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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
1.0 Introd...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
access to ...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
2.0 Backgr...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
After marr...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
4.0 Hypoth...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
questions ...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
me
3. Have...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
laws suppo...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.2 What d...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.3 In wh...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.4 Have ...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.6 Do yo...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.7 After...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.8 After...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.9 Does ...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.10 Up t...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.11 When...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
6.12 Does...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
In this p...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
In this d...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
the bondi...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
Banglades...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
• In Bang...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
• There i...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
level of ...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
11. Refer...
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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in bangladesh

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Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in bangladesh

  1. 1. Page 1 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 1.0 Introduction: In Bangladesh, slowly we are moving towards a mordern society from a traditional one, especially in city areas. But some of our customes, traditions and othodox outlook about some major concern yet remained unchanged. Although our ultra modern young couples who do not give much importance towards social values and who express their freedom through their own style of life, after marrigae still face many difficulties specially brides. As in Bangladesh we have mesculine social system, so brides are more vulnarable of facing unpleasent situations (Mannan, 2004, n.p). Just after marriage a girl goes through a lot of changes as she started a new life in a new environment. A bride starts her life with many beautiful dreams. Her expectation of having warm welcome from this new family does not the same thing which happens in reality. In many cases she has to go through physical and psychological trauma to handle various pressures from husband and in laws. (Suran, Amin, Haq &. Chowdury, 2004, n.p) In general, a bride becomes nervous when she enters in to a new family. Moreover, she is the center of attention in marriage ceremony and up to a certain period of time after marriage. As a result of her tension, she cannot able to raise her voice even if any mistreatment happens with her. So, husband, in laws and some male relatives try to take wrong advantages of such situation to fulfill their filthy wishes by all possible ways. (Islam & Mahmud, 1996, pp. 27- 32). Brides, in custom and practice, remained subordinate to grooms in almost all aspects of their lives. Most brides’ lives become centered on their traditional roles, and they had limited
  2. 2. Page 2 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. access to markets, productive services, education, health care, and local government after her marriage. This lack of support and lot of pressure from in laws diminished family well-being, contributed to the malnourishment and generally poor health of brides, and frustrated educational and academic goals of their life. (Lauer & Lauer, 2000, p. 65) Specific objectives of this research paper include examination of the emotional, physical and Sexual and psychological changes brides go through after marriage and how much obstacle they have to face in this significant turn in their life. Also this research aims for understanding of the ways in which brides confront obstacle to post marital cohabitation in a restrictive society like Bangladesh and exploration reasons for these difficulties and other related issues. To address the aim and objective, both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been used along with formal interviews and informal observations in some key areas (Huq & Sajeda, 2001, n.p).
  3. 3. Page 3 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 2.0 Background: The history lies back in the very beginning of family culture in Bangladesh and it remains as a tradition that all the members in the family lived in one residence cohesively. By arranged marriage a bride join in this system as a life partner of any eligible male member and as a new part of the family. During those days dowry, financial assistance from brides’ parents and individualism of girls become a matter of concern. However, they came across many difficulties with each other which, to some extent, altered their mentality. They unlocked their mind and began to live discretely (Russell, 1976, pp. 33-35). During 1990s, most of the families set in motion to split. At that period, Bangladesh was developing economically; real estate was increasing to provide room for families. Moreover, internet was invented, television channels of multiple countries turned up which brought the western culture in our society. Even in this phase of time, marriage is seems to be a social gathering and important for family honor. This is because although there are changes in economic conditions and clothing but still now marriage seems to be a gain for a bridegroom from every aspect (Lindenbaum, 1981, p. 76). Upper-middle class and middle class society in Dhaka values education and professional attachment. The combined effects of improved education, employment opportunities, migration, global media and gender advances are gradually changing societal views. Apart from all these still now most of the families hold the same attitude towards brides and respect of them depends on her family status and economic condition. Brides also can’t raise their voice as they want to avoid attachments which lead to dilemmas. Thus, brides preferred to subsist in an uncomplicated life which resulted in the division of relatives among mutual families (Esteve-Volart, 2003, pp. 113-116).
  4. 4. Page 4 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. After marriage most of the brides regardless of class become a subject of marginalization and they are deprived from education, health and economic opportunities as well as in some particular families they are vulnerable to violence and sexual exploitation. 3.0 Research Area: This research focuses in a comprehensive study on Post-marital Exploitation of Brides, how they are treated by their husband in their in-laws house, and how much discrimination they have to face etc. For making the research paper successful I’ve tried my best to collect real life data and information from my locality and near to my locality like- Rampura, Bonosree, Basundhara etc. To find these, it discusses some questions given below: • In which way your husband and in laws ask for financial assistant from your family? • Do your husband and in laws ridicule you about your family (such as – Family status, quality or value of offerings)? • After marriage do your in laws ever force you to change your individualism (such as – clothing, life style etc)? • What was your husband and in laws reaction after any male member from in laws side tried to physically hassle you? • According to you what was the major reason for mistreatment of brides in Bangladesh?
  5. 5. Page 5 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 4.0 Hypothesis: Hypothesis: Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in almost all level of society. Brides are being considered a subject or just an instrument to fulfill sexual desires of her partner. Considering her consent before establishing sexual relationship is still now not being regarded as important. Moreover, in most of the cases getting married is the ultimate solution of every problem for a guy and for his family. So by creating such extra burden and expecting so much form a bride creates a ground to abuse her in all aspects by her in laws and husband as well (Suran, Amin, Haq &. Chowdury, 2004, n.p). 5.0 Methodology: Most of my data are found from primary sources. There are many theories and studies available in the library and web regarding this issue in various countries’ context. However to relate it to Bangladesh’s context the study recognized the vulnerability of this sub-population in the context of physical, psychological and sexual conduct. 5.1 Primary Research For my primary research, I have conducted a survey of a representative sampling of mainly recently married women who have a married life less than 3 years urban Dhaka. To fulfill this attributes I have designed a questionnaire of 13 questions with different types of useful
  6. 6. Page 6 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. questions so as to get as much as information which have helped me to answer my research questions and find a proper solution. I have interviewed twenty-five women who have experience about real life experience as a bride and face such situation and I have tried to find out what significant effects they have on their lives due to of marriage. 5.2 Secondary Research For my secondary research, I have focused mainly on the library references including books, journals, Demography magazine, newspapers related to my topic. I have utilized my time by searching for effective information from these sources by going to the library in my free time and also in the gaps of my classes. Moreover, I have issued the books which I found more interesting and done research on them. 6.0 Primary Analysis: 6.1 Data Presentation: 1. What do you think about taking gift from bride’s side? a) Yes, it is important for making warm relation. b) Yes, it reflects family status. c) No, it create pressure on brides and her parents d) No, it is just an alternative way for taking dowry 2. In which way your husband and in laws ask for financial assistant from your family? a) They directly demand for financial assistance and threaten me b) They ask for financial assistant and force me c) They indirectly request for financial help but never pressurized d) They never ask or demand for financial assistant
  7. 7. Page 7 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. me 3. Have you ever been beaten by your husband or in Laws for dowry? a) Yes, by my husband. b) Yes, by my in laws c) Yes, both d) No, I never face this situation 4. Do you face any discrimination at your in laws house? a) Yes, I face this problem. b) Yes, but rarely. c) No, I never face this problem. d) No, I think it’s natural. 5. Do your husband and in laws ridicule you about your family (such as – Family status, quality or value of offerings)? a) They directly mock at me b)They indirectly inform me about their dissatisfactio n c) They didn’t told but their gesture was unpleasant d) Not at all 6. After marriage do your in laws ever force you to change your individualism (such as – clothing, life style etc)? a) Very much b) Some what c) A little d) Not at all 7. After marriage how much support you get from in-laws side for academic career? a) I get perfect support for my study b) They just allow my academic career C) I continue my study by struggling d) I have to stop my study after marriage 8. Does your opinion get importance? a) Yes, my opinion is evaluated by all. b) Yes, only husband gives importance. c) No, I never get importance from my husband. d) No, my opinion is always rejected by all 9. Up to what extent your husband and in a) My husband and in laws are b) They allow my job only c) They don’t like my d) I quit my job because
  8. 8. Page 8 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. laws support you to maintain your work life balance? very supportive and they encourages me because of financial reason working outside. of their pressure 10. Does your husband take permission from you before establishing sexual relationship a) Yes, he ask for my permission b) Yes, he does not ask orally but take my consent c) No, but he convinced and pressurized me to agree with him d) No, he forcefully establish sexual relationship 11. When do you get appropriate medical assistance for your post marital physical problems? a) I get absolute support from my husband and in laws instantly b) My husband was helpful but I have to force my in laws for it c) No, they are not helpful at all and I have to arrange by my own d) I can’t mention my need for hesitation 12. What was your husband and in laws reaction after any male member from in laws side tried to physically hassle you? a) They give me full psychological support b) They advised me just to ignore him and forget every thing c) I couldn’t able to share this incident with any one d) These types of incidents never happen 13. According to you what was the major reason for mistreatment of brides in Bangladesh? a) It is because of our traditional social system b) It is normal and women have to face it c) It is a problem of my in-law’s family d) I don’t think any mistreatment happen with brides
  9. 9. Page 9 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.2 What do you think about taking gift from bride’s side? In the above pie-chart, it is visibly seen that for 69% of brides taking excessive gift from brides’ side is nothing but a way to create pressure. Whereas only 31% support it any way as they believe that it is tradition to take gifts from brides’ side and it must continue. This graph represents the idea that the traditional gift culture has what sort of impression to brides. For most of the respondents it is nothing but an alternative way of creating pressure to their family. More over most of them thing it is nothing but an alternative way of taking dowry in modern society. On the other hand a few of them still believe that it is necessary for creating warmth in new relation but the percentage is very insignificant in this point of view.
  10. 10. Page 10 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.3 In which way your husband and in laws ask for financial assistant from your family? In this doughnut chat, the red portion which is most significant indicates about 50% brides’ in law force them for financial assistance where as 8% of in laws threaten them to do so. Another 28% respondent said that in law just request for it but never force them. But only 20% brides mentioned that they were never pressurized for any kind of monetary help from in laws side. This is quite clear from this graph that although many things changes but still now mentality of most of the people remained unchanged. So, instead of increasing trust and understanding between couples, most of the time brides face difficult situation after marriage and their family is pressurized to do so for the well being of their daughter.
  11. 11. Page 11 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.4 Have you ever been beaten by your husband or in laws for dowry? In this bar chart, about 36% women never beat by their husband and in laws. It is the most significant part of the chart. But most of the women ignore the real situation because of society. The blue portion of the chart agreed that they are beaten by their husband and about 25% women are beaten by their in laws. 20% of brides confess that they are beaten by both husband and in laws. It is a cruel picture of post marital life of our brides in our country for most of the brides. They never want to say to others because of their ego. Even, they don’t want to make their husband insulted to the society by confessing the truth. 6.5 Do you face any discrimination at your in laws house? In the above graph, about 45% brides face discrimination at their in laws house. 36% rarely faces this problem. 7% of them never face this problem and 15% believe that it is very natural because she comes from another family so; she never gets the same opportunity as her husband. But this situation is very common in Bangladesh. After coming from office husband takes rest but wife rushes to cook for her husband and children. It is a obvious discrimination.
  12. 12. Page 12 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh.
  13. 13. Page 13 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.6 Do your husband and in laws ridicule you about your family (such as – Family status, quality or value of offerings)? In the above pie-chart, it is visibly seen that only 8% of brides have not face any unpleasant comments or gestures from husband and in laws. But above 90% brides confront distasteful situation just after their marriage either directly or in directly. Among this about 50% respondents said that there in laws gesture was unpleasant although they did not directly mock at them. Brides and their families are viewed as sub ordinates to bridegrooms’ family. From this graph we can see that majority of the brides have to face some kinds of unpleasant comments or gestures from in laws regarding various topics.
  14. 14. Page 14 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.7 After marriage do your in laws ever force you to change your individualism (such as – clothing, life style etc)? In this graph, 60% brides confess that they were being pressurized somewhat to change their individualism after marriage but for 16% of them the pressure was too high. All together about 96% brides face at least some demands from in law to alter themselves. This graph indicates that in laws female are much more concerned to change brides’ individualism after marriage. They force fully want to change the bride just after her marriage. Change is a process which demands some time but brides in most of the cases don’t have the time and to avoid chaos they just transform themselves.
  15. 15. Page 15 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.8 After marriage how much support you get from in-laws side for academic career? In this doughnut chat, the blue portion which is the least significant indicates about only 4% of brides get perfect support for their study after marriage. Whereas 64% of brides said that they are only allowed by in laws to continue their academic career. Another 20% brides indicted that they continue their study by lots of struggling. At the highest extreme 8% of the brides have to stop their academic career after marriage. This is quite apparent from this graph that in recent years in laws and husbands do not force to stop academic career of their wives but they also are not ready to help them in this regards. This is an indication of constricted mentality of in laws about their daughter in laws which change very insignificant. Yet husbands and in laws are not ready to provide any kinds of support for brides’ academic life.
  16. 16. Page 16 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.9 Does your opinion get importance? In this doughnut, 36% bride’s opinions are always rejected by all at their in laws house. 27% of them get importance by all except their husband. 25% brides get importance only from their husband and rest 12% bride’s opinion is evaluated by all at their in laws house. This doughnut represents the value of opinion of women in our country. In major decision they are always ignored by their husband and in laws. Sometimes, they get importance but the number is very small.
  17. 17. Page 17 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.10 Up to what extent your husband and in laws support you to maintainyour work life balance? In the above pie-chart, it is visibly seen that for 52% brides they are being allowed by their husbands and in laws to continue their job because of financial reasons. Only 8% respondents said that there in laws and husband encouraged them about their job. 28% brides face difficulties in maintaining work life balances as their husbands and in laws don’t like their working outside at all. This graph represents the idea although our society now accepts the working women concept but in reality how much support brides received from in laws to maintain their work life balance. This graph indicated that the portion of brides who get perfect assistance from in laws are very insignificant. Most of them are allowed to do job purely because of financial reasons.
  18. 18. Page 18 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.11 When you come to know about his limitations? In this pie chart it is summarized, brides whose partners have any sexual problems or diseases respond when they come to know about this limitation of their partners. The most significant is the red portion which indicates that about 56% of the brides came to know about this when they establish sexual relationship with their partners. On the other hand, 33% brides come to know about such problem when they got affected by the diseases. This graph represents the idea that what percent of males are ready to accept their sexual problems to their partners. Though male are more expressive in this regard, but most of them have the courage to accept their sexual problems in front of their partners. Except a few exceptions, in most of the cases brides came to know about this either in the time of establishing physical relationship or when they are affected by the diseases.
  19. 19. Page 19 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 6.12 Does your husband take permission from you before establishing sexual relationship? In this graph, the Y-axis indicates whether husbands take permission of wives before establishing sexual relationship X-axis shows the percentage of these factors. Only 4% husbands take permission before establishing sexual relationship with wives. But the matter of concern is about 50% brides confess that their husbands even pressurized against their consent to do so. This graph shows that brides are victimized sexually even by their husbands. Sexual relationship is a natural content of marriage life where consent of both is must. Both decision of sexual relationship is being decided purely by husband. Males consider their sexual intercourse fulfillment as an important issue for post marital cohabitation. Very few of them consider their brides’ permission necessary in this regards. 6.13 When do you get appropriate medical assistance for your post marital physical problems?
  20. 20. Page 20 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. In this pie chat, the red portion which is most significant indicates about 36% brides’ in law and husband are not helpful at all and they have to arrange all medical assistance by their own. Another 32% accept the fact that their hesitation was more prominent than their need. Whereas altogether only 32% get appropriate support either from husband or in laws about such difficulties. This is quite clear from this graph that brides in our country feel very shy to mention their need in very primary stage of marriage life until it became very serious issue. It is quite obvious from the graphs although husbands are helpful up to some extent but in laws still now have the same conservative outlook about such important issue. 6.14 What was your husband and in laws reaction after any male member from in laws side tried to physically hassle you?
  21. 21. Page 21 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. In this doughnut graph, the blue portion which is the most insignificant but the most important aspect that only 12% brides get full support from their in laws when any male members tried to physically hassle her. 44% respondents said that they are being advised to forget everything for the sake of honor of in laws. Another 24% brides accepted that such incidents happened but they were unable to share it with anyone. This graph shows that these sorts of unpleasant incident happen frequently with brides. Some people try to take advantages of brides’ shyness to fulfill their filthy wishes. In most of the cases brides don’t get any justice even support from in laws regarding this issue. 6.15 According to you what was the major reason for mistreatment with brides in Bangladesh? In this pie chart reasons behind mistreatment with brides are being summarized. 60% of the brides believe that our traditional social system is responsible for such exploitation. Another 24% accept this as a natural incident where as 12% brides believe that problem is only with her in laws. This graph is an indicator which shows that brides’ life is full of problems. Both male and female are more concerned regarding their financial security and allotment of responsibility but they don’t place
  22. 22. Page 22 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. the bonding and value of love more. So, it is our traditional social system which always accepts girls to be more patience and tolerate everything without any demand. 7.0 Secondary data Analysis: 7.1 Present Scenario of post marital life: Statistics show that 88% of the recently married Muslim wives in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, did not receive their mohorana, but were forced to give a dowry. Even though girls and women are forced to wear the burqa, as a means for following the guidelines of the Qu’ran, people easily forget about religion when it comes to taking or demanding a dowry. “It has become a practice to give dowry to the groom’s family to show gratitude that he has agreed to marry the bride. But the truth is, it has become a kind of source of income for the groom and an easy way to get money without working for it,” explains Dr. Saira Rahaman Khan, an Assistant Professor at the School of Law at the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee University (BRAC) and a founding member of Odhikar, a leading non- governmental organization working to raise awareness on human rights abuses in Bangladesh. According to Khan, “social pressure on the bride’s family and fear” are the factors that keep nurturing the dowry system – despite the fact that it is legally banned. Under enormous pressure from human rights groups and the international community, the Bangladeshi government passed the Dowry Prohibition Act in 1980, which legally banned dowries and imposed sanctions, as well as the Cruelty to Women Ordinance in 1983. Yet, incidents of domestic violence due to dowry issues have not decreased. The government of
  23. 23. Page 23 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. Bangladesh imposed the Women and Children Repression Prevention Act in 2000 that enhanced the punishment up to death penalty for crimes against women and children, depending on the incident. As a result of this law, taking or demanding a dowry could result in imprisonment, a fine, or both. “I do not see any decrease in the trend, despite the fact that there is a Dowry Prohibition Act in place and several large NGOs and government initiatives to stop violence against women,” says Khan, explaining the factors that are conducive to the continuation of dowry-related violence in Bangladesh: “lack of implementation of laws, lack of political will of the government, the perception of domestic violence as a social matter, ingrained ‘traditions,’ and especially the overall corruption that directly and indirectly influences all of the above.” 7.2 Eliminating violence against women: • A participatory social mobilization campaign may be launched together by the government, NGOs and the private sector. The planned actions to eradicate violence against women need to be integrated with national plans of development, especially in the poverty reduction strategies. The private sector may extend assistance to build social capital, particularly as a safety net for the victims in the poor families, so that they can seek justice, medical care and rehabilitation services; • Future reformative action by the government would need to be focused on achieving more intensive and concerted participation of both the police and the courts so that they too can contribute towards eradicating the social evil of violence against women. Male partners should be sensitized to raise their awareness of the adverse consequences of violence against women;
  24. 24. Page 24 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. • In Bangladesh, especially in the rural societies, religious leaders (imams, kazis, mattobars) play an important role as local arbitrators (gram shalish) and give fatwa’s for inflicting punishment (stoning, dorras, social ostracisation), particularly against women. Changing the attitudes and orientation of these people needs involvement of the local government; • Where necessary, existing laws relating to violence against women must be amended and implemented in the light of the Beijing Conference; • Withdrawal of the reservation of CEDAW Articles 2 & 16.c. for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; • The law enforcing agencies and the local governments need to be more proactive and positively sensitive towards cases of violence against women so that timely actions are taken against the perpetrators. • To eradicate violence from the society, emphasis should be given on the empowerment of women, and on ensuring a secure and progressively dynamic life for them. Women no longer have to become victims of heinous crimes. 8.0 Limitation: • In doing this study I’ve faced some limitations, those are - • Time for preparing this research paper is very short. • There are only 30 respondents • The information I’ve used in my research paper is based on primary data. • Some brides do not want to speak the truth
  25. 25. Page 25 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. • There is a budget limitation. • Lack of primary data • Lack of secondary data 9.0 Conclusion: Under the present social structure, it is perhaps not surprising that values and life style of people are changing very in a rapid manner but for certain issues outlook of society has not changed significantly. Such a topic is post marital attitudes and behavior with brides. Brides are targets of discrimination, exploitation, and violence in Bangladesh despite of major changes that society has been gone through. After marriage they are being forced and dominated physically, psychologically and sexually by their partners and in laws. It was quite surprising to indentify that in high class society, this concept of mistreatment of brides is as prominent as in other classes. Moreover, post marital sex strictly for pleasure is more common among husbands and also an area of dominance against brides. So all these factors actually highlights to the point that we are experiencing a very slow cultural change where romantic love and courtship has been giving way to an altogether new alternatives. (Suran, Amin, Haq &. Chowdury, 2004, pp. 45-56). After completing this research, I can conclude that my hypothesis is right that brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in almost all
  26. 26. Page 26 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. level of society. They are deprived from their basic rights. Even they are mistreated by their husband and husband’s relatives at her in laws house. 10. Recommendation: The foremost suggestion is this although it will be troublesome but proper medical checkup before marriage is must before starting post marital life. Moreover, open conversation regarding such topic will be to make people more comfortable with a controversial issue like this. So, it is necessary to convert their attitude and make them aware by giving idea about the harsh reality brides face after their marriage (Huq & Sajeda, 2001, n.p). Mother should play important role to grow up their daughters by giving them proper knowledge and making them aware of their rights. Then they can protect themselves from any kind of violence in their life.
  27. 27. Page 27 Brides are mistreated physically, psychologically and sexually in their post marital life in Bangladesh. 11. References: Amin, S., Alaka, B, M., & Stephenson, R. (2002). Spatial variation in contraceptive use in Bangladesh: Looking beyond the borders. Demography, 39(2), 251-267. Amin, S. & Mead, C. (1997). The rise of dowry in Bangladesh. In G. W. Jones et al. (Eds.), The continuing demographic transition (pp. 290-306). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. Bhuiya, A.U., Sharmin, T & Hanifi, S. M. (2003). Nature of domestic violence against women in a rural area of Bangladesh: Implication for preventive interventions. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 21(1), 48-54. Islam, M. & Mahmud, M. (1996). Marriage patterns and some issues related to adolescent marriage in Bangladesh, Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 11(3), 27-42. Lauer, R., H. & Lauer, J., C., (2000), Changing pattern of intimate relationship. Marriage and family (4th ed.), Boston: McGraw Hill. Lindenbaum, S. 1981. Implications for women of changing marriage transactions in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, 12(11), 394-401. Schuler, R., Syed, M. H. , Ann P. R, & Akhter, S. 1996. Credit programs, patriarchy and men's violence against women in rural Bangladesh, Social Science & Medicine, 43(12), 1729-1742. Suran, L. Amin, S. Haq, L. Chowdury, K. (2004). “Does dowry improve lifes of brides? A test of the bequest theory of dowry in rural Bangladesh. Population council,” 195. , Retrieved from http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/wp/195.pdf Russell, B. (1976), The place of sex among human values. Marriage and Morals, London: Routledge. Wikipedia, (2011). “Wedding”. Retrieved (2011, 03 27) from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wedding Hussain, M (2010, November 25). Eliminating violence against women. The Daily Star, p. 20

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