Metabolism b


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Metabolism b

  1. 1. Biochemical Pathways of Energy Metabolism Series of controlled reactions rather than in a single burst .
  2. 2. Carbohydrate Metabolism <ul><li>Glycolysis – Embden Meyerhoff Pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid, series of 10 reactions, each reaction catalyzed by a different enzyme </li></ul>
  3. 4. Carbohydrate metabolism <ul><li>Pentose Phosphate Pathway – hexose monophosphate shunt </li></ul><ul><li>Operates simultaneously with glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a means for the breakdown of 5 carbon sugars as well as glucose </li></ul>
  4. 5. Carbohydrate Metabolism <ul><li>EDP is still another pathway for oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Yield 1 ATP </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fermentation of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Glucose  Pyruvic Acid  fermentation or respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Release energy from sugars or other organic molecules such as amino acids, organic acids, purines and pyrimidines </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require an electron transport chain </li></ul>
  6. 7. Fermentation of Carbohydrates <ul><li>Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor </li></ul>
  7. 10. Fermentation <ul><li>Products – ethanol and carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Brewing and wine making are anaerobic processes if oxygen is present further oxidation will occur </li></ul>
  8. 11. Respiration <ul><li>Is an ATP generating process in which chemical compounds are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is almost always an inorganic molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Electron transport chain – readily accept electrons from one compound and pass them to another </li></ul><ul><li>ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul>
  9. 12. Respiration <ul><li>Oxidize organic molecules completely to carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>ATP yield greater in respiration than in fermentation </li></ul>
  10. 13. Krebs Cycle <ul><li>As acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle, CoA detaches from the acetyl group and then can pick up more acetyl groups for the next Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Series of redox reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Yield 38 ATP </li></ul>
  11. 15. Protein Catabolism <ul><li>Require extracellular enzymes – proteases and peptidases </li></ul><ul><li>Deaminate amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Decarboxylation </li></ul>
  12. 16. Lipid Catabolism <ul><li>Fats  fatty acids + glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Requires lipases </li></ul><ul><li>Convert glycerol into dihydroxyacetone phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids catabolized by beta oxidation </li></ul>
  13. 17. Energy Utilization <ul><li>Microbes use ATP to provide energy for the transport of substances across plasma membranes </li></ul><ul><li>For flagellar motion </li></ul><ul><li>Biosynthesis of new cell components </li></ul>
  14. 18. Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides <ul><li>Bacteria synthesize glycogen from adenosine diphosphoglucose – ADPG </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize capsular material </li></ul>
  15. 19. Biosynthesis of Lipids <ul><li>Microbes synthesize lipids, by uniting glycerol and fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Structural components of plasma membrane and Gram – cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids serve as storage forms of energy </li></ul>
  16. 20. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids <ul><li>Required for protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>E. coli – synthesize all the amino acids they need </li></ul><ul><li>Other microbes require some preformed aa from the environment in order to metabolize proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Krebs cycle source of precursors for aa </li></ul>
  17. 21. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids <ul><li>Other sources of precursors are derived from the pentose phosphate pathway and the EDP </li></ul><ul><li>AA building blocks for proteins (toxins) </li></ul>
  18. 22. Biosynthesis of Purines & Pyrimidines <ul><li>Sugars composing nucleotides are derived from either the PPP or the EDP </li></ul><ul><li>Aspartic acid, glycine and glutamine play an essential role in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines </li></ul><ul><li>The C and N atoms derived from these aa form the backbone of the purines and pyrimidines </li></ul>
  19. 23. Integration of Metabolism <ul><li>Anabolic and catabolic reactions are integrated through a group of common intermediates </li></ul><ul><li>Krebs cycle – operate in both anabolic and catabolic reactions produce intermediates that lead to the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol – amphibolic pathways </li></ul>