Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

David Pearce - Knowledge and Information within Programmes

74 views

Published on

David Pearce's presentation from the APM Programme Management SIG Conference which took place on the 15 March 2018

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

David Pearce - Knowledge and Information within Programmes

  1. 1. The Importance of Knowledge Sharing across Programmes: Introduction & Tools David Pearce
  2. 2. Knowledge Sharing – Presentation Structure 3  The APM context, and issues to be addressed  The different types of Knowledge  How Sharing takes place, and why it can be difficult to do  The stages of Sharing  Introduction to Knowledge tools, and when to use them
  3. 3. APM perspective - KM - what is it? 4 Definition: ‘Knowledge management is the systematic management of information and learning. It turns personal information and experience into collective knowledge that can be widely shared throughout an organisation and a profession.’ p22, APM Body of Knowledge 6th Edition.
  4. 4. APM perspective - KM - why is it of value? 5 ‘Knowledge management underpins organisational learning and maturity.’ p22, ibid ‘Good knowledge management can reduce risks and increase efficiency through the re-use of proven approaches and avoidance of known pitfalls.’ p23, ibid
  5. 5. APM perspective - KM - for Programmes 6 Why Knowledge Management is important for Programmes:  Programmes by definition contain multiple projects  This creates the opportunity to capture lessons from earlier projects and apply them to later projects
  6. 6. APM perspective - KM - filling in the gaps 7 The APM BoK does not go into any details on how to undertake Knowledge Management, or set out how to address any issues. This presentation sets out to explain areas to focus on, and tools that can help.
  7. 7. Why Sharing is difficult - types of Knowledge 8 It is important to understand that there are different types of knowledge, and that they need to be shared in different ways:  Encoded Knowledge – in books  Embedded Knowledge – in procedures  Embodied Knowledge – know-how, problem solving skills  Embrained Knowledge – personal experience
  8. 8. Why Sharing is difficult - types of Knowledge 9 From this we can appreciate that:  Some knowledge can be captured in a written format  Some knowledge exists between people  Some knowledge is in the heads of individuals It is important to understand that this results in the need to share in different ways to benefit from all the different types of knowledge.
  9. 9. Why Sharing is difficult - Ways to Share 10
  10. 10. Sharing Headings: Ways to Share 11
  11. 11. Sharing Headings: Hot 12
  12. 12. Sharing Headings: Warm 13
  13. 13. Sharing Headings: Cold 14
  14. 14. Sharing Headings: Cool 15
  15. 15. Balanced Approach to Sharing 16
  16. 16. Why Sharing is difficult - where Knowledge sits 17 There is additional context that needs to be appreciated:  Programmes are made up of a large number of people and potentially a large number of firms  It is important that learning in Programmes does not remain locked within Programmes. It needs to be shared widely  Sharing needs to be addressed as a specific issue, because otherwise it will not happen
  17. 17. APM perspective – KM issues 18 ‘Organisations need to capture knowledge and experience, optimise their usefulness and make them available.’ p22, ibid Before you can capture knowledge, a business needs to understand where the knowledge comes from. There is also a stage after making the knowledge available. This is all captured in the following sharing model.
  18. 18. The Three Stage Sharing Model 19
  19. 19. Stage One: OFFERING 20  Shared information and knowledge has to be made available to others
  20. 20. Stage One: OFFERING 21  Shared information and knowledge has to be made available to others
  21. 21. Stage One: OFFERING 22  Shared information and knowledge has to be made available to others
  22. 22. Stage One: OFFERING 23  Shared information and knowledge has to be made available to others
  23. 23. Stage Two: FINDING 24  Others who need this information and knowledge must be able to find it • .
  24. 24. Stage Two: FINDING 25  Others who need this information and knowledge must be able to find it
  25. 25. Stage Two: FINDING 26  Others who need this information and knowledge must be able to find it
  26. 26. Stage Two: FINDING 27  Others who need this information and knowledge must be able to find it
  27. 27. Stage Three: USING 28  For a programme to gain value from its information and knowledge, it must be used
  28. 28. Stage Three: USING 29  For a programme to gain value from its information and knowledge, it must be used
  29. 29. Stage Three: USING 30  For a programme to gain value from its information and knowledge, it must be used
  30. 30. Stage Three: USING 31  For a programme to gain value from its information and knowledge, it must be used
  31. 31. Supporting stages: CULTURE 32  A programme must have a sharing culture to gain the most value from its information and knowledge • The wrong culture may also stop individuals offering to share their knowledge.
  32. 32. The Three Stages of Sharing: 33
  33. 33. Why Sharing is difficult – How we share 34 Offering:  No universally accessible home for knowledge  Opportunities to share are limited  No time to capture knowledge due to project pressures  Individuals see knowledge as power and guard it
  34. 34. Why Sharing is difficult – How we share 35 Finding:  Poor filing structure  Poor search function  No database of individuals skills and knowledge  Poor connexions between offices / teams
  35. 35. Why Sharing is difficult – How we share 36 Using  Individuals like to invent solutions for themselves  Knowledge from elsewhere is not trusted  Captured knowledge not in a format others can readily use  The wrong type of knowledge has been captured
  36. 36. Why Sharing is difficult – How we share 37 Culture  Sharing not seen to be allowed  No support for sharing activities  Sharing seen as a one way process, does not benefit the individual
  37. 37. Why Sharing is difficult – How we share 38 Other issues  Having the context to learn the lessons  Having the experience to understand the learning  Understanding how it will be used - format
  38. 38. APM perspective – KM issues 39 ‘There are two key challenges: knowledge is difficult to assemble and it is difficult to encourage its use.’ p23, ibid Getting people to be willing to share is critical, you then need to give them the right opportunities to share
  39. 39. Knowledge Sharing Tools 40  1, Communities of Practice  2, Peer assist  3, Knowledge Exchange / Toolbox talks  4, Knowledge handover  5, After action review  6, Knowledge fairs – coffee mornings – knowledge speed dating  7, Show & tell  8, Opportunities for impromptu sharing – e.g. water cooler chats  9, Mentoring  10, Story telling  11, Consultant approach – bring in an expert to comment and advise  12, Site knowledge visits  13, Apprenticeship  14, Social events  15, Checklist Use  16, Knowledge brokers – the people who know who knows what  17, Yellow pages – expert directories  18, Wiki’s  19, Blogs  20, Communication plans  21, Lessons learned – Retrospect  22, Knowledge retention interviewing / knowledge harvesting  23, Learning Histories  24, Business driven action learning  25, Producing expert papers  26, Knowledge mapping – skills mapping  27, Knowledge repositories – extranets  28, Knowledge assets  29, Best practice transfer  30, Checklist Production
  40. 40. Knowledge Sharing Tools – When to use them 41 BEFORE  2, Peer assist  4, Knowledge handover  11, Consultant approach – bring in an expert to comment and advise  26, Knowledge mapping – skills mapping  28, Knowledge assets DURING  3, Knowledge Exchange / Toolbox talks  5, After action review  7, Show & tell  8, Opportunities for impromptu sharing – e.g. water cooler chats  9, Mentoring  10, Story telling  14, Social events  15, Checklist Use AFTER  18, Wiki’s  19, Blogs  21, Lessons learned – Retrospect  22, Knowledge retention interviewing / knowledge harvesting  23, Learning Histories  25, Producing expert papers  27, Knowledge repositories – extranets  29, Best practice transfer  30, Checklist Production
  41. 41. Why Sharing is difficult – is it more work? 42 No one likes homework:  Facilitate the learning capture sessions  Remove the ‘work’ element; plus no phones, no computers  Make it fun, or at least comfortable; in a neutral location  Make it part of the programme: paid for, and planned  Just because something doesn’t look like work, doesn’t mean it can not create value
  42. 42. Knowledge Sharing – main points to remember 43  There are different types of Knowledge  They each need to be shared in different ways  The stages of Sharing – can help with diagnosing issues  There are many Knowledge tools, find the most helpful  Sharing can be difficult – facilitate capture  Don’t lock Knowledge away in Programmes
  43. 43. Questions 44
  44. 44. The Importance of Knowledge Sharing across Programmes: Introduction & Tools David Pearce

×