Metro Manila Explodes!


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Metro Manila Explodes!

  1. 1. From tribal village to primate city: the making of a metropolis Nathaniel von Einsiedel Fellow, Phil. Institute of Environmental Planners Fellow, United Architects of the Philippines Chairman, CONCEP Inc.
  2. 2.  A metropolitan region composed of 16 cities and 1 municipality Political, economic, social, cultural, and educational center of the Philippines Area of 636 sq. km., less than .5 % of the total land area of the Philippines 25 kilometers from north to south and 12 kilometers from east to west
  3. 3.  Bounded by Manila Bay on the west, Sierra Madre mountains to the east, plains of Central Luzon to the North and Laguna Bay to the South Located along flat alluvial and deltaic lands and extends to the higher rugged lands surrounding Marikina valley in the east
  4. 4.  Population: 11.6 million (2007 census), 13% of the Philippine population 20 million if including outer suburbs 11th most populous city in the world Population density of 18,650 persons per
  5. 5.  Originally a tribal village at the mouth of the Pasig River In 1521, Spanish came to the Philippines Became a capital of Spanish colonial rule centered in the walled city of Intramuros As early as 1571, the Walled City of Intramuros roots of an urban form were established
  6. 6.  Spanish Period (1521 – 1899)  The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade attracted many merchants and craftsmen  City spilled beyond the walls and engulfed settlements north , east, and south  Early 20th century: took the shape of what is now the city of Manila with Tondo, Binondo, Ermita, Malate, Paco and Sta. Ana serving as city core Escolta St., Manila, 1800
  7. 7.  American period (1899 – 1946)  Plan by Daniel Burnham  International port spurred industrial growth  City of Manila was Traces of Burnham’s Plan becoming congested in 1939  Pres. Quezon commissioned planning and subsequent development of lands east of Manila (now Quezon City) Port of Manila, American Period
  8. 8.  World War II  Largely demolished at the end of World War II  Burnham plan was revived but lacked support  Uncoordinated reconstruction
  9. 9.  Post-war  Characterized by the proliferation of suburban developments northwards (Caloocan), southwards (Pasay) and eastward (Quezon City, San Juan, Mandaluyong)
  10. 10.  1950s – 1970s  Private sector development in Makati in the late 50s and early 60s  Infill development on open lands  Industrial and residential development intensified eastwards & southwards  By 1975, 17 distinct and separate cities and municipalities have spatially merged
  11. 11.  1980s – 1990s  Contained 50% of all large industrial and service establishments and 45% of all medium-sized industrial and service establishments in the country  Accounted for nearly half of the industrial output of the whole country and contributed 31% of the national GDP.  Urbanized area occupied over 700 and extended beyond its geographic-political boundaries
  12. 12.  Population growth  1875 – 150,000  1900s – 328,939  1948 – 1.6 million  1975 – 4.9 million  1995 – 9 million  2007 – 12 million Between 1948 and 1966 urbanized area increased by 260 percent
  13. 13.  Metropolitan Manila Commission (MMC)  Created in 1975 under Pres. Marcos  Had both executive and legislative powers over the Metropolitan Manila Area (MMA)  Mayors had advisory role  MMC introduced the metro-wide land use plan, infrastructure investments planning-programming-budgeting system, and the local development planning system  Had difficulty coping with the rapid and massive increase in population growth; by 1985 problems were the same or more severe
  14. 14.  Metropolitan Manila Authority (MMA)  Replaced the MMC after the government-wide reorganization after end of martial law in 1986  Legislative powers were given to the Metro Manila Mayors Council  With the national economy at its worst, management of Metro Manila was practically at a standstill  As population and urbanization continued to increase, the backlog in urban services also increased and the overall quality of life in the metropolis further declined.
  15. 15.  Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA)  During Pres. Fidel Ramos’s term Congress passed a law abolishing the Metropolitan Manila Authority and replacing it with the MMDA which exists to this day  The law returned to the component local authorities most if not all the powers that were taken from them by the former MMC  Intervention was limited to regional planning, garbage disposal, and traffic management
  16. 16.  How to manage growth despite…  Continuing increase in population  Increase of slum areas, backlog of urban services, further deterioration of older areas  Serious financial constraints and inadequate institutional capacity  Conflict between MMDA and local governments
  17. 17. Nathaniel von EinsiedelConsultants for Comprehensive Environmental Planning1856 Asuncion St. Santiago Village Makati(632)