From tribal village to primate city: the making of a metropolis Nathaniel von Einsiedel Fellow, Phil. Institute of Environmental Planners Fellow, United Architects of the Philippines Chairman, CONCEP Inc.
A metropolitan region composed of 16 cities and 1 municipality Political, economic, social, cultural, and educational center of the Philippines Area of 636 sq. km., less than .5 % of the total land area of the Philippines 25 kilometers from north to south and 12 kilometers from east to west
Bounded by Manila Bay on the west, Sierra Madre mountains to the east, plains of Central Luzon to the North and Laguna Bay to the South Located along flat alluvial and deltaic lands and extends to the higher rugged lands surrounding Marikina valley in the east
Population: 11.6 million (2007 census), 13% of the Philippine population 20 million if including outer suburbs 11th most populous city in the world Population density of 18,650 persons per sq.km.
Originally a tribal village at the mouth of the Pasig River In 1521, Spanish came to the Philippines Became a capital of Spanish colonial rule centered in the walled city of Intramuros As early as 1571, the Walled City of Intramuros roots of an urban form were established
Spanish Period (1521 – 1899) The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade attracted many merchants and craftsmen City spilled beyond the walls and engulfed settlements north , east, and south Early 20th century: took the shape of what is now the city of Manila with Tondo, Binondo, Ermita, Malate, Paco and Sta. Ana serving as city core Escolta St., Manila, 1800
American period (1899 – 1946) Plan by Daniel Burnham International port spurred industrial growth City of Manila was Traces of Burnham’s Plan becoming congested in 1939 Pres. Quezon commissioned planning and subsequent development of lands east of Manila (now Quezon City) Port of Manila, American Period
World War II Largely demolished at the end of World War II Burnham plan was revived but lacked support Uncoordinated reconstruction
Post-war Characterized by the proliferation of suburban developments northwards (Caloocan), southwards (Pasay) and eastward (Quezon City, San Juan, Mandaluyong)
1950s – 1970s Private sector development in Makati in the late 50s and early 60s Infill development on open lands Industrial and residential development intensified eastwards & southwards By 1975, 17 distinct and separate cities and municipalities have spatially merged
1980s – 1990s Contained 50% of all large industrial and service establishments and 45% of all medium-sized industrial and service establishments in the country Accounted for nearly half of the industrial output of the whole country and contributed 31% of the national GDP. Urbanized area occupied over 700 sq.km. and extended beyond its geographic-political boundaries
Population growth 1875 – 150,000 1900s – 328,939 1948 – 1.6 million 1975 – 4.9 million 1995 – 9 million 2007 – 12 million Between 1948 and 1966 urbanized area increased by 260 percent
Metropolitan Manila Commission (MMC) Created in 1975 under Pres. Marcos Had both executive and legislative powers over the Metropolitan Manila Area (MMA) Mayors had advisory role MMC introduced the metro-wide land use plan, infrastructure investments planning-programming-budgeting system, and the local development planning system Had difficulty coping with the rapid and massive increase in population growth; by 1985 problems were the same or more severe
Metropolitan Manila Authority (MMA) Replaced the MMC after the government-wide reorganization after end of martial law in 1986 Legislative powers were given to the Metro Manila Mayors Council With the national economy at its worst, management of Metro Manila was practically at a standstill As population and urbanization continued to increase, the backlog in urban services also increased and the overall quality of life in the metropolis further declined.
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) During Pres. Fidel Ramos’s term Congress passed a law abolishing the Metropolitan Manila Authority and replacing it with the MMDA which exists to this day The law returned to the component local authorities most if not all the powers that were taken from them by the former MMC Intervention was limited to regional planning, garbage disposal, and traffic management
How to manage growth despite… Continuing increase in population Increase of slum areas, backlog of urban services, further deterioration of older areas Serious financial constraints and inadequate institutional capacity Conflict between MMDA and local governments
Nathaniel von EinsiedelConsultants for Comprehensive Environmental Planning1856 Asuncion St. Santiago Village Makati(632) firstname.lastname@example.org