MICROBIAL NUTRITION Essential Nutrients
Chemical Composition of a Prokaryotic Cell
CATEGORIZATION <ul><li>Essential Nutrients: C H N O P S  - common requirements </li></ul><ul><li>MACRONUTRIENTS/MACROELEME...
<ul><li>4 remaining: POTASSIUM (enzymes, protein synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>CALCIUM (heat resistance, other function) </...
CARBON CONTENT <ul><li>INORGANIC NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Simple atom or mole c </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with other a...
SOURCES OF ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Requirements For CARBON, HYDROGEN & OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><li>Elements/nutrients exi...
<ul><li>NITROGEN </li></ul><ul><li>Usually supplied via inorganic mole c </li></ul><ul><li>I.e., NH 3 , NO 3 , some use NO...
NITROGEN CYCLE  Nitrobacter  sp., Nitrosomonas sp.,  Rhizobium  sp.
<ul><li>NOTE  N 2  gas - found in org’s, soil & water </li></ul><ul><li>NITROGEN FIXATION - take up gas, add hydrogens </l...
<ul><li>PHOSPHORUS  ( PHOSPHATE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic source PO 4 -3  from H 3 PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Used in SYNT...
SULPHUR CYCLE Thiobacillius  sp.,  Beggiatoa  sp.,  Sulfofobus  sp.
MINERALS <ul><li>ELEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNESIUM </li></ul><ul><li>POTASSIUM </li></ul><ul><li>IRON </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>ELEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CALCIUM </li></ul><ul><li>ZINC </li></ul><ul><li>MOLBDENUM </li></ul><ul><li>COBALT </li...
NUTRITIONAL TYPES <ul><li>Determined by  CARBON  &  ENERGY SOURCES </li></ul>
<ul><li>AUTOTROPHS </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from 1 of 2 non-living sources </li></ul><ul><li>SUNLIGHT  ( PHOTOAUTOTROPHS )...
<ul><li>HETEROTROPHS </li></ul><ul><li>Majority  CHEMOHETEROTROPHS/CHEMOORGANOTROPHS </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH  carbon + ener...
<ul><li>SAPROBIC </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers of plant litter, animal matter, dead org’s </li></ul><ul><li>“ NATURAL RECY...
<ul><li>FACULTATIVE SAPROBES </li></ul><ul><li>Infects a host </li></ul><ul><li>Normally host is compromised </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>PARASITIC </li></ul><ul><li>Live in or on body of host </li></ul><ul><li>Usually harm host </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ...
SUMMARY
GROWTH FACTORS <ul><li>Organic compounds required as essential cell components or precursors </li></ul><ul><li>CANNOT  be ...
TRANSPORT MECHANISMS <ul><li>Required for  NUTRIENT UPTAKE & ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types: PASSIVE TRANSPORT </li>...
<ul><li>DIFFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Molec movement from area of high [ ] to low [ ] </li></ul><ul><li>Method cells obtain ...
 
OSMOTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN LIVING SYSTEMS ISOTONIC HYPOTONIC HYPERTONIC
<ul><li>ISOTONIC </li></ul><ul><li>Environment in equal [ ] to cell internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>NO NET CHANGE I...
<ul><li>HYPERTONIC </li></ul><ul><li>Environment has higher [Solute] than cell internal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Flow o...
<ul><li>ACTIVE TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Brings nutrients INTO cell against gradient </li></ul><ul><li>ENSURES CONSTANT ...
SUBSTANCES TRANSPORTED: monosacc’s, Aa’s, organic acids, phosphates, metal ions
 
<ul><li>BULK TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of larger molec’s, particles, liquids across cell membrane </li></ul><u...
 
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Nutrition

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Nutrition

  1. 1. MICROBIAL NUTRITION Essential Nutrients
  2. 2. Chemical Composition of a Prokaryotic Cell
  3. 3. CATEGORIZATION <ul><li>Essential Nutrients: C H N O P S - common requirements </li></ul><ul><li>MACRONUTRIENTS/MACROELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Required in large quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Play principle roles in cell structure, metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN </li></ul><ul><li>CH 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>LIPIDS </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEIC ACIDS </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>4 remaining: POTASSIUM (enzymes, protein synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>CALCIUM (heat resistance, other function) </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNESIUM (cofactor for enzymes) </li></ul><ul><li>IRON (cytochromes) </li></ul><ul><li>Exist in cell as cations, various roles </li></ul><ul><li>MICRONUTRIENTS/TRACE ELEMENTS MANGANESE </li></ul><ul><li>ZINC </li></ul><ul><li>NICKEL </li></ul><ul><li>COBALT </li></ul><ul><li>COPPER </li></ul><ul><li>MOLYBEDNUM </li></ul><ul><li>Required in small quantities, role in enzyme function, maintenance of protein structure </li></ul>
  5. 5. CARBON CONTENT <ul><li>INORGANIC NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Simple atom or mole c </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with other atoms ( NOT C or H ) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., Metals/metal salts: </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium sulphate, ferric nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>Gases: Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Contain C and H atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Range SIMPLE (CH 4 , methane)  POLYMERS (CH 2 O’s, lipids etc) </li></ul>
  6. 6. SOURCES OF ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Requirements For CARBON, HYDROGEN & OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><li>Elements/nutrients exist in inorganic reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON </li></ul><ul><li>HETEROTROPHS - from organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>(bodies of other org’s - dependant on other life forms) </li></ul><ul><li>used in PROTEINS, CH2O’s, LIPIDS & NUCLEIC ACIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Most common source - sugars, i.e., GLUCOSE </li></ul><ul><li>AUTOTROPHS - from inorganic CO 2 (gas) </li></ul><ul><li>(ability to convert CO 2  Organic compds - NOT dependant on living forms) </li></ul><ul><li>Used in INTRACELLULAR STRUCTURE & METABOLISM </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>NITROGEN </li></ul><ul><li>Usually supplied via inorganic mole c </li></ul><ul><li>I.e., NH 3 , NO 3 , some use NO 2 (nitrite), N 2 (gas) </li></ul><ul><li>** IMPORTANT all inorganic forms are 1st converted to NH 3 </li></ul>
  8. 8. NITROGEN CYCLE Nitrobacter sp., Nitrosomonas sp., Rhizobium sp.
  9. 9. <ul><li>NOTE N 2 gas - found in org’s, soil & water </li></ul><ul><li>NITROGEN FIXATION - take up gas, add hydrogens </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly soil microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Few infectious microbes </li></ul><ul><li>e.g., Klebsiella when other sources absent </li></ul><ul><li>Used in STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS, DNA, RNA, ATP </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROGEN </li></ul><ul><li>Organic compd’s, H 2 O, salt H 3 PO 4 , gas H 2 S, CH 4 , H 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Used in MAINTENANCE OF pH, HYDROGEN BONDING, OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>PHOSPHORUS ( PHOSPHATE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic source PO 4 -3 from H 3 PO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Used in SYNTHESIS of NUCLEIC ACIDS, ATP, BUFFER of pH </li></ul><ul><li>SULPHUR </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic SO 4 -2 , FeS, H 2 S, elemental S </li></ul><ul><li>Used in FORMATION of certain Aa’s; cysteine, methionine, SOME VITAMINS, PROTEIN STABILITY & SHAPE </li></ul>
  11. 11. SULPHUR CYCLE Thiobacillius sp., Beggiatoa sp., Sulfofobus sp.
  12. 12. MINERALS <ul><li>ELEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNESIUM </li></ul><ul><li>POTASSIUM </li></ul><ul><li>IRON </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilization of nucleic acids, some </li></ul><ul><li>ribosomes, enzymatic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Some enzymatic reactions - </li></ul><ul><li>protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Component of CYTOCHROMES, </li></ul><ul><li>diphtheria toxin prodn </li></ul><ul><li>Corynebacterium diphtheriae </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>ELEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CALCIUM </li></ul><ul><li>ZINC </li></ul><ul><li>MOLBDENUM </li></ul><ul><li>COBALT </li></ul><ul><li>MANGANESE </li></ul><ul><li>SODIUM </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Cofactor some enzymes, required </li></ul><ul><li>for attachment of some bacterial </li></ul><ul><li>viruses to bacterial cells, spore </li></ul><ul><li>formation </li></ul><ul><li>Cofactor some enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Component of enzymes involved </li></ul><ul><li>in N 2 fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Component of Vitamin B12 </li></ul><ul><li>Can substitute for magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Required 1 o for marine microbes </li></ul>
  14. 14. NUTRITIONAL TYPES <ul><li>Determined by CARBON & ENERGY SOURCES </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>AUTOTROPHS </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from 1 of 2 non-living sources </li></ul><ul><li>SUNLIGHT ( PHOTOAUTOTROPHS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Process of PHOSYNTHESIS </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 + H 2 O (CH 2 O)n + O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. plants, algae, Cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL REACTION ( CHEMOAUTOTROPHS ) </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE INORGANIC (LITHOTROPHS) </li></ul><ul><li>Process of METHANOGENESIS </li></ul><ul><li>4 H 2 + CO 2 CH 4 + 2 H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Methanogens: Methanosarcina , Methanobacterium </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>HETEROTROPHS </li></ul><ul><li>Majority CHEMOHETEROTROPHS/CHEMOORGANOTROPHS </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH carbon + energy from ORGANIC COMPD’S </li></ul><ul><li>Process of RESPIRATION or FERMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>[(CH 2 O)n] + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP </li></ul><ul><li>2 CATEGORIES OF MICROBES: </li></ul><ul><li>SAPROBES & PARASITES </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>SAPROBIC </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers of plant litter, animal matter, dead org’s </li></ul><ul><li>“ NATURAL RECYCLERS” </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers of matter that would build up </li></ul><ul><li>OBLIGATE SAPROBES </li></ul><ul><li>Exists entirely organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to adapt to host body </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Most free-living; Protozoa, Fungi </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>FACULTATIVE SAPROBES </li></ul><ul><li>Infects a host </li></ul><ul><li>Normally host is compromised </li></ul><ul><li>“ OPPOTUNISTIC PATHOGEN” </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Hospitalized patients </li></ul><ul><li> Cryptococcus neoformans (AIDS patients) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>PARASITIC </li></ul><ul><li>Live in or on body of host </li></ul><ul><li>Usually harm host </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Viruses, Helminth worms </li></ul><ul><li>PATHOGENS </li></ul><ul><li>Cause damage to tissues death </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. HIV (AIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>OBLIGATE PARASITES </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to grow outside host </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Leprosy bacillus, syphilis spirochete </li></ul>
  20. 20. SUMMARY
  21. 21. GROWTH FACTORS <ul><li>Organic compounds required as essential cell components or precursors </li></ul><ul><li>CANNOT be synthesized </li></ul><ul><li>3 major classes: </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids (protein synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Purines & Pyrimidines (nucleic acid synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins (all or part of enzymes cofactors) </li></ul><ul><li>Enterococcus faecalis (lactic acid bacterium) requires 8 vitamins for growth </li></ul>
  22. 22. TRANSPORT MECHANISMS <ul><li>Required for NUTRIENT UPTAKE & ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types: PASSIVE TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVE TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>BULK TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>PASSIVE TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Requires no energy input </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic/mole c movement </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types: DIFFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>OSMOSIS </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>DIFFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>Molec movement from area of high [ ] to low [ ] </li></ul><ul><li>Method cells obtain freely diffusible materials </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. O 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Also release waste products from cell </li></ul><ul><li>OSMOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion of water through selectively permeable membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Openings in membrane allow free flow of water BUT blocks other mole c ’s </li></ul>
  24. 25. OSMOTIC RELATIONSHIPS IN LIVING SYSTEMS ISOTONIC HYPOTONIC HYPERTONIC
  25. 26. <ul><li>ISOTONIC </li></ul><ul><li>Environment in equal [ ] to cell internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>NO NET CHANGE IN CELL VOLUME </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOTONIC </li></ul><ul><li>[Solute] of external environment lower than cell internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>( PURE WATER ) most HYPOTONIC FLUID </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of water INTO cell </li></ul><ul><li>Protoplast swells, pushes against cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall prevents bursting </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>HYPERTONIC </li></ul><ul><li>Environment has higher [Solute] than cell internal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of water OUT of cell </li></ul><ul><li>NB Soln’s LETHAL to microbes (salt water, sugar soln’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Water diffuses out of cell, shrinks protoplast ( PLASMOLYSIS ) </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>ACTIVE TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Brings nutrients INTO cell against gradient </li></ul><ul><li>ENSURES CONSTANT SUPPLY OF NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Nutrients transported against diffusion gradient or in the same direction BUT at a faster rate </li></ul><ul><li>2) Presence of specific membrane proteins </li></ul><ul><li>(PERMEASES + PUMPS) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Expenditure of energy </li></ul>
  28. 29. SUBSTANCES TRANSPORTED: monosacc’s, Aa’s, organic acids, phosphates, metal ions
  29. 31. <ul><li>BULK TRANSPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of larger molec’s, particles, liquids across cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT PASS THROUGH </li></ul><ul><li>Process ENDOCYTOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>PHAGOCYTOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Engulfment followed by vacuole formation (vesicle) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Amoeba </li></ul><ul><li>PINOCYTOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Engulfment of liquids into cell </li></ul>

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