Engineering in industry - what’s it all about?

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Engineering in industry - what’s it all about?

  1. 1. Engineering in Industry: What’s it all about?apm Scottish Conference 17 April 2013John BarrJohn.barr2@selex-es.comChief Engineer, Advanced TargetingHonorary Professor at Heriot-Watt UniversityA Selex ES Technical Fellow
  2. 2. The Challenge© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  3. 3. Early LifeMeasurement of Rydberg constant and Lamb shift in Atomic HydrogenPhD at Southampton U; HSO at Rutherford Appleton Lab; Lecturer at Southampton U© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  4. 4. Industrial ExperiencePilkingtonOptronics – nowThales OptronicsNortel Networks – thenBookham Technology –now OclaroBAE Systems – then Selex S&AS –then SELEX Galileo – now Selex ES1994 -2000 2000-2003 2003 to date© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  5. 5. OverviewIntroductionSelex ES• Overview• Aspects of the laser business– Technical– Integrated Product TeamsBusiness Improvements• Bottom Up – introduction of Cost Review Boards• Top Down – Structured Problem SolvingConclusion© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  6. 6. Our pedigreeMission Critical Systems and Defensive Aids Systems© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reservedIntegrated Networking Solutions for Netcentric CapabilitiesSensors & Systems for Homeland Protection, Homeland Defence, ATC/ATM, VTMS
  7. 7. © Copyright Selex ES. All rights reservedThe CompanyELECTRONIC and INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES forDEFENCE SYSTEMS - AEROSPACE - DATA - INFRASTRUCTURES - LAND SECURITY & PROTECTION -SMART SOLUTIONSEntrusted to deliver technology-enabled systems and solutions for a safer, smarter and more secure societyKey facts17,900 peopleRevenues in excess of 3.5 billion EurosItaly and UK as domestic marketsStrong footprint in• US• Germany• Romania• Brazil• Saudia Arabia• India• TurkeyThe DivisionsAirborne & Space SystemsLand & Naval SystemsSecurity & Smart Systems
  8. 8. Our divisions© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved• Airborne radar• Sensors• Electronic warfare systems• Avionics• Integrated mission systems• Airborne surveillance systems• Tactical UAS• Target drones• Simulation systems• Space sensors and equipment• Integrated command land and navalcommand and control systems• Land and naval radar• Electro-optical sensors• Tactical communication systems andequipment• Battlefield protection systems andequipment• Homeland and critical infrastructures’protection and security architectures• Secure communications systems• Information technology• Information management andautomation systems• Airport systems• Air traffic and vessel management andcontrol systemsAirborne and Space SystemsDivisionSecurity and Smart SystemsDivisionLand and Naval Systems Division
  9. 9. Edinburgh Site: Radar and Advanced Targeting© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  10. 10. Laser Technology OverviewRequirements• Technical• Schedule• Non recurring budget• Unit production cost• Reliability• Time to marketSolution• Typically 200-300 parts• Re-use of existing supply chain• Re-use of parts and assemblies• Re-use of existing test solutionsConstraints• Investment• Economic climate• Resources• The Scottish Question• Re-organisation© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  11. 11. Laser Innovations since 2004Technical• Rotating Image Optical ParametricOscillator• Nd:YAG ring laser oscillator• Americium free Q-switch• Compact mid IR laser• Thermally insensitive laser diodes• Athermal pumphead• Variable divergence for BurstIllumination• Laser architecture for manufacturing• Contamination detection and control• Improved mount design(wedge/waveplate)Analysis• Diffractive laser model• Sightline analysis: “Boresight model”Process• Cost Review Boards• Structured problem solving• New FRACAS process• Temperature insensitive diodes• Laser Modelling• Boresight modellingWith VBG-300-250-200-150-100-50050100150200250300-300 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300X-boresight movement (mrad)Y-boresightmovement(mrad)ModelType 1DVTResultsColdColdHotHotRate equationmodelPhysical opticsModelImported Wave frontError map0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 15000.020.040.06time (ns)0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 15000.020.040.06time (ns)0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 15000.020.040.06time (ns)0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 15000.020.040.06time (ns)© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  12. 12. Integrated Product Team (IPT)A product focussed IPT covers representatives of all the business functions required toconceive a product, develop the business case, create a viable concept, deliver themanufacturing data pack, identify the supply chain and manufacture the product.The engineering team varies dramatically in size as the project proceeds.• Typically starting with two or three, increasing to 20 – 25 when the manufacturingdata pack is being created then dropping back to three or four when in production.• Note that only 1 laser specialist is required ..© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reservedProjectmanagerSales andMarketingCapabilityProjectEngineeringLeadLaser andOptics TeamLeadLaser EngineerOpticsEngineerHardwareTeam LeadPCB designFirmwareDesignECADMechanicalTeam LeadMechanicalDesignDetailedDesignThermal andStressModellingSystems TeamleadIntegratedLogisticalSupportConfigurationManagementTestEquipmentLeadProcurementIndustrialEngineeringOperationsProjectManagerFinance Commercial
  13. 13. Cost MonitoringCost Control is a difficult discipline to achieve routinely• NRE phase is dominated by technical requirements and schedule.• Transfer to production is dominated by defect resolution• Steady state production appears to limit cost reduction opportunities.Opportunities exist to influence cost• Concept stage (common parts, common test, common supply chainDFx)• Monitor through NRE stage• Optimise during serial production.• Take advantage of change caused by defect to implement costreduction© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  14. 14. The Introduction of Cost Review BoardsProduct cost control is an obvious requirement in any manufacturingbusiness.• Everyone knows it is necessary• So why is it difficult to achieve?Need to define product cost and differentiate from non recurringexpenditure.Need to minimise Defects per UnitNeed to maximise design and manufacturing margin for technicalparameters to allow for variability• And robustness – allow us to succeed when supplier fails to meet therequirements.© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  15. 15. A sad reality of project lifeTypical Project Labour Demand0510152025Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6TimeHeadsEngineering Engineering support OperationsNon Recurring Expenditure Recurring ExpenditureThe grey area – labour driven by DPU© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  16. 16. Cost MonitoringMonthly cost tracker for project XJul-09 Sep-09 Nov-09 Jan-10 Mar-10 May-10 Jul-10 Sep-10 Nov-10 Jan-11 Mar-11 May-11 Jul-11 Sep-11 Nov-11 Jan-12 Mar-12ATP 4BAE RO 1ATP 5BAE 2 / 3ATP 6TrancheDate£76£78£79£81£83£84£86£87£89£91£92£94£95£97£99£100UPCProcurement LT for Long-Lead Initiative Production CompletedProduction Outstanding Cost reductions forecast / implemented each monthPlanned Implimentation of Cost Reduction Initiative(s)1 - 35 - 6 910 - 1213 - 1617, 21Completed23-2518, 19, 2021, 2228-36completed JuneTo be completed byend July27 completedMay 2011To be completeAug 2011Jul-09 Sep-09 Nov-09 Jan-10 Mar-10 May-10 Jul-10 Sep-10 Nov-10 Jan-11 Mar-11 May-11 Jul-11 Sep-11 Nov-11 Jan-12 Mar-12ATP 4BAE RO 1ATP 5BAE 2 / 3ATP 6TrancheDate£76£78£79£81£83£84£86£87£89£91£92£94£95£97£99£100UPCProcurement LT for Long-Lead Initiative Production CompletedProduction Outstanding Cost reductions forecast / implemented each monthPlanned Implimentation of Cost Reduction Initiative(s)1 - 35 - 6 910 - 1213 - 1617, 21Completed23-2518, 19, 2021, 2228-36completed JuneTo be completed byend July27 completedMay 2011To be completeAug 2011Jul-09 Sep-09 Nov-09 Jan-10 Mar-10 May-10 Jul-10 Sep-10 Nov-10 Jan-11 Mar-11 May-11 Jul-11 Sep-11 Nov-11 Jan-12 Mar-12ATP 4BAE RO 1ATP 5BAE 2 / 3ATP 6TrancheDate£76£78£79£81£83£84£86£87£89£91£92£94£95£97£99£100UPCProcurement LT for Long-Lead Initiative Production CompletedProduction Outstanding Cost reductions forecast / implemented each monthPlanned Implimentation of Cost Reduction Initiative(s)1 - 35 - 6 910 - 1213 - 1617, 21Completed23-2518, 19, 2021, 2228-36completed JuneTo be completed byend July27 completedMay 2011To be completeAug 2011Jul-09 Sep-09 Nov-09 Jan-10 Mar-10 May-10 Jul-10 Sep-10 Nov-10 Jan-11 Mar-11 May-11 Jul-11 Sep-11 Nov-11 Jan-12 Mar-12ATP 4BAE RO 1ATP 5BAE 2 / 3ATP 6TrancheDate£76£78£79£81£83£84£86£87£89£91£92£94£95£97£99£100UPCProcurement LT for Long-Lead Initiative Production CompletedProduction Outstanding Cost reductions forecast / implemented each monthPlanned Implimentation of Cost Reduction Initiative(s)1 - 35 - 6 910 - 1213 - 1617, 21Completed23-2518, 19, 2021, 2228-36completed JuneTo be completed byend July27 completedMay 2011To be completeAug 2011© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  17. 17. Design and Manufacturing MarginMinimising defects at the start of production and throughout serialproduction is important.Selex ES use design margin control to identify areas where the differencebetween product performance and customer requirements is too small ormissing.Tolerance tiering based on (a) the customer specification and (b) knownmanufacturing and suppler distributions is used to:• Identify weak points• Predict manufacturing yield• Track predictions throughout the design process.Parameter Units Tolerance Spec ATP LimitDesign Aimafter insetConceptDRPreliminary DR Aug-08 Sep-08 Oct-08 Nov-08Electrical PowerDissipation (FIRE atAmbient)Watts < 170 129 123122.7 122.7 122.7 122.7 122.7Power Dissipation Standby Watts < 110 65 6058.7 58.7 58.7 58.7 58.7Power Dissipation WarmupWatts < 185 138 136136 135.99 136 136 136Startup Time Mins < 10 6 6 8 6 5.99 5.99 6 6Predicted Performance (Ambient)© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  18. 18. Root Cause and Corrective ActionEarly life failure can be caused by• Design errors• Supplier errors• Manufacturing errors• User errors (stressing equipment for example)Need to drive the error rate down as rapidly as possible.• How?FailureRateTimeConstant Failure rateEarly life failureWear outMIL-STD-217Prediction© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  19. 19. Problems have always been with usThomas Edison is widely cited as the firstperson to refer to problems as “bugs” in 1878• P. Israel, “Edison – A life of Invention”.John Wiley and Sons Inc (1998), pages135/177Individuals tend to be rather good at solvingproblems• We are all descendents of survivors whowere responsible for developing moderncivilisationGroups tend to find it challenging to deal withcomplex problems,• Problem solving still appears to be anart rather than a scienceThe engineering challenge is minimise theimpact of bugs• Avoid them (best)• Fix them fast (acceptable)© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  20. 20. Start with your error rate: To Err is HumanWhat is your error rate?• Let’s assume 1%What is your correction rate?• Let’s assume 80%http://panko.shidler.hawaii.edu/HumanErr/© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  21. 21. Scale of the Challenge in Complex ProductsStart with an estimate for the number of design decisions made in a task:• 100 items (dimensions, materials, tests …) per drawing• 300 drawings• 1% error rate– suggests about 0.01*100*300 = 300 errors• Drawings are just a representation of a complex sequence of designdecisions that influence the selection of materials (modelling, supplierengagements, cost, …) and other parameters. Estimate thesedecisions as at least 10x more in number– Note that logical errors are harder to find as well, so the errorchecking rate is likely to be smaller for these issues.Conclude that the project team need to identify and correct around 3000errors.© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  22. 22. The Engineering LifecycleActivity Number of errors(1% error rate)Residual errors(80% correction)Design Review #1Preliminary DesignReview3000 600Design Review #2Critical DesignReview600 120Build and test 120+24=148 30Qualification andESS30 6Suppliers also make mistakes, so at the build and test stage I have added in anestimate of parts containing manufacturing errors (estimates of features per drawingx additional decisions made by the supplier (10x) x three stages of supplier review.• Calculation is 300x100x10x0.01x(0.2)3 = 24Reliability?Workload?Escapingerrorsimpact© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  23. 23. Problem Solving ProcessThe task is to provide structure to theproblem solving team. This is best achievedby requiring 5 simple pieces ofinformation.One slide per piece of information1. Problem Statement2. Candidate Root Cause List3. Containment Actions4. Root Cause Investigation Action Plan5. Problem Solving Schedule: to completion ofproblem investigation and implementation inproduct of the corrective action.5 Simple pieces – OK I lied!Problem StatementClear, Factual, QuantitativeCandidate Root Cause ListBrainstorm, AnalysisContainment ActionsMitigate problem,maintain productionRoot Cause InvestigationSystematic action plan.Verify each identifiedcause against problemstatement (Closed loop).Problem Solving Schedule© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  24. 24. The Selex ES approachSimplified DMAIC approach• Clear problem statement• Complete candidate RootCause list• Identify containment actions tocontinue to meet customerrequirements• Action plan (with owners anddates) to identify Root Cause• Schedule to implementationRegular review of progress.• Show an interestDEFINEMEASUREANALYSEIMPROVECONTROLMy 5 Pack© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  25. 25. Team DynamicsRC&CA can be difficult and challenging. Some lessons learnt:• Ensure you have a clear and documented problem statement– Rely on real data – not project myths and legends!– Continually compare the current candidate root causes with the problemstatement to ensure validity• Find a good individual to run RC&CA activities– Often the best designers are not the best individuals for RC investigations.– Stop individuals jumping to conclusions (often to their favourite concern)– Focus on probability of ROOT CAUSE when identifying a plan of attack.• Use the supplier if necessary – they have the real expertise in the part theyprovided you• Focus on the point of embodiment and not just the solution to the problem(ensure the published schedule is relevant to the business).Most Root Cause’s are tediously simple. Only occasionally due you comeacross a truly new issue.© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  26. 26. Benefits of a robust RC&CA processRapid burn down of defects• Improved yield (lower cost)• Improved reliability (better customer relationships, repeat business,lower cost of warranty)• Availability of individuals who might otherwise be supportingproduction or repairs to develop new productsImproved customer communications• The format of the report is clear and simple• Suitable for internal stakeholder and external customercommunications© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  27. 27. ConclusionSelex ES successfully re-entered volumelaser production in 2005.Technical Innovation aligned withmanufacturing excellence has underpinnedsuccess• Queen’s Award for Enterprise in“Innovation in the design and Productionof Military Lasers” in 2011.Customer acceptance has enabled the laserbusiness to contribute to export growth andthe winning of the Queen’s Award forEnterprise for international trade in 2010Internal process improvements hasbenefitted:• Product Cost• Product ReliabilityAnd finally: 2013 is 50 years since Selex ES(as Ferranti) first started to manufacturelasers.© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved
  28. 28. AcknowledgementsA large design and manufacturing effortnaturally depends on inputs from manydedicated people over a long period oftime. While not all can be mentioned, hereare a few:• Neil Anderson, Paul Bell, Colin Bottomley, AndyCarr, Sandy Carr, Stuart Duncan, Chris Davies, AlDownie, Graig Findlay, Graham Friel, Trevor Garlick,Gavin Hall, Dave Houston, Margaret Hancock, StuartHenderson, Andy Irvine, Graham Jeffrey, Ian Jones,Eddie Kielbe, David Legge, Richard Levinsohn, BrianListon, Neil MacDonald, John MacLean, John R.MacLean, Iain McCall, Murray McKenzie, AllanMcNeill, Charlie McVicar, Scott Niven, JonathanNorris Janet Paris, John Peacock, Ian Reid, MarkReid, Keith Rennie, Rob Scott, Andy Sijan, AustinSimpson, Paul Thomson, Dan Thorne, GeorgeThreadgall, Mike Troughton, Jonathan Truby, PaulVincent, Stevie Waldie, Richard Watson, HelenWardle, Cliff Williamson, Tom Willis, Dave Wilson,Andy White… and many othersHere is a good text on life in a largeengineering organisation!© Copyright Selex ES. All rights reserved

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