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Control HIV in Brazil


Published on

Global Health, Block 2.4

KFU, Al-Ahsaa, Saudi Arabia

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Control HIV in Brazil

  1. 1. Group Work
  2. 2. Objectives • Describe important indicators about the disease in the given country. • Identify the important steps taken by the country / MoH to control the disease. • Identify the risk factors, diagnosis & mode of transmission of the disease. • Describe the main problems /issues concerning the HIV control in Brazil.
  4. 4. • The Capital: Brasília • Population (2012 est.): 205,716,890 (growth rate: 1.1%) • birth rate: 17.48/1000 • life expectancy: 72.79 year
  5. 5. Q1 Describe important indicators about the disease in the given country.
  6. 6. Q2 / Identify the important steps taken by the country / MoH to control the disease.
  7. 7. • The Brazilian Ministry of Health made a very successful program for HIV control in 1986 • The program is called National AIDS Control Program (NACP) • participation by civil society organizations (CSOs) and non- governmental organizations (NGOs). The Important Steps Taken By The Country / Moh To Control HIV In Brazil
  8. 8. • Its an aggressive and innovative program focused on both prevention and treatment and some of the steps are mentioned in the following slides : National AIDS Control Program
  9. 9. Survival Rate doubled universal, free antiretroviral treatment 180,000 patients treated cover 90% of AIDS cases 67% of pregnant women were tested 141 research 70% sex workers report using a condom with last client STD Network for Technological Cooperation established 97% of the population knows that HIV can be transmitted through sexual relations Over 40% of adult population tested for HIV at least once Free provision of 1 billion condoms Prevention Treatment Reaching to poorer people
  10. 10. Q3 / Identify the risk factors, diagnosis & mode of transmission of the disease.
  11. 11. Risk factor of HIV Unprotected sexual activity Having another STI herpes, Chlamydia, syphilis, or gonorrhea. Sharing syringes or needles Piercing or tattooing
  12. 12. Other risk factors • Having had a blood transfusion or received blood products before 1985. • Having fewer copies of a gene that helps to fight HIV. • Having many sexual partners. • Having sex with a sex worker or an IV drug user with someone with the high risk of HIV • Are exposed to the virus as a fetus or infant before or during birth or through breastfeeding from a mother infected with HIV
  13. 13. Diagnosis of HIV • HIV is most commonly diagnosed by testing your blood or saliva for the presence of antibodies to the virus. • Unfortunately, these types of HIV tests aren't accurate immediately after infection because it takes time for your body to develop these antibodies
  14. 14. Diagnosis of HIV • Newer type of test checks for HIV antigen immediately after infection. • This test can confirm a diagnosis within days of infection.
  15. 15. Mod of Transmission • HIV is found in specific human body fluids. If any of those fluids enter your body, you can become infected with HIV. • HIV is transmitted through body fluids in very specific ways. • HIV lives and reproduces in blood and other body fluids: – Blood – Semen (cum) – Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum) – Breast milk – Vaginal fluids – Rectal (anal) mucous
  16. 16. Q4 / Describe the main problems /issues concerning the HIV control in Brazil.
  17. 17. Introduction The Brazilian government has made aggressive efforts to minimize the impact of the HIV epidemic.
  18. 18. General Issues o Here is some of the general issues including some statistics that everybody most know: • Heterosexual & Homosexual transmission. • Drug use by injecting. • Blood transfusion. • Prisoners transmission. • Accessing testing for HIV. • Availability of Zidovudine (AZT).
  19. 19. Heterosexual & Homosexual Transmission • At the beginning of the Brazilian HIV epidemic, most of the people becoming infected with HIV were men who have sex with men • Since 1993 more cases of AIDS are attributed to heterosexual transmission than homosexual transmission.
  20. 20. Heterosexual & Homosexual Transmission. • In 2011, heterosexual sex accounted for: 42.4% among adult males. 83.1% among adult females!
  21. 21. Drug Use By Injecting • The share of injecting drug use as the exposure category in 2011 cases is: 5% among adult males 2% among adult females.
  22. 22. Blood Transfusion. HIV transmission resulting from contaminated blood products and blood transfusions is now thought to be practically non-existent.
  23. 23. Prisoners Transmission. • Reports indicate that inmates are particularly at risk of becoming infected with HIV during their time in prison (often this is associated with injecting drug use). HIV prevalence is as high as 20% in some prisons.
  24. 24. Accessing Testing For HIV. • Encouraging people to access testing is an important part of worldwide HIV prevention, as HIV-positive people who are aware of their status are less likely to pass infection on to other people. • The country role is to find means and methods to promote the people to test for HIV. • There is still a need for many more people to access testing facilities.
  25. 25. Accessing Testing For HIV. It is estimated that only one third of HIV-positive Brazilians are aware of their status, and that just 18.4% of Brazil’s sexually active population has been tested for HIV.
  26. 26. Availability of Zidovudine (AZT) • This is the antiretroviral used to delay the development of AIDS. • In 1991 the government announced that it would make the drug available for free to all Brazilians that required it. • In following years after making the drug available, the national AIDS mortality rate began to decline due to the effectiveness of the treatment.
  27. 27. Availability of Zidovudine (AZT) So, we can admit that the country’s role in providing AZT is accomplished and this is no more a concern issue in facing HIV incidence.
  28. 28. Introduction • Sexuality and sexual expression are integral to Brazilian culture and are discussed openly. While some cultures associate sex with shame and corruption, many Brazilians see it as something that should be celebrated, and this social climate has made it much easier to carry out HIV prevention work. • Some prevention points will be mentioned accordingly to face the challenge that the culture made:
  29. 29. Prevention methods Condom use Media campaigns. Preventing mother to child transmission.
  30. 30. THE REFERENCES : -BOOKS :  World Health Statistics 2013 - Indicator compendium • CDC’s Country Management and Support Initiative  -INTERNET WEBSITES: