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Sentence types

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Sentence types

  1. 1. Sentence Types (Practice on using conjunctions
  2. 2. Coordinators S Y O B N A F
  3. 3. COORDINATORS T T R D R O E R U O N O S Y O B N A F
  4. 4. Compound Sentences I’ve been working hard all year, so I’m going to take a vacation during the summer. result so Dr. Joana couldn’t come, for she had a sore throat. cause for Her voice was very weak, yet the students understand her. contrast yet Dr. Joana was very sick, but she taught the class. contrast but I have to study or (else) I will fail the course. condition or You can stay home and study for the exam, or you can go out and enjoy yourself. alternative or You don’t have to study, nor do you have to stay home. addition nor The bell rang, and someone knocked on the door. addition and
  5. 5. With another student, complete the statements. When you finish, compare sentences with another pair of students. <ul><li>This course began a few weeks ago, and…. </li></ul><ul><li>The students in the class down the hall are all men, but…. </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t attend class yesterday, for…. </li></ul><ul><li>Some students have been complaining about the amount of homework, yet… </li></ul><ul><li>Money cannot buy love, nor…. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people love money more than anything else, so…. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve been working hard all my life, yet… </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t have a government scholarship for studying, nor… </li></ul><ul><li>The students must pass three out of five courses, or…… </li></ul><ul><li>After I finish my studies, I will get a job, or…. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Paired conjunctions but also not only nor neither or either same structure and same structure both
  7. 7. Parallel structure with paired conjunctions <ul><li>They want either to play tennis or golf * </li></ul><ul><li>They want either to play tennis or to play golf. </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>They want to play either tennis or golf. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Identify the mistakes in each sentence: <ul><li>He either lied or telling an unbelievable story. </li></ul><ul><li>The discussion was neither exciting and interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>He regularly studies both in the morning or in the evening. </li></ul><ul><li>She not only passed the test but also receivng the highest score in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>She trained as both an accountant and in nursing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Combine the following sentences using paired conjunctions <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>You must tell the truth. You must go to jail </li></ul><ul><li>Either you must tell the truth, or you must go to jail. </li></ul><ul><li>I will see you at home. I will see you in jail. </li></ul><ul><li>The coffee is not good. It isn’t hot. </li></ul><ul><li>Sue has not arrived. She has not called. </li></ul><ul><li>Tom has a car. He also has a motorcycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Maria is coming to the party. Sue is coming to the party, too. </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers want one week less of classes. The director also wants one week less of classes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Possible answers: <ul><li>Either I will see you at home , or I will see you in jail . (connecting complete clauses) </li></ul><ul><li>This coffee is neither good nor hot . (connecting two adjectives) </li></ul><ul><li>Sue has neither arrived nor called . (connecting two verbs) </li></ul><ul><li>Tom has not only a car but also a motorcycle (connecting 2 noun objects) </li></ul><ul><li>Both Maria and Sue are coming to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only the teachers but also the director want s one week less of classes. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Subordinators wherever whenever so that that where when since as if whose what unless if how whom which although as because who until though before while whether as soon as even though after
  12. 12. Complex sentences <ul><li>Contain one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clause(s). </li></ul><ul><li>One idea is generally more important than the other one. </li></ul><ul><li>The more important idea is placed in the independent clause, while the less important one will be placed in the dependent clause. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How will you combine these two ideas? <ul><li>Einstein was a great physicist. </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein was born in 1879. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Einstein, who was born in 1879, was a great physicist, </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein, who was a great physicist, was born in 1879, </li></ul><ul><li>( The second option is better because most people only know that he’s a great physicist; thus, the fact that he was born in 1879 was the more important information to deliver ). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dependent Clause <ul><li>Group of words with Subject & Verb </li></ul><ul><li>is considered to have meaning but can’t stand alone. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Consider these examples: <ul><li>If it rains </li></ul><ul><li>Because she’s sick </li></ul><ul><li>When she died </li></ul>Incomplete It’s weird Are you a nut? What do you mean?
  17. 17. Now Look at the next examples: <ul><li>I won’t be able to come to teach you </li></ul><ul><li>She’s absent </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody was there </li></ul>What do you think now?
  18. 18. Is it possible to combine these two sentences? <ul><li>Everybody was there </li></ul><ul><li>but </li></ul><ul><li>I won’t be able to come to teach you </li></ul>
  19. 19. How about combining these? <ul><li>If it rains </li></ul><ul><li>I won’t be able to teach you </li></ul>
  20. 20. These sentences can be combined: <ul><li>She’s absent </li></ul><ul><li>because she’s sick </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody was there </li></ul><ul><li>when she died </li></ul>
  21. 21. We can also combine two or more complex sentences: <ul><li>She’s absent because she’s sick </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody’s there </li></ul><ul><li>I won’t be able to come to teach you if it rains </li></ul>and even if ,
  22. 22. Some ways of combining sentences: <ul><li>Use coordinate conjunctions FAN BOYS </li></ul><ul><li>Use Subordinate conjunctions: if, because, though, whether, after, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use conjunctive adverbs: Accordingly, furthermore, instead, besides, therefore, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use punctuation (comma, semi-colon) </li></ul>For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
  23. 23. Dependent clause can be: <ul><li>a noun clause </li></ul><ul><li>an adjective clause </li></ul><ul><li>an adverbial clause </li></ul>
  24. 24. Identify what kind of clauses are these? <ul><li>When she died (dependent clause) </li></ul><ul><li>When she died was still a mistery for many years. </li></ul><ul><li>She knows exactly the time when she died . </li></ul><ul><li>Her mother was there when she died . </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know when she died . </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Now do the exercises </li></ul><ul><li>On page 114 </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear accidents can happen… </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>

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