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Astronauts and Robots 2015: John Grunsfeld, NASA

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American Astronautical Society, Astronauts and Robots: Partners in Space Exploration, May 12-13, 2015 - http://astronautical.org/event/astronauts-robots

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Astronauts and Robots 2015: John Grunsfeld, NASA

  1. 1. John M. Grunsfeld Associate Administrator Science Mission Directorate @SciAstro Journey to Mars Humans and Robots
  2. 2. Innovate Explore Discover Inspire www.nasa.gov Our Mission:
  3. 3. NASA Science is Interconnected
  4. 4. Question: Does the increase in dexterity and intelligence merit the cost of being onsite for science exploration, and if so how do we best combine the strengths of humans and robots?
  5. 5. Flashback: 2002
  6. 6. Section 2 CB/John Grunsfeld Exploration Blueprint NASA Internal use only 29-Oct-02 Creativity Decision making Which rock to collect Connection to humans/home, vicarious space travel Feedback and redirection Adaptability in real time Human intuition/insight Intelligent exploration Outreach Inspiration Human Advantage
  7. 7. Section 2 CB/John Grunsfeld Exploration Blueprint NASA Internal use only 29-Oct-02 Human Advantage Situation awareness Communicate in human language Dexterity and adaptable dexterity Upgrading Repairing Survival Pattern recognition Expect the unexpected Human anticipation
  8. 8. Section 2 CB/John Grunsfeld Exploration Blueprint NASA Internal use only 29-Oct-02 Who is going to repair the robots? Tele-robotic control w/minimal latency Multi-sensor, non-linear, adaptable processing Self-healing Current robotic technology limited to simple tasks, or combinations of simple tasks Human Advantage
  9. 9. Section 2 CB/John Grunsfeld Exploration Blueprint NASA Internal use only 29-Oct-02 Human Advantage People enable technology to go and collect data (Greenland ice cores) Adaptability to real, potentially dynamic, field conditions Sampling: getting the ‘right stuff’ Gaining new vantage points, nimbly, and rapidly, and most interesting Human(in-situ)/Human (extended) interaction
  10. 10. Human Advantage: Amplifying Science Value Science Driven Science Steered Science Enabling All 3 Approaches Deliver Science Results but each at Different Times ISS Apollo 17, STS SRL, STS Spacelab Apollo 11 HST. Servicing Jim Garvin/NASA
  11. 11. Flashback: 2004
  12. 12. January 2004 Opportunity lands on Mars 90 DAYS 20 minutes
  13. 13. Analysis of the Benefits and Costs Associated with Human Space Flight • A Review of Findings • March 4, 2004 John Grunsfeld Office of the Chief Scientist Results and Findings from a Recent Study March 19, 2004 Liam Sarsfield Office of the Chief Engineer DRAFT: EYES ONLY – DO NOT PRINT OR REPRODUCE
  14. 14. Office of the Chief Engineer Office of the Chief Scientist - 15 - The Initial Question Problem Statement • NASA was asked to examine the costs and benefits associated with the human space flight program: – Senator Wyden: “...initiate a cost-benefit analysis to get at the matter of manned space flight.” Approach • Hire an independent contractor to perform supporting cost and benefit assessment: – Center for Naval Analysis (CNA) used for this purpose • Provide as much quantitative analysis as possible along a 30 year horizon • Assemble senior working group to support contractor effort and additional internal NASA analysis • Produce summary brief The most challenging aspect of this study is the classic problem of assessing “benefits” in such a way to yield meaningful cost benefit comparisons
  15. 15. Office of the Chief Engineer Office of the Chief Scientist - 16 - Three Parameters Must be Evaluated • Senator Wyden: “...initiate a cost-benefit analysis to get at the matter of manned space flight.” Measuring “benefits” presents the greatest challenge – we applied multiple ways of getting at this issue
  16. 16. Office of the Chief Engineer Office of the Chief Scientist - 17 - Scientific Outcomes are Largely Unknown While all knowledge is valuable, NASA really anticipates extraordinary results from exploration initiatives
  17. 17. Office of the Chief Engineer Office of the Chief Scientist - 18 - Representative Mission Scenarios Used to Support Analysis • Reasonable examples of missions within the next 30 years • Not driving to point estimates – not a mission trade study • Compared 3 modes: supervision, teleoperation, human on-site The scenarios represent realistic projections of the capabilities needed for exploration and to flesh out cost/risk/benefit issues Construct large-aperture space telescope and operate at Earth-Sun L2 • Aperture: 25 m • Mirror density: 10 kg/m2 • Spectral range: Far – IR • Cryogenically cooled • 4 instruments • Mass: 21,000 kg • Lifetime: 20 years Space Telescope Assembly Lunar Surface Science Mars Surface Science Explore Aitken Basin region to characterize physical structure and volatiles present (water-ice) Explore area suspected of harboring underground water - evidence of extant life/pre-biotic chemistry • Precision landing • Demonstrate technology • Return > 1 kg sample • Return 1 L volatiles • Precision landing • Drill 100m • Conduct prelim analysis • Return >2kg samples
  18. 18. Office of the Chief Engineer Office of the Chief Scientist - 19 - Benefits of Human Presence Dramatic for Planetary Survey • Human presence leads to large gains in performance and likelihood of completing tasks associated with exploration • We shouldn’t believe that an autonomous “explorerbot” is just around the corner: – Human skills will far exceed robotic capabilities – Performance of computing hardware likely to be far ahead of software capable of mimicking cognitive functions • We will design and deploy the most capable robots that we can devise: – We’ll continue to get better at it – The technology will continue to improve and we can continue to take advantage of investments being made in other areas (defense, energy, undersea exploration, etc.) • Humans remain vitally important to a robust exploration program: – When humans missions to the Moon and Mars take place we should expect a sharp increase in scientific return, much like we did during Apollo Human presence provides large gains in task performance and reliability for most tasks involved with exploration
  19. 19. Essential Conclusion: When considering total return, a fully robotic mission costs about the same as a human mission if the metric is cost/benefit
  20. 20. XKCD
  21. 21. Repair by ‘feel’ STS-109 STS-103
  22. 22. 2009
  23. 23. STS-125 May 2009
  24. 24. Today
  25. 25. Credit: NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), J. Bell (Cornell University), and M. Wolff (Space Science Institute, Boulder)
  26. 26. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Odyssey Operational 2001 - 2014 MAVEN 2016 2018 2020 Curiosity – Mars Science Laboratory Science Rover 2022 Opportunity – Mars Exploration Rover Explore Habitability Current & Future Mars Missions Follow the Water EVOLVING MARS SCIENCE THEMES Seek Signs of Life Prepare for Future Human Explorers ESA ExoMars Rover (NASA: MOMA) InSight ESA Trace Gas Orbiter (NASA: Electra) ESA Mars Express (NASA: MARSIS)
  27. 27. The 2020 Mars Rover mission offers many important advances relative to MER and MSL Potential to land on high priority scientific targets previously out of reach, shorten drive distances Payload designed to recognize potential biosignatures in outcrop Measurements of fine-scale mineralogy, chemistry, and texture in outcrop (petrology) The ability to collect compelling samples for potential future return Possible ellipse using range trigger Final landing ellipse “GO TO” core sample seal sample tube sample cache The ability to collect compelling samples for potential future return Prepare for the future human exploration of Mars Possible ellipse using range trigger and TRN Original 25x20 km Gale crater landing ellipse “LAND ON”
  28. 28. It takes about a decade for each linear advance in robotics to the surface of Mars
  29. 29. NASA Astrobiology Program and Extreme Environments
  30. 30. CheMin IV XRD/XRF in Svalbard The CheMin IV XRD/XRF instrument with a rock hammer for scale. David Blake (ARC) and the CheMin IV, in normal mode, in which the instrument was operated. The battery pack in the CheMin IV instrument’s based allowed for up to 10 hours of remote analysis without charging.
  31. 31. Bockfjord Volcanic Complex 5 4 1 6 2 7 Bockfjord Volcanic Complex 3 6) Devonian Redbeds 2) Gygre Subglacial Hot Spring 10 Ma flood basalt and lava delta (hyaloclastite) 7) Scot Keltie lava delta 5 km Devonian redbeds with Mars analogue gullies
  32. 32. Credit: NASA/M. Voytek
  33. 33. Credit: NASA/M. Voytek
  34. 34. Credit: NASA/M. Voytek
  35. 35. Credit: NASA/M. Voytek
  36. 36. Credit: NASA/M. Voytek
  37. 37. NASA Human Exploration Infrastructure Has And Will Continue To Enable Astronomy Past and Present: Future: Astro-1 and 2 HST SLS: Very Large UVOIR telescope or multiple formation-flying telescopes (e.g., Stellar Imager) deployed in a single launch Tele-robotic observatory assembly and servicing in LEO or EM-L1
  38. 38. To Mars: Humans and Robots Together!

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