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AAS National Conference 2008: Graham Gibbs


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Session 7: Earth Science – the Next Decade

19 November 2008, Pasadena California

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AAS National Conference 2008: Graham Gibbs

  1. 1. Earth Observation in Canada Graham Gibbs CANADIAN SPACE AGENCY (CSA) American Astronautical Society National Conference Pasadena 19 November 2008 Panel: Earth Science – The Next Decade
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Current Canadian EO missions: </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian EO Roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Canadian missions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radarsat Constellation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar Communications & Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWIFT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Future Cooperative Missions (Can-US) </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to GEOSS </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Presentation Outline
  3. 3. <ul><li>Large landmass (2 nd in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Longest coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Low population density </li></ul><ul><li>Large remote areas </li></ul><ul><li>10% of the world's forest </li></ul><ul><li>20 ecozones (Arctic, prairies, costal areas, wetland, foothills, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>6 time zones </li></ul><ul><li>Varied geography </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-based economy (forests, mining, energy, agriculture) </li></ul><ul><li>Northern latitudes sensitive to climate change </li></ul>Introduction: Importance of EO for Canada
  4. 4. Canada's First Operational EO Satellite: Radarsat -1 Sun-synchronous, Dawn–Dusk LEO Altitude: 798 km Period: 100.7 minutes Repeat Cycle: 24 days Orbits per day: 14 Main Applications Ice Monitoring Pollution Monitoring - ISTOP Disaster Watch – International Charter Hurricane Watch Forestry, Agriculture Crop Monitoring Geology – Mapping, Mineral and Oil exploration Antarctic Mapping Missions (1997, 2000 & 2007) IPY (2008-2009) Security HH Polarized C-Band SAR Launched Nov. 1995 - Operational April 1996 Mission Lifetime: 5.25 years – Since Launch: 13 years 3
  5. 5. 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 <ul><li>Data Reception Facilities: 40 (including 8 transportable stations) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Archiving Facilities: 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Presently under certification: 1 </li></ul>2005 2006 2007 RADARSAT-1 Reception Coverage 2 Transportable Stations (2000) 1 Transportable Stations (2003) 3 Transportable Stations (2004) 2 Transportable Stations (2005) Russia (2007) Japan (1998) Korea (1998) China (1998) Thailand (2000) Singapore (1997) Malaysia (2003) Alice's Spring (1998) Hobart (1998) McMurdo (1995) Benevento (2006) West Freugh (1996) Tromso (1996) Turkey (2002) Norway (2007) Kazakhstan (2) (2005) Saudi Arabia (1998) Moscow (2004) Fairbanks (1995 ) Miami (2004) Gatineau (1995) Prince Albert (1995) Brazil (2001) Argentina (2002) Puerto Rico (2000) Khabarovsk (2007) Samara (2007) Krasnoyarsk (2008) Nizhni Novgorod (2008) 5 2008
  6. 6. RADARSAT-2 <ul><li>Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). </li></ul><ul><li>Operating in C-band with a ground resolution ranging from 3 to 100m. </li></ul><ul><li>Its enhanced capabilities include additional beam modes, higher resolution, multi-polarization, more frequent revisits, and an increased downlink margin. </li></ul><ul><li>RADARSAT-2 will be used for applications in the fields of: oceanography, sea ice, agriculture, hydrology, geology and forestry. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Radarsat -2 Sun-synchronous, Dawn–Dusk LEO Altitude: 798 km Period: 100.7 minutes Repeat Cycle: 24 days Orbits per day: 14 <ul><li>Fully Polarimetric C-Band SAR </li></ul><ul><li>Launched: December 14, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Operational: since April 25, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Lifetime: 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Right and left-looking modes </li></ul><ul><li>3-m ultra-fine resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Yaw-steering for zero-Doppler shift at beam centre </li></ul>3
  8. 8. MOPITT
  9. 9. MOPITT <ul><li>MOPITT - Measurements Of Pollution in The Troposphere </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in 1999 on board of Terra (NASA) </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning, nadir viewing, eight-channel IR </li></ul><ul><li>Radiometer </li></ul><ul><li>Resolves the troposphere into about four </li></ul><ul><li>layers with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> 4-km vertical resolution, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22-km horizontal resolution and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% accuracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scans across the satellite flight track +/- 26.1 deg in 13 </li></ul><ul><li>seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>The main data products are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO mixing ratio profiles with 10% precision, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO total column with 10% precision, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CH4 total column with 1%precision. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terra extended to 2011 – MOPITT continues to provide excellent data. </li></ul>
  10. 10. OSIRIS
  11. 11. OSIRIS <ul><li>OSIRIS – Optical Spectrometer and Infrared Imaging System </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in 2001 on board of ODIN satellite (Sweden) </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2007 the operation of the Odin satellite is supported in part by the ESA as a Third-Party Mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Limb-viewing spectrometer for measuring scattered sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of two independent components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>optical spectrograph (OS), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infrared imager (IRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main purpose of the OS is to measure minor stratospheric constituents (O3, NO2, ClO2, BrO) and stratospheric aerosols </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose of IRI is to derive the volume emission profiles related to the distribution of ozone in the sunlit mesosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>IRI is a 3-channel camera (1.52, 1.263, and 1.273 μm) </li></ul><ul><li>The spectral resolution is : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40nm for the 1.5-μm channel and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 nm for the 1.263- and 1.273-μm channels. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. SCISAT
  13. 13. SCISAT -1 <ul><li>Scisat is a satellite for remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere using solar occultation </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary mission is to study the distribution of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere </li></ul><ul><li>Carries two instruments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dual optical spectrograph MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scisat continues to provide reference data on ozone distribution </li></ul>
  14. 14. CSA EO Strategy: Focus on the Priorities <ul><li>Sovereignty - monitoring the Arctic sea lines and territories </li></ul><ul><li>Safety - navigation in ice-laden waters, disaster management </li></ul><ul><li>Environment - monitoring the health of the ozone layer and the transport of air pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - understanding the factors controlling the climate, monitoring changes resulting from climate variations </li></ul><ul><li>Resources - forests, agriculture, mineral and energy exploration, etc </li></ul>
  15. 15. EO Roadmap Decision Process
  16. 16. Radarsat Constellation Mission (RCM) <ul><li>Maritime surveillance; </li></ul><ul><li>• Disaster management; and </li></ul><ul><li>• Ecosystem monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Planned launch of first satellite 2014 </li></ul>
  17. 17. RADARSAT-Constellation <ul><li>Up to six small-satellites (initially three) will be flown in the configuration of a constellation for environment monitoring, maritime surveillance and disaster management, as a follow on to RADARSAT-2. </li></ul><ul><li>The mission is a C-band SAR satellite constellation, including space segment, ground segment and operations. </li></ul>Project Initiated: Apr 2005 SRR: Mar 2007 PDR: Early 2010 CDR: Late 2011 Launch SCS-1: 2014 Launch SCS-2: 2015 Launch SCS-3: 2016 Ship Surveillance Pollution Surveillance Sea Ice & Ice Cover
  18. 18. Polar Communications & Weather Mission (PCW) <ul><li>Reliable 24/7 communications in the high latitudes (North of 70º) </li></ul><ul><li>High temporal/spatial resolution meteorological data for the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>disk area above 50º N </li></ul><ul><li>In Phase A – funding and approval is pending </li></ul>Aurora Borealis
  19. 19. Chinook/SWIFT <ul><li>The Chinook mission integrates two instruments on a small satellite bus. Stratospheric Wind Interferometer For Transport Studies (SWIFT) and a GPS occultation receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>SWIFT will produce detailed pictures of the horizontal wind field in the stratosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>The GPS occultation receiver will provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinook will further our knowledge of atmospheric circulation understanding how pollutants and ozone are distributed in the stratosphere. </li></ul>In Phase A – options under evaluation
  20. 20. Potential Future Cooperative Missions Soil Moisture Active-Passive SMAP Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems ACE Hyperspectral Infrared Imager HypsIRI Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice DESDyni Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ACE RADARSAT Constellation Mission RCM Follow-On Missions ?? Optical Spectrometer and Infrared Imaging System OSIRIS Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere MOPITT
  21. 21. Contribution to GEOSS <ul><li>Minister of Environment is Canada ’s Principal in GEO </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Canada coordinates Canadian GEO (CGEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Canada participates in CEOS and GEO Committees </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of services in the common GEO infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Charter &quot;Space and Major Disasters&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>TIGER initiative: water resources management in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>International Polar Year (IPY) </li></ul><ul><li>MORSE initiative: EO products and services for Arctic coastal users </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to the Atmospheric Composition Virtual Constellation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential contribution to the Land Surface Imaging Virtual Constellation </li></ul>
  22. 22. Charter operations are based on a concept of joint mission planning operations between participants. Currently involving CSA, CNES, ESA, ISRO, CONAE, NOAA/USGS, JAXA, DMCii, NRSA No exchange of funds Data acquisition by SAR and Optical sensors 24 hours a day, all year round, World Wide Surveillance International Charter “ Space and Major Disasters” Number of Charter Events (1-JUL-08) 2000-01: 8 2001-02: 6 2002-03: 13 2003-04: 22 2004-05: 23 2005-06: 25 2006-07: 35 2007-08: 48 2008-09: 10 Total of 190 activations 11
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>Earth Observation is a high priority for Canada and the Canadian Space Agency </li></ul><ul><li>CSA Earth Observation Roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>The Canadian Space Agency will continue close collaboration with GEO and CEOS </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Long Term Space Plan </li></ul><ul><li> (10-year horizon) in preparation </li></ul>