A virus is a program or piece of code that is
loaded onto your computer without your
knowledge and runs against your wishes
Spread from one computer to another
Introduced when On downloading files from the
On opening an e-mail attachment.
On copying programs or files from any other
A computer worm is
a self-replicating malware
Worms use automated
functions within a network,
such as those in e-mails, to help spread themselves
Attempt to spread as fast and far as possible
Appear to be useful
Hide something that will damage the computer
Does not replicate
Often carried by a virus, worm
Hacking is the act of gaining access without
legal authorization to a computer or computer network.
The term "hack" was first used by US university
computing centre staff in the mid-1960s.
In common usage, a hacker is a person who breaks into
computers and computer networks, either for profit or
motivated by the challenge.
Types of HACKERS
WHITE HAT :-
A white hat is the hero or good guy,
especially in computing slang, where it refers to an
ethical hacker or penetration tester who focuses on
securing and protecting IT systems.
BLACK HAT :-
do only malicious thing like making Trojans
,hacking email id, username and password, credit card
numbers, bank information. They actually called
crackers ,They don't have the legal rights to do that.
they are called non ethical hackers.
GREY HAT :-
It refers to a skilled hacker who sometimes acts
illegally, though in good will, and limits their disclosure of
vulnerabilities on a need-to-know basis. They are a hybrid
between white and black hat hackers. They usually do not
hack for personal gain or have malicious intentions, but are
prepared to commit crimes during the course of their
technological exploits in order to achieve better security.
A phreaker is simply a hacker of telecommunications.
SCRIPT KIDDIE :-
A script kiddie is a non-expert who breaks
into computer systems by using pre-packaged automated
tools written by others.
the term script (i.e. a prearranged plan or set of activities)
kiddie (i.e. kid, child—an individual lacking knowledge and
A neophyte or "newbie" is a term used to describe
someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost
no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology,
WAYS OF HACKING
NetBIOS is meant to be used on local area
networks, so machines on that network can share
information. NetBIOS can also be used across the Internet
- so a hacker can access your machine remotely.
ICMP ‘Ping’ (Internet Control Message Protocol) :-
If a computer responds to a ping, then the
hacker could then launch a more serious form of attack
against a computer.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) :-
You may use it for file downloads from
some websites. FTP can also be used by some
hackers.FTP normally requires some form of
authentication for access to private files, or for
writing to files.
HTTP – (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) :-
HTTP hacks can only be harmful if you
are using Microsoft web server software, such
as Personal Web Server.
A cracker is someone who breaks into
someone else's computer system, often on a
network; bypasses passwords or licenses in
computer programs; or in other ways
intentionally breaches computer security. A
cracker can be doing this for profit,
maliciously, for some altruistic purpose or
cause, or because the challenge is there
HACKERS AND CRACKERS:
A person who enjoys exploring the
details of programmable systems and
how to stretch their capabilities, as
opposed to most users, who prefer to
learn only the minimum necessary.
A cracker is a hacker who uses their
proficiency for personal gains outside
of the law. EX: stealing data, changing
bank accounts, distributing viruses etc
Hackers can be both good and bad. Crackers do cracking basically to
disturb someones computer system.
Phone phreaking is the act of gaining illegal access to
resources of telecom networks for fun or malicious
activity. Before computer hacking took over, phreaking
was the dominant underground tech activity.
Types of phone phreaking:
Switch hook and tone dialer
Voice mail boxes and bridges
End of multi-frequency
Harden your system
Patch all your systems
Install a firewall
The prevention measures
Prevention measures for
Use an anti virus
Don’t download anything
from unknown sources
Always check external media
(CD/DVD/Pen drives) before running them
on your PC.