1IMPORTANT PLACES OF THE WORLDAbadan: Major oil terminal andrefining centre in Iran.Abu Simbel: In Egypt; ancienttemples carved out of solidsandstone.Adam’s Bridge: Chain ofsandbanks; 22 metres long inPalk Strait between India andSri Lanka.Al-Aqsa: A mosque in Jerusalem;the third holiest to the Muslimsafter Mecca and Medina.Alaska: Largest US State A scene of Vishnu templesituated near Canada; purchased Vishnu built between 800 to 1200by the USA in 1867 from Russia; AD.famous for fishing, mining, Bangkok: Capital of Thailand;lumbering, and pulp-milling called the Venice of the East.industries; oil resources availablehere in plenty.Alexandria: Important city andsea-port of Egypt; founded byAlexander, the Great; chiefcentre of foreign trade; famousfor a white marble lighthouse onthe island of Pharohs.Amsterdam: Capital of theNetherlands; famous for Cultural dance in Bangkokdiamond-cutting industry. Baku: In Russia; situated on theAswan High Dam: Opened in Caspian Sea; an oil field in1971, a 350 feet high dam on Azerbaijan.river Nile, in Egypt; worlds Babylon: Near Baghdad inbiggest. Iraq; ancient centre of art,Angkor Vat: In Cambodia; science and culture; famous forfamous for ruins of ancient remains of biblical tower/hangingHindu Temples dedicated to Lord gardens. 1
2Big Ben: The launching centre; now known asGreat Bell in Cape Canaveral.Parliament Cape Trafalgar: On the coastClock Tower, of Spain, where the British fleetLondon. won a decisive victory overBandung: A Napoleon in 1805.city in Indone- Cologne: In Germany; Indus-sia; venue of trial centre; ‘Eau-de-Cologne’ isfirst Afro-Asian Big Ben after its name.Conference in April, 1955. Corsica: An island in the Medi-Beijing: Capital of China; terranean Sea where NapoleonBeijing is the new Roman- was born.ised spelling of Peking, Disneyland: An amusementintroduced from September 1, park at Anaheim, California;1975. built in 1955 by Walter EliasBethlehem: In Israel; birth Disney, the world famous Ameri-place of Jesus Christ. can cartoonist and motion-Buckingham Palace: In London, picture producer; park enclosesresidence of the Royal Family of 170 acres of land; each main divi-England. sion of the park has its ownBuenos Aires: In Argentina; theme indicated by its name vizlargest city in the southern Fantasy-land, Adventureland etc;hemisphere; famous for dairy Disneyland’s unusual transporta-products. tion facilities include a monorail,Cape Kennedy: In Florida submarines, keelboats etc.(USA); America’s spaceship A scene of Disneyland
3Durban: In South Africa; associ- ft.; opened on May 1, 1931.ated with political activities of Fleet Street: A street in LondonGandhiji. named after the river Fleet;10, Downing Street : Official there are offices and printing es-residence of the Prime Minister tablishments of many of the lead-of England in London. ing British newspapers and PressEiffel Tower: A 984 feet high agencies.tower designed by Alexander Fujiyama: Extinct volcano in Ja-Gustave Eiffel for the Paris Ex- pan near Tokyo; pilgrim resort;position of 1889 in Paris (France). the highest peak (12398 feet) of Japan, perfectly formed, snow capped cone; has long inspired DO YOU KNOW ? Japanese artists. Eiffel Tower Geneva: In Switzerland; a cul- contains 9,700 tural, financial and administra- tons of pig- tive centre; headquarters of iron, held to- many international organisa- gether by 2.5 tions. million rivets Greenwich: Situated on the and covered Thames river near London and by 40 tons of brown paint ! noted for its astronomical ob- servatory; located on the prime meridian from which geographic Eiffel Tower longitude is measured.Empire State Building: In Gettysburg: In USA; site of Am-New York (USA); one of the lofti- erican civil war; Lincoln deliv-est buildings in the world; has ered his famous address, in which102 storeys and a height of 1250 he defined ‘democracy’, here. Fujiyama : the most sacred mountain of Japan
4 Great Wall of ChinaGreat Wall of China: A wall by the first atom bomb on Augustbuilt in North China along 6, 1945.Southern edge of Mongolian pla- Hollywood: Part of the city ofteau to keep out invading Mon- Los Angeles, South Californiagols; 1,500 miles long, from 15 to (USA); centre of world’s biggest50 feet high and 15 to 25 feet film industry.wide; its construction completed Hong Kong: A British colonyin 3rd century BC; said to con- composed of a peninsula on thetain enough bricks to build 30 South-East China mainland andgreat pyramids. many islands off the coast;Hague: The seat of the Govern- transferred to China on July 1,ment of Netherlands; Interna- 1997; one of the world’s finesttional Court of Justice, a UN Or- harbour.gan is located here. Hyde Park: Famous place forHarappa: In Pakistan; excavation public meetings in London.of prehistoric township of pre- Johannesburg: Gold miningAryan Indus Valley Civilisation. centre in South Africa.Havana: Capital of Cuba in Jordell Bank Observatory: ItWest Indies; famous for the cigar is the locale of the world famousindustry; exporting centre of radio telescope near Manchestersugar and tobacco. in UK; has played an importantHiroshima: A flourishing Japa- role in international spacenese town completely destroyed research.
5 SOME OUTSTANDING BUILDINGS OF ASIA AND AUSTRALIASkyscrapers, once an exclusively Ameri-can phenomenon, and other elegantmodern architecture are piercing theskylines and jutting into the harbours ofvirtually every major Asian city. Thetallest buildings in the world are now inAsia and those near to completion willsoon be eclipsed by even higher buildingsnow being planned. Symbols of modernprogress, these sparkling structures arebecoming Asias newest landmarks, pro-viding people exciting working, livingand leisure environments. Heres a sam-pler of some of the regions most impres-sive architecture :Central Plaza, Hong Kong: Easy tospot by its soaring gold spire and goldenlights at night, Hong Kongs tallest build-ing is a 78-storey office tower, overlook-ing the harbour and near the ConventionCentre, another Hong Kong landmark.Tokyo International Forum, Tokyo:The first major convention and culturalcentre of its kind in Tokyo, the Forumhouses state-of-the-art halls, exhibitionspaces and conference facilities. Locatedin Tokyos business centre, the Forumsmost striking feature is its Glass Hall. glass skyscrapers, a retail centre, a pub-Opera House, Sydney: This complex of lic park and a mosque.theatres and halls is one of the busiest Baiyoke Towers, Bangkok: The firstperforming arts centres in the world and of the two Towers ranked as Thailandsone of Australias most popular tourist tallest building for 10 years and is easy toattractions. Perched on the edge of Syd- spot by the vertical rainbow of colours onneys harbour, the Opera House has a its exterior. Its sister tower, which in-distinctive roof of spherical shell shapes cludes the Baiyoke Sky Hotel, will bethat give it a soaring, wing-like effect. completed in near future — 12 metresPetronas Tower, Kuala Lumpur: The higher than the Petronas Towers.88-storey, record-breaking twin towers World Financial Centre, Shanghai:were the first in the world to surpass Now under construction, the striking,Chicagos Sears Building as the tallest 95-storey, postmodern building inbuildings in the world. The towers are Shanghais financial district will bepart of the new Kuala Lumpur City Cen- the worlds tallest building upon itstre, which also includes three smaller completion. IMPORTANT RESIDENCESBuckingham Palace (London) ................ King/Queen of Britain10, Downing Street (London) ................. Prime Minister, BritainElysee Palace (Paris) .............................. President, FranceRashtrapati Bhawan (New Delhi) ......... President, IndiaWhite House (Washington) .................... President, USAVatican (Rome) ........................................ Pope White House
6 Kandy: In Sri Lanka; famous for temple having Buddhas Tooth. Karakoram Highway: It is an 800 km all weather road linking border of China’s Sinkiang prov- ince with Pakistan; road inaugu- rated on June 18, 1978 by Gen- eral Zia of Pakistan; India lodged her protest against the opening of this road as it passes through Jerusalem; Church of the Kashmir territory. Holy Sepulchre Kimberley: Situated on the eastJerusalem: Capital of Israel; of Kalahari desert in South Af-Holy city for three faiths— Jews, rica; the biggest diamond miningChristians and Muslims. centre/market in the world.Kathmandu: Capital of Nepal; Lumbini: The birth place of4500 ft above sea level; famous Gautam Buddha in Nepal.for Pashupati Nath Temple; 0 100KMheadquarters of SAARC. A scene of Kathmandu Leaning Tower:Kaaba: In Islam, the most sa- 180 ft. high, 8-sto-cred sanctuary, the centre of the rey marble towerMuslims world and the chief goal in Pisa (Italy)of pilgrimage; it is a small build- built in 1154 AD.ing in the Great Mosque of London: CapitalMecca, nearly cubic in shape, city of Great Brit-built to enclose the Black Stone, ain on both sidesthe most venerated Muslim ob- of Thames river; Leaning Towerject; the Kaaba was a pagan holy one of the worldsplace before Muhammad, and foremost financial, commercial,many legends surround its ori- industrial, and cultural centersgin; nonbelievers are forbidden to and one of its greatest ports;approach it; Muslims face the London’s cultural institutions in-Kaaba when praying. clude the British Museum, Na-
7 A scene of London on the bank of river Thames. In the background is The Houses of Parliament and the famous clock Big Ben.tional Gallery, Tate Gallery, and Mohammad; Kaaba, a place ofVictoria and Albert Museum; pilgrimage for Muslims is locatedamong its landmarks are the re- here.mains of the citys Roman walls, Mont Blanc: Alpine massif onBuckingham Palace, the Houses Franco-Italian border; rises toof Parliament, the Tower of Lon- 15,781 ft. (in France), highestdon, Trafalgar Square, and West- point of the Alps.minster Abbey. Mohenjo-daro: In Pakistan; siteMadina: In Saudi Arabia; Tomb of Indus Valley Civilisation.of Prophet Mohammad. Muree: Chief hill station ofMecca: Holy city of Islam in Pakistan.Saudi Arabia; birth place of Mount Rushmore: Here the A scene of Alps range
8 CHANGED NAMES OF CITIES, STATES AND COUNTRIES Old Name New NameAbyssinia EthiopiaAngora AnkaraBatavia DjakartaBasutoland Lesotho DO YOU KNOW ?Bechuanaland Botswana l Each presidents head is about as tallBritish Guiana Guyana as a five-storey building.Burma Myanmar l Mount Rushmore can be seen from 60Cape Canaveral Cape Kennedy miles away.Ceylon Sri Lanka America’s famous tourist sights.Christina OsloConstantinople Istanbul HIDDEN FALLS FOUNDDacca Dhaka The legendary great falls on TibetsDutch East Indonesia Tsangpo river, subject of myth and folk- Indies lore for more than a century, has finally been reached by Western explorers. ADutch Guiana Surinam team of explorers, sponsored by the Na-Egypt United Arab Rep. tional Geographic Society sighted the gi-Formosa Taiwan ant falls 30-35 metres high, on NovemberGold Coast Ghana 8, 1998. Tucked tightly between the ris-Holland Netherlands ing cliffs of the Tsangpo Gorge, the fallsMalaya Malaysia are in shadow most of the time and hid-Mesopotamia Iraq den from view in a hairpin turn. Stories of the giant falls told by Tibetan huntersNippon Japan and Buddhist monks were a popular topicNorthern Zambia in Victorian drawing rooms. The rugged- Rhodesia ness of the gorge prevented explorersPersia Iran from determining what became of theRhodesia Zimbabwe Tsangpo. An expedition in 1011 reducedSaigon Ho Chi Minh City the unexplored section to between 50 andSalisbury Harare 65 km and in 1924 that was cut to five miles (8 km) But, Hidden Falls remainedSiam Thailand hidden.South West Namibia AfricaStalingrad Volgograd SMALLEST COUNTRIESTanganyika and Tanzania Country Area Zanzibar Sq.km.Upper Volta Burkina Faso l Vatican City ................................. 0.44Zaire Republic of Congo l Monaco ......................................... 1.50 l Gibraltar ...................................... 6.47heads of four great American l Macao ......................................... 16.06presidents— from left to right— l Nauru ......................................... 21.30George Washington, Thomas l Tuvalu ........................................ 24.00Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt l Bermuda .................................... 53.35and Abraham Lincoln—have l San Marino ................................ 62.00been carved; all four heads took l Liechtenstein ........................... 157.0014 years to complete; now one of l Antigua .................................... 279.72
9 A scene of Kremlin in MoscowMoscow: Capital of Russia; big seum of American Art, and manycommercial and industrial cen- other museums; and the Newtre; fine buildings, Kremlin, the York Public Library and other re-palaces of Czars. search facilities; among the nu-New York: The largest city in merous educational institutionsthe U.S.A.; leading financial are the City Univ. of New York,and cultural centre; situated at Columbia Univ., and New Yorkthe mouth of the Hudson river; Univ.noted sights include the Empire Nagasaki: A city and port in Ja-State building, St. Patricks Ca- pan; destroyed by atom bomb inthedral, the Cathedral of Saint 1945.John the Divine, Nankana Sahib: In Pakistan;the Statue of Lib- birth place of Guru Nanak.erty, Broadway Nuremberg: City of Bavaria inand Fifth Avenue, East Germany; under Hitler,Greenwich Village, Nuremberg was the scene ofand Central Park; the National Socialist PartyThe United Na- Congress; in 1945-46 the firsttions has its head- international war-crimes trialsquarters here; Cul- were held here.tural institutions Pearl Harbour: A key navalincluding Lincoln base of the U.S.A. at Oahu in Ha-Centre for the Per- waii Islands. It was the scene offorming Arts and the Japanese air attack duringCarnegie Hall; the the World War II.Metropolitan Mu- Pentagon: Headquarters of theseum of Art, Mu- Department of Defence in Vir-seum of Modern ginia, USA; world’s largest office StatueArt, Whitney Mu- of Liberty building, constructed in 1943.
10Philadelphia: Place of historic space in Moscow (near Kremlin)importance, where Americans de- used for political demonstrationsclared their independence on and processions; famous for Len-July 4, 1776. in’s mausoleum and tombs ofPisa: A town in Italy; famous for other Revolutionary leaders.Leaning Tower; birth place of Rome: Capital of Italy; situatedGalileo. on the bank of river Tiber; calledPompeii: Ruined Roman city in ‘The Eternal City’; one of the world’sSouth Italy; situated at the foot outstanding historical, religious,of Mountain Vesuvius; destroyed cultural and art centres withby earthquake (63 AD) and bur- Vatican City and St. Petersied by an eruption of Vesuvius Church.(79 AD). Sandhurst: Chief military train-Pyramids: Royal tombs to pro- ing centre in England near Lon-tect the body and thereby to pre- don; seat of Royal Military Acad-serve the spirit; such pyramids emy, founded in 1799.are found only in Egypt. Great Scotland Yard: Headquarters ofPyramid of Khufu or Cheops at the Metropolitan Police, London;Giza, one of the seven wonders of as the seat of the Criminal Inves-the world, is largest pyramid tigation Department, Scotlandever built; pyramids date back to Yard is a synonym for the force2700 BC. of detectives.Paris: Capital of France, situ- Sphinx: A fabulous monster rep-ated on river Seine; cultural and resented in Egyptian art as a lionfashion metropolis of the world; with a human head; the best kno-known for Eiffel Tower and Arc wn example is the great Sphinxde Triomp; UNESCO headquar- at Giza, Egypt, 52.6 m long andters. 20.1 m high, built around 2900-Red Square: A famous open 2750 BC; it also figures in the art A scene of Arc de Triomp
11of Greece, Assyria, Persia, etc. Venice: A city in Italy built on 118St. Helena: An island in the alluvial islets within a lagon;south Atlantic; became a British canals and bridges give accesspossession in 1673; Napoleon among islands; boats are the onlydied here in exile in 1821. conveyance.Stockholm: Capital of Sweden; DO YOU KNOW ?a cultural centre; most of the Venice is celebrated as the city ofNobel Prizes are awarded here. canals, yet Birmingham, BritainsStratford-upon-Avon: Birth second-largest city, has more canals than Venice.place of Shakespeare in England.Suez Canal: Ship canal in Egypt Vatican city: Sovereign papallinking Mediterranean and Red State of about 0.44 km formingSeas and separating Africa from an enclave in Italy, near the cityAsia; built by Ferdinand de Les- of Rome; the smallest independ-seps in 1859-69; nationalised by ent State — has its own railwaythe then President Nasser in1956.St. Petersburg: Former capitalof Russia founded by reformistRussian Czar, Peter the Great inthe 18th century; after the deathof Lenin, renamed as Leningrad;with the dissolution of theU.S.S.R. original name restored. Basilica of St. Peter at Vatican cityStonehenge: A circular assem- and radio and television station;blage of huge shaped stones in issues its own stamps and coin-Salisbury, near London; built in age; created by the Lateran1800-1500 BC. Treaty (1929) between the PopeTaxila: Near Rawalpindi; an- and the Italian Government.cient seat of Indian learning and Vienna: Capital of Austria; onBuddhist university. the river Danube; a cultural,Tashkent: Capital of Uzbekistan commercial and transportationin former USSR; Tashkent Pact centre; headquarters of Interna-between India and Pakistan was tional Atomic Energy Agency.signed here in January 1966. Remains of Stonehenge
12 MAJOR RIVERSIDE CITIES City River City River City River Alexandria Nile Chungking Yang-tse- Nanking Yang-tse- Amsterdam Amsel Kiang Kiang Antwerp Scheldt Galsgow Clyde New York Hudson Ankara Kizil Hull Humber Paris Seine Baghdad Tigris Hamburg Elbe Philadelphia Delaware Bangkok Menam Karachi Indus Quebec St. Belgrade Danube Khartoum Blue & Lawrence Berlin Spree White Nile Rome Tiber Bonn Rhine Lahore Ravi Shanghai Yang-tse- Bristol Avon Lisbon Tagus Kiang Budapest Danube Liverpool Mersey Tokyo Sumida Cairo Nile London Thames Vienna Danube Canton Canton Montreal Ottawa Warsaw Vistula Chittagong Karnaphuli Moscow Moskva Washington Potamac Cologne Rhine New Orleans Mississippi Yangoon IrawadiWall Street: Thoroughfare in World TradeNew York; the stock exchange Center : In New York;here has come to be used as a constructed in 1972;synonym for stock dealing in two towers, eachUSA. with 110 stories;Waterloo: In Belgium; on June 430 offices; work-18, 1815 Wellington defeated ing people aboutNapoleon here. 50,000; in a deadly WTC on fireWhite House: Official residence terrorist attack on September 11,of U.S. President in Washington; 2001, both the towers wereoldest public building in Wash- dest-royed killing thousands ofington; John Adams (1800) was people.the first President to live here. Yellowstone National Park: AWimbledon: A London suburb; picturesque national Americanfamous tennis ground where Inter- Reserve established in 1872.national tennis matches are Zanzibar: In Tanzania; famousplayed. for production of cloves.WONDERS OF THE WORLDSeven Wonders of the Ancient World : The Greek authorAntipater of Sidon, who lived in the 2nd century BC, was one ofseveral writers to list the greatest monuments and buildings knownto the Classical world. He settled on seven because that was consid-ered a magic number by the Greeks.1. The Egyptian Pyramids : Built more than 4000 years ago, theyare the oldest of the ancient wonders and the only ones still surviv-ing. They served as tombs for the Egyptian pharaohs, whose mum-
13 Picture showing seven wonders of the worldmified bodies were surrounded by treasures and personal belongings.2. The Colossus of Rhodes : A bronze statue of the sun god Heliosstanding 32 m (105 ft) high at the mouth of Rhodes harbour. Accord-ing to legend, the Colossus straddled the harbour and vessels sailedbetween its legs. It was built on the Greek island in about 305-292BC and was destroyed in 224 BC by an earthquake.3. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon : Built in the 6th century BCby Nebuchandnezzar II, they consisted of a series of terraces onwhich flowers and trees were grown. The gardens stretched along thebanks of the Euphrates and were watered by irrigation channels.4. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, Asia Minor : The tomb ofMausolus, a ruler of the city in the 4th century BC. It was built byhis widow and was destroyed by an earthquake before the 15th cen-tury.5. The Pharos of Alexandria : The World’s first known lighthouse,it stood 122 m (400 ft) high and had a spiral ramp leading to thebeacon. It was built on the island of Pharos, at the entrance to Al-exandria harbour in Egypt, in about 270 BC. By the 15th century ithad fallen into ruin.6. The Statue of Zeus at Olympia : An imposing figure-9 m (30 ft)---of the supreme Greek god with the body made of wood and coveredwith gold and ivory. It was designed in the 5th century BC by theAthenian sculptor Phidias and was destroyed by fire in AD 475.7. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, Asia Minor : Built ofmarble in the 6th century BC in honour of the Greek virgin goddessof the hunt and the moon, it was rebuilt in the 4th century BC andfinally destroyed by invading Goths in the 3rd century AD. Frag-ments of the temple are in the British Museum, in London.Seven Wonders of the Medieval World :1. Colosseum of Rome 5. Mosque at St. Sophia (Con-2. Great Wall of China stantinople);3. Porcelain Tower of Nanking 6. Catacombs of Rome4. Stonehenge 7. Leaning Tower of Pisa
14 TRANSPORT IN ASIAN CITIESIn some Asian countries transport tle Bus — This network of mini-options are singular to the location buses traverses the main sites ofand offer memorable one-time Bali and also connects with ferrytravel experiences. Heres a sam- services for extended routes to thepler of some of the regions interest- islands of Java, Lombok anding transport options : Sumbawa, offering travellers the convenience of travelling betweenl China: Trans-Siberian Rail- islands via one prebooked means ofway— Three rail lines comprise transport.the Trans-Siberian Railway, two ofwhich traverse China. The Trans- l Thailand: Chao Phraya RiverManchurian line crosses the Rus- Express — An hours boat tripsia-China border and the Trans- through Bangkoks main riverwayMongolian line connects Beijing to provides an interesting glimpse ofMoscow via the Mongolian capital the citys colourful water life, in-city of Ulan Bator, a journey of cluding floating markets, tradingabout 5-1/2 days. houses, temples and the watercraft, from canoes to barges, that ply thel Hong Kong: Trams — Hong river.Kongs double-decker trams offerone of the most colourful tours of l India: Palace On Wheels —the main island. The trams run This luxury tourist train makes aparallel to the harbour. Another weekly circle of the major sites ofdelightful journey is the Peak Rajasthan, including Jaipur,Tram, which runs from Central Udaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur andstraight up Victoria Peak, with Agra. The trains carriages havebreathtaking vistas of one of the been refurbished to look like thoseworlds most impressive harbors. that once belonged to the mahara- jas. Sightseeing is done by day andl Singapore: Eastern & Orien- travelling by night.tal Express — The weekly trip ofthis deluxe train service runs be- l Mass Transit Railways —tween Singapore and Bangkok. The Many Asian cities, including Hongjourney takes approximately 42 Kong, Singapore, Seoul and Tokyo,hours and includes two nights on have well-developed, fast and safeboard in antique decor. underground mass transit railway networks that connect the areasl Malaysia: Jungle Railway — major districts. Easy-to-read mapsThe central railway line goes of station locations are conven-through aboriginal territory anddense jungles, offering some of the iently mounted at each station andcountrys most fascinating scenery. inside railway cars. The trains are a convenient way to get around,l Indonesia: Bali Tourist Shut- especially at non-rush hours.