History of Leadership• “The history of the world isabout the biography of greatmen.”– Thomas Carlyle• “Give a man a fish and youfeed him for a day; teachhim how to fish and youfeed him for a lifetime.”– Lao Tzu• Our goal this class is toimprove your ability to fish-or improve your personalleadership skills!
1. Why is understanding thehistory of leadership important?A. Understanding leadership ofan era to understand howand why events and societaldevelopment happened.B. We can look at the pastbased on culture and thestructure of a society.– Seek to learn from the lessonsof the past.– Apply what is most applicable.
2. When did leadership begin?A. Leadership has beenstudied since theearliest civilizations.– Humans have ALWAYSorganized themselveswith some type ofstructure.• Mayans & Aztecs• Great Wall of China• Moses and Hebrews• Ancient Pygmy societies.
3. How did leadership begin?A. Having an effective leaderwas critical for survival forearly civilizations.– Tribes and nomadic groups.B. Qualifications based onskilled, strength, size,agility, knowledge.– Usually male.– Existed since the beginning ofmankind.
4. What are the three historicaltypes of leadership?A. Leader-centric.– more of a fixture- kings andqueens.– they were born.– blood lines do not always makegood leaders.– men were primary in control ofgovernment, business, and familyunits.– Citizens simply followed directionscaused segregation of socialclasses.
B. Follower-centric.– Because of technology, moreworkers needed.– Followers wanted to regain control.– By late 1800s, ideas to increaseworker productivity and boostrevenue.– Unwilling to give up total controland give power to their followers.– Leaders discovered that increasingthe responsibility of workers did infact increase productivity.– 1920s-when supervisors gavepersonal attention to workers,satisfaction increased.
C. Situational-centric.– By the 1970s, a growingworkforce were turningleadership over to groups,committees, and keyemployees.– Focus on flexibility andrecognized that leadershipcan be seen and describedwith many different modelsin mind.– Not always one best wayto lead all the time.
Eras of Leadership• Tribal• Pre-Classical• Classical• Progressive• Post-Progressive
Tribal Leadership• Role of coordinator and skilledexpert• Directive and task-oriented• Leaders were “elected” basedon size, strength, and agility• Leadership based on fear• Family leadership
Implications for Tribal Leaders• Brute force accepted, fear-based• Survival skills rule, but social skills are a plus• Coordinator, skilled expert
Implications for Tribal Followers• Failure to follow leads to death• Follower’s role important for tribal success• Long-term power derived from survival skills
Pre-Classical Leadership• Concerned withspirituality• Claimed divinity• Death was feared• Kings and queens
Implications for Pre-Classical Leaders• Spiritually or magically endowed• Male dominant• Kings and church in collusion• Brutality and oppression justified
Implications for Pre-Classical Followers• Subservient role• Vessels to be filled with spiritual teachings orlaw• Subhuman treatment accepted• Follow because of or through fear
Classical Leadership• Production at minimal costs• Stability• Workers are inefficient• Do what it takes to get the jobdone• Division of labor• Organize, control, command,decide, and manipulate forresults
Implications for Classical Leaders• Production at all costs• Labor is infinite• Leaders lead and divide labor• Organize, control, command, decide, andmanipulate for results
Implications for Classical Followers• Hard work expected, and “builds character”• Chaos is the downfall of the policy-drivenorganization• No one is indispensable• Workers considered lazy and inefficient
Progressive Leadership• The change game• Increase quality• Total Quality Management (TQM)• Empowerment
Implications for Progressive Leaders• Stability no longer the key• Change game, TQM, and re-engineering• Change agent, visionary for transformationalchange• Empowerment is the mantra, “Unlock thepotential of everyone”
Implications for Progressive Followers• Everyone has a worth value• Collaboration means more power forfollowers, shared power• Intimate involvement with total organizationalchange• Needs met on management’s terms
Post-Progressive Leadership• Addresses the post-industrial world• Must be sensitive to thedemands of theinformation society andpost Cold War world• Social change models
Implications for Post-ProgressiveLeaders• Answers to issues in the post-industrial world• New democratic agenda• Social change, collaboration, and riskleadership models
Implications for Post-ProgressiveFollowers• Collaboration and agenda building are thenew roles of the follower• Equal partner in the leadership relationship• Followers’ needs met
DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP• Leadership is a processwhereby an individualinfluences a group ofindividuals to achieve acommon goal.(Northouse)
Based on this definition• Leadership is a process• Leadership involves influence• Leadership occurs in groups• Leadership involves common goals
OTHER DEFINITIONS• It is a process of influencing the activities of anorganized group toward goal setting and goalachievement(Stogdill)• It is the structure-in-interaction as part of theprocess of solving a mutual problem(Hemphill)
• A process of mutual stimulation which, bysuccessful interplay of relevant differences,controls human energy in the pursuit of acommon cause. (Pigors)• It is interpersonal influence, exercised insituation and directed, through thecommunication process, toward theattainment of a specified goal or goals.(Tannebaum)
CONCEPTS OF LEADERSHIP• I used to think that running an organizationwas equivalent to conducting a symphonyorchestra. But I dont think thats quite it; itsmore like jazz. There is more improvisation.Warren Bennis
• Good leaders are made not born. If you havethe desire and willpower, you can become aneffective leader. Good leaders developthrough a never ending process of self-study,education, training, and experience(Jago, 1982).
WHAT IS A LEADER?• A leader is anindividual who workswith others todevelop a clear visionof the preferredfuture and to makethat vision happen• Enlightenedleadership
According to Covey• Effective leaders arecontinually engagingthemselves in lifelonglearning• They are service-oriented• Concerned with thecommon good• They radiate positiveenergy
• Effective leaders believe inother people• They lead balanced livesand see life as anadven-ture• Effective leaders aresynergistic• Effective leaders engagethemselves in self-renewal
• as a position• as a personality trait• as a process• as a power relationship
Websters Third New InternationalDictionary of the English Language• Cause others to go along• Guide others along the way• Cause others to live aparticular kind of life• Head or direct operations
• Bring others by reasoning or other influencesto some conclusion• Play the first card or be in the advancedposition• Direct a blow against an opponent
Older views of leadership• it is a process of "influencingindividuals or groups to takean active part in the processof achieving agreed-upongoals." Transactionaloutcomes were emphasizedin these definitions.
More recent definitions• emphasize mutuality, empowerment, andtransformational processes. Leadership as ademocratic process that respects people,encourages self-management, and movespeople in some direction.
Nursing leadership• nursing leadership is defined as a mutualprocess of interpersonal influence throughwhich a client is assisted to make decisions inestablishing and achieving goals towardimproved well-being and the professionalnurses practice is validated and professionalgrowth is enhanced.
• Leaders carry out this process by applyingtheir leadership knowledge and skills. This iscalled Process Leadership• We have traits that can influence our actions.This is called Trait Leadership, in that it wasonce common to believe that leaders wereborn rather than made
Boss or Leader?• Position as a managergives you the authority toaccomplish certain tasksand objectives in theorganization(called AssignedLeadership).• This power does notmake you a leader, itsimply makes you theboss
• Leadership differs in that it makes thefollowers want to achieve high goals(called Emergent Leadership)
BASS THEORY OF LEADERSHIP• There are three basic ways to explain howpeople become leaders
• Some personality traits may lead peoplenaturally into leadership roles. This is theTrait Theory
• A crisis or important event may cause aperson to rise to the occasion, whichbrings out extraordinary leadershipqualities in an ordinary person. This is theGreat Events Theory
• People can choose to become leaders. Peoplecan learn leadership skills. This is theTransformational or Process LeadershipTheory
Be Know Do• what they are [be] (such as beliefs andcharacter)• what they know (such as job, tasks, andhuman nature)• what they do (such as implementing,motivating, and providing direction)
The Two Most Important Keys toEffective Leadership• Be trustworthy• Communicate a vision
Communicate• Helping employees understand the companysoverall business strategy• Helping employees understand how theycontribute to achieving key businessobjectives• Sharing information with employees on bothhow the company is doing and how anemployees own division is doing — relative tostrategic business objectives
PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP• Know yourself and seek self-improvement• Be technically proficient• Seek responsibility and take responsibility foryour actions
• Make sound and timely decisions• Set the example• Know your people and look out for their well-being• Keep your workers informed
• Develop a sense of responsibility in yourworkers• Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised,and accomplished• Train as a team• Use the full capabilities of your organization
THE PROCESS OF GREAT LEADERSHIP• Challenge the process• Inspire a shared vision• Enable others to act• Model the way• Encourage the hearts
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEADERS AND MANAGERSLeaders Managers1. Do not have delegated authority;power derives from other means,such as personal influence2. Have a wider variety of roles3. May not be a part of the formalorganization4. Focus on group process,information gathering,feedback,and empowering others5. Emphasize interpersonalrelationships6. Direct willing followers7. Have goals that may or may notreflect those of the organization1. Have an assigned position in theformal organization2. Have a legitimate source of powerbecause of the delegatedauthority that is part of theirposition3. Are expected to cany out specificfunctions, duties andresponsibilities4. Emphasize control, decision-making, decision analysis, andresults5. Manipulate personnel, theenvironment, money, time, andother resources to achieveorganizational goals6. Have a greater formal responsibility
"Management is efficiency in climbingthe ladder of success; leadershipdetermines whether the ladder isleaning against the right wall."