Gulshan e noor Scout Unit Yaqeen Badge Question with Answers (a)Spiritual Development (25)Q1 Write an Essay of 200 words on any one of the following topics:1 Ghazva-e-Badar,The first battle between the believers of truth (Islam) and the forces of evil was fought on the battle field of Badar, 60 milesfrom Madinah towards Makkah. On one side stood a small group of 313 men of whom merely 60 of them wore armour,while facing them was arranged an army of one thousand warriors well armed and equipped. The believers had the strengthof their Faith in Allah and His Prophet. They knew that Truth must prevail and falsehood must be destroyed. Thus it wasthis very Faith which brought about the Miracle and Truth did triumph.2 Ghazva-e-Ohad,Ohud is a hill near Madinah. The famous battle of Ohud was fought in the valley of this hill. The non-believers fromQuresh, invaded Madinah with an army of three thousand, in the third year of Hijra.The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) with his 700 worthy companions fought the battle and like all such occasions, inthis battle too, the Faith of the Muslims for Allah and love for His Prophet (peace be upon him) gave them strength todefend themselves inspite of lack of numbers and inferiority of equipment.3 Ghazva-e-Khandaq (Battle of Ehzaab)Abu Sufyan had succeeded in forming a military alliance composed of the Jews and various tribes of the Arabs. The newsof this great army was brought to the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). He called a meeting of His Companions. On thesuggestion of Hazrat Salman Farsi, a trench of a depth of five cubits and width of more than ten cubits was dug, all around.The ten thousand strong army of Quresh tried to cross it for 25 days but in-vain. At last, the army began to defect and AbuSufyan was forced to lead it back to Makkah in utter depression.4 Ghazva-e-TabukThe Campaign to Tabuk was the result of conflict with the Roman Empire that had started even before the conquest ofMakkah. One of the missions sent after the Treaty of Hudaibiyah to different parts of Arabia visited the clans which livedin the northern areas adjacent to Syria. The majority of these people were Christians who were under the influence of theRoman Empire. Contrary to all the principles of the commonly accepted international law they killed fifteen members ofthe delegation near a place known as Zat-u-Talah (or Zat-i-Itlah). Only Kaab bin Umair Ghifari the head of the delegationsucceeded in escaping and reporting the sad incident. Besides this Shurahbll bin Amr the Christian governor of Busra whowas directly under the Roman Caesar had also put to death Haritli bin Umair the ambassador of the Holy Prophet who hadbeen sent to him on a similar minion.Q2 A) Haqooq-e-AllahOwn WordB) Haqooq-ul-EbadOwn WordQ3 How we Help and Assist the Needy and Sick Peoples or Persons at Villages and Hospitals.
Own Word (b)Intellectual Development (25)Q4 Pioneering: How to Make and also know the Uses of1 Fireman Chair KnotUse: The firemans chair knot is a rescue knot. There are two loops formed. One which goes under thearms; the other under the legs of person.2 Crown KnotUse ---- To tie of the end of a rope so that it does not UN lay. ----- To begin a back splice. ---- As partof several multiple strand knots.3 Rolling HitchUse: The rolling hitch is a versatile knot that has many uses. One of the most practical is for exertingforce along another line. For instance if a jib sheet jams in a winch, you can attach a rolling hitch totake the pressure off the line as you undo the jam4 Square LashingsUse: The Square Lashing is used to bind together two spars that are at right angles with one another.Square lashings are designed to be load bearing and can be used to create scaffolding.5 Diagonal LashingsUse: The Diagonal Lashing is used to lash two spars together. Unlike the Square lashing which worksfor right angle crossings, the diagonal lashing secures poles crossing each other at a variety of angles6 Tripod LashingsUse: Ashley shows a Tripod Lashing but he shows the two side legs spreading apart from each otherinstead of crossing. The method shown in the animation is preferred because the legs bind against eachother for greater stability7 SplicesRope splicing in ropework is the forming of a semi-permanent joint between two ropes or two parts of thesame rope by partly untwisting and then interweaving their strands. Splices can be used to form a stopper at theend of a line, to form a loop or an eye in a rope, or for joining two ropes together. Splices are preferred toknotted rope, since while a knot typically reduces the strength by 20-40% , some splices can retain up to 95%of the strength of the line. However, splicing usually results in a thickening of the line and if subsequentlyremoved a distortion of the rope. Most types of splices are used on 3 strand rope, but some can be done on 12strand or greater single braided rope as well as most double braidBack Splices
Back splice (also called an end splice) - A splice where the strands of the end of the rope are spliced directlyback into the end without forming a loop. It is used to finish off the end of the rope to keep it from fraying. Theend of the rope with the splice is about twice the thickness of the rest of the rope. With nylon and other plasticmaterials, the back splice is often no longer used; the rope strands are simply fused together with heat toprevent frayingShort Splicesshort splice - Also a splice used to join the ends of two ropes, but the short splice is more similar to thetechnique used in other splices and results in the spliced part being about twice as thick as the non spliced part,and has greater strength than the long splice. The short splice retains more of the rope strength than any knotsthat join rope ends.Eye SplicesThe eye splice is the best method of creating a permanent loop in the end of multi stranded rope by meansof rope splicing. The ends of the rope are tucked (plaited) back into the standing end to form the loop. Originallythis splice was described with each end being tucked only about three times. When the splice was made intarred hemp or cotton this was reasonably safe. With modern synthetic ropes, five complete tucks is a minimumand additional tucks are recommended for critical loads. The eyesplice is also commonly used on wire rope.Q5. Map Reading and MakingA) Describe Contours and Conventional Signs.A map is a birds eye view of a piece of land draw on a mangerbal piece of paper only accret to the day it wasprinted., almost everything that appears on a map, except a written name, is a conventional sign.Conventional signs are designed to enable the maximum amount of information to be put on a map in theclearest way possibleCartographic conventional signsCartographic conventional signs are represented as designations of different objects ant itsqualitative and quantitative characteristics. Conventional signs are standard and obligatory for alldepartments and establishments of USSR that are engaged with map creation. Conventional signs of oneand the same objects on all large-scaled maps are the same outlines and coloring, but differ in size. Foreach group of homogeneous objects a common conventional sign, as a rule, is fixed and it defines the classof objects. It usually has simple outline, which is convenient for drafting and memorizing. A conventionalsign corresponds by its illustration and color with the depicted locality object.Cartographic conventional signs according to the function geometric qualities are divided intothree types: linear, out-scaled and areal. Except conventional signs there are some signs onmaps, that elucidate kind or type of depicted on the map objects and its qualitative orquantitative characteristics.Linear cartographic conversional signsLinear cartographic conversional signs depict objects of linear character,the length of which becomes apparent in the scale of a map, road, oil-pipe line, power line,etc.Out-scaled cartographic conventional signsCartographic out-scaled conventional signs depict objects, the square ofwhich is not presented in the scale of a map. The position of the object on map is defined: in
the center of a sign, that has symmetrical form; in the middle of a sign base with wide bottom; in the top ofa signs angle with the bottom in the form of a right angle; in the center of lower figure sign, that representa combination of several figures.B) How to Draw a Map Using Triangular MethodTriangulation is the process of pinpointing the location of something by taking bearings to it from tworemote points.Forest fire lookout towers used triangulation to locate spot fires.A ranger at Tower A would see smoke in the distance and take a bearing to it on his compass. This singleline was not enough information to locate the fire because it could be anywhere along that line, close ormany miles away.The ranger would radio Tower B and tell him the general direction of the fire. Tower B would then find thefire from his viewpoint and take a bearing. Where the two bearings crossed would pinpoint the fire andfirefighters could be efficiently dispatched to put it out.Sometimes, a third tower would be used to verify the location, but two readings are all that is usuallynecessary. If a fire occurs directly between two towers or off in a direction that causes their bearings to besimilar, then a third bearing is necessary.This type of triangulation is used by two fixed spots to find a third unknown spot. What you need to do whilein the outdoors is similar, but you need to find out where you are, not where something else isQ6. Estimation: Distances, Numbers, Heights and Weights,(Knowledge of measuring each in Two (2) Different ways) and Know his Personal MeasurementHeightsMeasuring Heights - Pencil Method or Proportional MethodHave a friend whose height you know stand beside a tree, or tie a ribbon around the tree at your own height. Step back and hold a pencil ora stick at arms length in front of you. With one eye closed, sight over the stick so that the top of it appears to touch the ribbon or yourfriends head. Place your thumbnail on the stick where it seems to touch the base of the tree. Now move the stick up to see how many timesthis measurement goes into the height of the tree. Multiply that number by the height of your friend or the ribbon, and you will know theheight of the tree. You can also use this method to measure buildings, waterfalls, and wallsWe merely solve the unknown height by use of proportions, by equating: AB KNOWN AB - Length of the shadow cast by treeUNKNOWN = ----------------------, where CD CD - Length of the shadow cast by a known heightWidthsMeasuring Widths - Napoleon MethodStand on one shore of a stream. Bow your head, chin against your chest. Hold your hand to your forehead in asalute. Move your hand down until the front edge of it seems to touch the opposite shore. Without changing theposition of your hand, make a quarter turn. Notice the point at which the edge of your hand seems to touch the
near shore. Pace off the distance to that point, and you will know the width of the river. Napoleon might haveused the brim of this hat instead of his hand. If you are wearing a cap with a visor, so can you.Measuring Widths - Stride or Step MethodSelect an object on the opposite side of the river, such as a tree and we mark it as A. Mark the point directly infront of the object on the opposite side of the river, mark it as point B. Take at least 50 paces to point C, so as toform line BC. Note that line BC should be perpendicular to line AB. Mark point C with a stick or anotherperson. Again, pace another distance to point D. The distance CD is half the distance of BC. From point D, paceanother distance to point E. Line DE is parallel to line AB. Point E is marked on a location wherein you can seepoint C forming a straight line with point A. Meaning when you look at the stick on point C. it somewhat blocksyour line of sight to point A. The distance AB is twice the distance DE. AB = DE x 2. We can alter the methoda bit. Instead of having distance CD half the distance between BC, we can make it equal to each other. Do thesame method to find point E. Using this alternative, AB=DE. This is more accurate.Measuring Widths - Compass MethodLocate an object on the other side of a river. Stand on your side and point the direction-of-travel arrow towardsthe object. Align the magnetic needle to 45O indicator of the compass housing. Pace the line BC while pointingthe direction-of-travel arrow towards the object all the time. Point C is marked when the compass is oriented(magnetic needle is directly above the orienteering arrow). The distance BC is a rough estimate of distance AC.You have just formed a 45-45-90 triangle, which has two of its sides equal to each other.Q7Cooking:A) How to Cook Two (2) Curries, ChapatiesOwn WordB) How prepare Two (2) Hot and Cold Beverages.Cook Potatoes, Meat, Eggs, Bread, Toast, and Boiled Egg without tools (Backwoodsman Techniques)Own WordQ8. Importance of Camping, write the check ListCamping is a growing, family-friendly activity that draws people away from lifes everyday stresses and intonature. Whether roughing it in a tent in the back country, or maintaining some comforts of home in an RV,camping creates opportunities for kids to learn life lessons. Make some plans, pack the marshmallows, and headout to share in an adventure with your kids at your favorite campground.
Q9 Draw Compass (c)Physical Development (25)Q10. A) First Aid: Know How to1 Treat HeatDefinition: A process in which an alloy or metal is heated to a suitable temperature, is held at that temperature long enoughto allow a certain constituent to enter into solid solution, and is then cooled rapidly to hold that constituent in solution. Mostsolution heat treatments soften or anneal.2 Sun Strokes • 1. Enough drinking of water • 2. Oral Rehydration Salts • 3. Avoid extreme sun-bathing hard labor • 4. Use a head cover • 5. Carry drinking water or home made ORS during journey3 Electrical Shock and FaintsFaintingFainting is often caused by a person’s blood pooling in their lower extremities, which results innot enough blood and oxygen getting to the brain.This can be caused by standing still for a prolonged period especially on a hot day, as a result ofpain or while experiencing something that causes distress.Fainting can often be confused with shock. The major difference between the two is the personspulse rate. Someone who is suffering from feeling faint will have a slow pulse, whereas a personin shock will have weak rapid pulse.Treatment for someone who is feeling faint is to get them to sit or preferably lay down with theirlegs elevated. If the person is experiencing a fainting attack they will show immediate signs ofrecovery once they are lying down. You may also need to treat any other injuries caused by thepatient falling over.
If the person doesn’t begin to recover almost immediately there may possibly be something elsewrong, and calling for medical help is requiredElectrical ShockStop wearing rubber-sole shoes, Avoid carpeting, Raise the humidity of the room you are in, Carry a metal object with if you are going someplace where you are likely to get a shock,B). Know How to Diagnose and Provide Treatment to Person having FractureOwn WordQ11. Know Basic knowledge about Respiratory System and Uses of Two (2) Methods of Artificial RespirationMethods of Artificial RespirationThe are three methods of artificial respiration: 1. Mouth-to-mouth/ Mouth-to-nose 2. Chest pressure arm lift (Silvester) 3. Back pressure arm lift (Holger-Nielsen)The most practical method is the mouth-to-mouth/nose method.Step 1: Evaluation 1. Check for responsiveness of the victim. 2. Call for help. 3. Position the unconscious casualty so that he is lying on his back and on a firm surface. If the casualty is lying on his chest (prone position), cautiously roll the casualty as a unit so that his body does not twist (which may further complicate a neck, back or spinal injury).Follow the following steps for rolling the victim:
1. Straighten the casualtys legs. Take the casualtys arm that is nearest to you and move it so that it is straight and above his head. Repeat procedure for the other arm. 2. Kneel beside the casualty with your knees near his shoulders (leave space to roll his body). Place one hand behind his head and neck for support. With your other hand, grasp the casualty under his far arm (See Figure above). 3. Roll the casualty toward you using a steady and even pull. His head and neck should stay in line with his back. 4. Return the casualtys arms to his side. Straighten his legs. Reposition yourself so that you are now kneeling at the level of the casualtys shoulders. However, if a neck injury is suspected, and the jaw thrust will be used, kneel at the casualtys head, looking toward his feet.Step 2: Opening the Airway-Unconscious and Not Breathing CasualtyIf there is any foreign matter visible in the victims mouth, wipe it quickly with your fingers orcloth wrapped around your fingers. 1. Tilt the Head back so the chin is pointing upwards. The victim should be flat on his back. Pull or push the jaw into a jutting out position for removal of obstruction of the airway by moving the base of tongue away from back of throat (See figure below). 2. Open your mouth wide and place it tightly over the victims mouth. At the same time pinch the victims nostrils shut or close with your cheek. Or close the victims mouth and place your mouth over the nose. Blow into the victims mouth or nose. (Air may be blown through the victims teeth, even if they are clenched). The first blowing method should determine whether or not obstruction exists.
3. Remove your mouth, turn your head to side and listen for the return rush of the air that indicate air exchange. Repeat the blowing effort. For the adult blow vigorously at a rate of about 12 breaths per minute. For a child, take relatively shallow breaths appropriate for the childs size, at a rate of about 20 per minute.4. If the victim is not breathing out the air that you blew in, recheck the head and jaw position. If you still do no get air exchange, quickly turn the victim on his side and hit him sharply between the shoulder blades several times in hope of dislodging foreign matter. Again sweep you finger through the victims mouth to remove foreign matter. If you do not wish to come in direct contact with person, you may hold a cloth over the victims mouth or nose and breath through it. Cloth does not greatly affect the exchange of air.5. After giving two breaths which cause the chest to rise, attempt to locate a pulse on the casualty. Feel for a pulse on the side of the casualtys neck closest to you by placing the first two fingers (index and middle fingers) of your hand on the groove beside the casualtys Adams apple (carotid pulse). (Your thumb should not be used for pulse taking because you may confuse your pulse beat with that of the casualty.) Maintain the airway by keeping your other hand on the casualtys forehead. Allow 5 to 10 seconds to determine if there is a pulse (See Figure).1. If a pulse is found and the casualty is breathing --STOP; allow the casualty to breathe on his own. If possible, keep him warm and comfortable.2. If a pulse is found and the casualty is not breathing, continue rescue breathing.3. If a pulse is not found, begin chest compression.
1. Expose chest and find breast bone. Put the heal of one hand on breast bone and other hand on top. 2. Compress the chest 15 times.If a pulse is not found, seek medically trained personnel for help.For infants and small childrenIf there is any foreign matter visible in the victims mouth, wipe it quickly with your fingers orcloth wrapped around your fingers. 1. Place the child on his back and use the fingers of both hands to lift the lower jaw from beneath and behind, so that it juts out. 2. Place your mouth over the child mouth and nose, making a relatively leak proof seal and breathe into the child, using shallow puffs of air. The breathing rate should be about 20/minute. If you meet resistance in your blowing efforts, recheck the position of the jaw. If the air passages are still blocked, the child should be suspended momentarily by the ankles, or inverted over the arm and given two or three sharp pats between the shoulder blades, in the hope of dislodging obstructing matterQ12. Know the Danger of High and Low Blood PressureWhat is blood pressure?Blood pressure means the pressure of blood in your arteries as it’s being pumped by the heart.Higher blood pressure is linked with a higher incidence of diabetes complications, such as kidneydisease and sight damage, so the blood pressure target for people with diabetes is a reading of under130/80 mmHg.Read more on the meaning of these numbers below the symptoms.
What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?Most diabetics with high blood pressure have no symptoms.However, very high blood pressure or rapidly rising blood pressure can cause: • Headaches • Vision problems • Nose bleeds • Trouble breathing • Fits • Black-outsWhat are the symptoms of low blood pressure?Similar to high blood pressure, the symptoms of low pressure may not always be apparent. If you do get symptoms, theymay be identified as any of the following: • Feeling dizzy, light headed or fainting • blurred vision • a rapid or irregular heartbeat • feeling nauseous • confusionWhat do blood pressure numbers mean?Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury, as two figures, for example 124/80 mmHg. • The first number (124 in this case) is known as systolic pressure - pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts. • The second number (80 here) is diastolic pressure - the pressure in the arteries when the heart rest (d)Social Development (25)Q13.What is Social Services and what is the responsibility of scoutSocial services are organizations that assist people in need. There are many different types of services thatthey perform and can range from helping domestic violence victims to financially in need people.
Why Social Work?The profession of social work was founded on a set of core values and principles that still guide its unique purpose andperspective today. These core values include service, social justice, inherent dignity and worth of the person, importance ofhuman relationships, integrity, and competence. For more than 100 years, social workers have helped millions of peoplechallenge their circumstances and change their lives, and pushed institutions to value and support persons in need.According to the NASW Code of Ethics, social work core values are defined as:Service Social works primary goal is to help people in need and to address social problems. Social workers elevate serviceto others above self-interest. Social workers draw on their knowledge, values, and skills to help people in need and toaddress social problems.Social Justice Social workers challenge social injustice. Social workers pursue social change, particularly with and onbehalf of vulnerable and oppressed individuals and groups of people. Social workers social change efforts are focusedprimarily on issues of poverty, unemployment, discrimination, and other forms of social injustice.Dignity and Worth of the Person Social workers respect the inherent dignity and worth of the person. Social workers treateach person in a caring and respectful fashion, mindful of individual differences and cultural and ethic diversity. Socialworkers support client self-determination, that is, the right of individuals to make choices about their futures.Importance of Human Relationships Social workers recognize the central importance of human relationships. Socialworkers understand that relationships between and among people are an important vehicle for change. Social workersengage people as partners in the helping process. They seek to strengthen relationships among people in a purposefuleffort to promote, restore, maintain, and enhance well-being of individuals, families, social groups, organizations, andcommunities.Integrity Social workers behave in a trustworthy manner. Social workers are continually aware of the professions mission,values, ethical principles, and ethical standards and practice in a manner consistent with them. Social workers act honestlyand responsibly and promote ethical practices on the part of organizations with which they are affiliated.Competence Social workers practice within their areas of competence and develop and enhance their professionalexpertise. Social workers continually strive to increase their professional knowledge and skills and to apply them in practice.Social workers should aspire to contribute to the knowledge base of the profession.Q14.Conservation:A) What is the Causes of ‘Land Erosion’ and know methods for ProtectingIntroductionErosion has been heavily studied across the world by engineers andgeologist because it is such a common occurrence and they are furtherlooking for reasons on why this occurs. Erosion is the break down of soilparticles contained in soil and dirt. Erosion occurs just as fast as it takesthe soil to form so erosion consequences can be devastating if it is notcontrolled. Erosion problems whether they are little or small candefinitely be controlled and prevented against soil erosion problems.Matting and blankets are the most common forms of erosion controlling methods. Researchers are always coming up with newerosion control products to help prevent and protect soil types but they are yet to know just exactly what else causes erosion. Overthe next few paragraphs we will discuss the known causes of erosion.Human Causes of ErosionHuman activity on and around the earths surface whether it is in your backyard or down the park are known to cause erosion 10times more than naturally occurring processes. Human life has been the number on cause of erosion dating back to the firstmillennium. Agriculture and construction are the 2 ways in which humans cause erosion. Construction when unnecessarily
conducted can be quite damaging to soil and dirt. Vegetation and agriculture are also 2 human causes of erosion because humansmove the top soil and make it prone to erosion.Grazing and deforestation are also human causes of erosion because humanlife is making the grounds surface soil bare and extremely prone to erosion bynatural forces. Across America where soil is being eroded due to humanactivity.Another way in which humans cause erosion is by simply watering their gardens. Erosion occurs when watering the gardens of yourresidential property mainly because the force of water which is coming from your garden hose or irrigation system is too fierce andit makes the soil eroded quite quickly. We can prevent this also by not over watering garden areas containing soil.Natural Causes of Erosion Mother Nature works in mysterious ways. One of the most natural causes of erosion is rainfall. Rainfall can be devastating to soil because of the force and impact in which it hits the topsoil with. These splashing affects cause soil to lose particles and shift and move around into unknown places. When the eroded area (which has been caused by water) dries up it is known to form gullies and large cracks in the surface which can be so damaging to rural and farming properties.B) What is the Causes of ‘Wild Fire’ and know How to Control itWildfire CausesWildfire is a naturally occurring part of the environment. While we often think of wildfires as being "bad", it is justone way of nature eliminating dead vegetation - sort of an environmental house-cleaning. However, as humanssettled this country and began clearing land and building homes, roads, railroads, and campgrounds, new artificialcauses of wildfire arrived on the scene.Typically Michigan residents will guess that smoking and lightning are the two most common causes of wildfire.However, the number of wildfires caused by smoking and lightning generally cause less than 5 percent of allMichigan wildfires. As mentioned earlier, most wildfires in Michigan are caused by people burning debris. However,wildfires are also caused by vehicle exhaust, sparks from trains and heavy equipment, camping, smoking, arson andlightning. A breakdown of Michigan wildfire causes is posted on the MDNR website.Causes of wildfires will vary from state to state. For example, in Florida, approximately half of all wildfires areignited by lightning, while in Michigan only about 2 percent are caused by lightning. These variations are due toclimate, vegetation, topography, and weather.C) What is the Importance of ‘Wild Life’ and Basic Rules of ‘Wild Life?Wildlife is an important part of ecological community as wildlife play an important rule in the environment. Thereare several importance of wildlife as wildlife it self is an important character of nature so its conservation is animportant obligation for human beings for the sustainability of life on planet earth so there is a comprehensive articleon why it is important to save wildlife:1. Ecological Value2. Economic Value3. Recreational Value4. Scientific Value5. Social Value6. Aesthetical Value
Q15. The Uses and Care of Axe and SawUsing a bow saw1. Make sure that the wood is held firmly - if you must use your hand for this, keep it well away from the blade.2. Start slowly, pulling the blade backward towards you until the blade is well into the wood. Then push and pull ina steady rhythm using the whole length of the blade.3. Always mask the saw after use - either use a plastic clip-on mask or tie a length of sacking around the blade.use the hand-axeBefore attempting to use a hand-axe, it is important to read the Information Sheet andfamiliarise yourself with the different parts of an axe and the safety guidelines.Only use the hand-axe in a marked chopping area.Ideally this will be near to the fire area but separated from it by a woodpile containing prepared wood, graded intodifferent sizes.Q20.What is Health and Hygiene; explain with example and how we control with Social Development ScoutingProjectHYGIENE & HEALTH Hygiene- A set of preventive measures for good health has become an essential part of our lives. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is a positive concept emphasizing social andpersonal resources as well as physical capabilities. Today it seems natural to wash our hands, vaccinate our children or drink Safe water, but it hasnt always been so.THE IMPORTANCE OF HYGIENE Water and sanitation facilities on their own do not result in improved health. Access to improved facilities is crucial, but it is the correct use of water and sanitation facilities that leads to areduction in disease. Hygiene is a key factor. People can protect themselves from diarrhoeal disease and other infections if they have the information theyneed and if they are encouraged to make changes in their hygiene behavior. Hygiene education of mothers to ensure that young children get a good start in life is a key component in manycountries.