Possible<br />Solution<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Possible<br />Solution<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Possible<br />Solution<br />Idea<br />Early-Stage Innovation<br />Game-Changing Technology<br />Cross-cutting Capabilities<br />
  42. 42. Future Space Technology Innovations?<br />Inflatable Structures<br />Power Beaming<br />Aluminum-icenanopropellant<br />Spacecraft Swarms<br />
  43. 43. ESMD: Blazing a Trail Into the Solar System<br />NASA’s human spaceflight program seeks to extend human presence throughout the solar system<br />The President's FY2011 Budget Request takes a new approach to this goal, focusing on capabilities that will allow us to reach multiple destinations, including the Moon, Asteroids, Lagrange points, and Mars and its moons<br />The investments seek to create the new knowledge and capabilities required for humans to venture beyond low Earth orbit to stay<br />Approach expands alternatives available for human exploration, currently limited by lack of strategic investment in technology development over past decades<br />21<br />
  44. 44. New Exploration Research & Development Activities<br />Exploration Technology and Demonstrations<br />Develop and demonstrate technologies to reduce costs and expand capabilities for future exploration <br />Heavy-Lift and Propulsion Technology<br />Research and development of new cost-effective propulsion systems, engines, LV materials, etc.<br />Exploration Precursor Robotic Missions<br />Scout exploration targets, identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation <br />22<br />
  45. 45. Enabling Technology Development & Demonstration<br />Human-robotic partnerships<br />Autonomous Landing<br />In Situ Resource Utilization<br />
  46. 46. ESMD Flagship Technology Demonstrations<br /><ul><li>Evaluation underway of highest leverage demonstrations; Mars destination is a driving case for high leverage demonstration and technology
  47. 47. First three primary technology targets for single or combined missions to include:
  48. 48. In-orbit propellant transfer and storage
  49. 49. Lightweight/inflatable modules
  50. 50. Automated/autonomous rendezvous and docking
  51. 51. Fourth flight program such as
  52. 52. Aerocapture/entry, descent and landing
  53. 53. Advanced life support
  54. 54. Advanced in-space propulsion (ion/plasma, etc)
  55. 55. Initiate four technology demonstrations in FY2011
  56. 56. Follow-on demonstrations informed by emerging technologies
  57. 57. Identify potential partnerships with industry, other agencies, and international partners and leverage ISS for technology demonstrations, as appropriate</li></li></ul><li>Relationship with Mission Directorate Technology Programs (e.g., ESMD)<br />…to Support Mission-Specific Technology Needs. <br />Developing Technologies with Broad Applicability…<br />Mission Development<br />9<br />8<br />7<br />Technology Pull<br />TRL<br />6<br />Crosscutting Capability Demonstrations<br />Mission <br />Focused <br />Development &<br />Demonstrations<br />6<br />5<br />5<br />Technology Push<br />4<br />Game-Changing Technology<br />4<br />3<br />3<br />Early-Stage<br />Innovation<br />2<br />TRL<br />1<br />
  58. 58. Summary<br />NASA as a Major Component of our Nation’s Innovation Engine:<br />America’s economic competitiveness and high standard of living are based on decades of investment in innovation <br />Investment in innovation in NASA communities will drive a sustainable, yet aggressive, future mission portfolio<br />Innovative research and technology, tied to exciting missions with national importance, is a strong motivator for students in STEM disciplines, and a strong attraction for new hires<br />This investment will also allow NASA to participate in the development of technological solutions addressing broader National needs in energy, weather & climate, Earth science, health & wellness, and National security<br />NASA’s focus on innovation and technology will:<br />Be responsive to Augustine and NRC input<br />Position NASA for human exploration beyond low earth orbit<br />Be highly engaging of our academic and industrial partners, and the emerging commercial space sector<br />Leverage efforts of other government agencies and international partners<br />Result in new inventions, new capabilities and creation of a pipeline of innovators trained to serve future national needs<br />26<br />