The internal genital organs form a pathway (the genital tract). This pathway consists of the following: Vagina (part of the birth canal), where sperm are deposited and from which a baby can emerge Uterus, where an embryo can develop into a fetus Fallopian tubes (oviducts), where a sperm can fertilize an egg Ovaries, which produce and release eggs
Abdullatiff Sami Al-Rashed
Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia
• Endometrial cancer is a type
of cancer that begins in the
• The uterus is the hollow, pear-
shaped pelvic organ in women
where fetal development
• Endometrial cancer begins in
the layer of cells that form the
lining (endometrium) of the
Etiology & Risk Factors
• The exact causes of endometrial cancer is
• There are some risk factors increase the
chance to have the cancer:
• Fibroblast growth factor
receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a
tyrosine kinase receptor
involved in many biological
• Mutations in FGFR2 have
been reported in up to 10-
12% of endometrial
carcinomas identical to those
found in congenital
• Uterine cancer may run in
families where colon
cancer is hereditary
• Women in families with
(HNPCC), or Lynch
syndrome, have a higher
risk for uterine cancer.
• Treatment depends on the stage
and grade of the cancer and the
general health of the woman.
• Stage 1a cancers, surgery with total abdominal
hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy
is usually sufficient treatment.
• Women with stage 1b or 2
disease adjuvant pelvic
radiotherapy is given, which
reduces the rate of local
• Radiotherapy may be used as
the primary treatment in women
unfit to undergo surgery or in
women with locally advanced
disease (stage 3 and 4a).
• Chemotherapy using carboplatin and paclitaxel, or
cisplatin and doxorubicin can improve disease
control and symptoms in patients with recurrent
disease but the impact on survival is limited.
• Endometrial cancer has the best prognosis of all the
• Poor prognostic indicators include older age,
advanced stage, high-grade tumors and
• Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the
lining (endometrium) of the uterus.
• The exact causes of endometrial cancer is unknown.
• Obesity, hormonal imbalance and nulliparity are risk factors of
• Vaginal bleeding, Pelvic pain, Dyspareunia, dysuria are the
symptoms of Endometrial cancer
• Treatment depends on the stage and grade of the cancer and
the general health of the woman.
• Oncology at a Glance Graham G. Dark 1st