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Australian Phenology
Product Validation:
Phenocam Network
Natalia Restrepo-Coupe and Alfredo Huete
University Technology o...
Introduction
 Phenology – definition and how it is characterized with the use of RS
products (VIs)
 AusCover at the UTS Sy...
Objective: Validation Phenology Product
AusCover UTS Sydney node
 Validation of the phenology product
 Link between the in...
Objective: Validation Phenology Product
AusCover UTS Sydney node
Modified	
  from	
  Ma,	
  X.,	
  et	
  al.,	
  2013.	
  
Methods: Flux towers
Ma,	
  X.,	
  et	
  al.,	
  2013.	
  Spa7al	
  pa8erns	
  and	
  temporal	
  dynamics	
  in	
  savann...
Methods: Phenocam Network
Phenological
Eyes
Network
Methods: Phenocams
 AusCover Good Practice Guidelines (A technical handbook supporting
calibration and validation activiti...
Methods: Phenocams
 Phenocams :
•  RGB and spectral cameras
•  Orientation, angles, azimuths
•  Over- and understory
•  Di...
Working hypothesis
 Use of tower mounted phenocam imagery of whole-canopy and tree and
understory layer vegetation to trac...
ALICE SPRINGS
CHOWILLA
ZIG ZAG
GINGIN CUMBERLAND
PLAINS
CREDO
SE QUEENSLAND
SUPERSITE
Mean annual precipitation (mm/month)...
Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific
ALICE SPRINGS
CHOWILLA
ZIG ZAG
GINGIN CUMBERLAND
PLAINS
CREDO
SE QUEENSLAND
SUP...
Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific
ALICE SPRINGS
CHOWILLA
ZIG ZAG
GINGIN CUMBERLAND
PLAINS
CREDO
SE QUEENSLAND
SUP...
Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific
ALICE SPRINGS
CHOWILLA
ZIG ZAG
GINGIN CUMBERLAND
PLAINS
CREDO
SE QUEENSLAND
SUP...
Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific
ALICE SPRINGS
CHOWILLA
ZIG ZAG
GINGIN CUMBERLAND
PLAINS
CREDO
SE QUEENSLAND
SUP...
Alice Springs Mulga, NT
Wingscapes
Alice Springs Mulga, NT
Campbell Sci cameras
Phenocam Network:
Sensor Comparison
Phenocam
Network:
Camera
Calibration
Figure 1. Relationship between camera
incoming radiation (x-axis) and the raw output
...
Phenocam
Network:
Linking RGB
indices to
physiological
response Red/Green
2
1.5
1
0.5
Wet Dry Mulga site biological
crust ...
Calperum-Chowilla Flux Tower Site
25-Oct-2012 12:00:00 Red/Green
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Rainfall(mm)
0
20
40
04/01 05/01 06/01 07/0...
04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01
0.8
1.2
1.6
Red/GreenPhenocams
1
1.3
1.6
Red/GreenMODIS
04/01 05/01 06/01 ...
04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01
0.8
0.925
1.05
Green/RedPhenocams
0.1
0.2
0.3
EVIMODIS
04/01 05/01 06/01 0...
0
0.5
1
1.5
Rainfall(mm)
0
20
04/01 07/01 10/01 01/01
1.1
1.2
1.3
Red/Green
--- WindowSE--- WindowW--- WindowS
Calperum-Ch...
01-Feb-2012 11:00:0001-Feb-2012 11:00:00
01-Feb-2012 11:00:00
Eucalyptus window
Window EWindow W
Window S
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.35
1.4
R/G
MODIS
=-0.4369 R/G
cam
+1.35
p=0.0016 r2=0.21
EVIMODIS
R/Gcam
0.3 0.4 0.5 ...
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
R/G
MODIS
=-0.6335 R/G
cam
+1.21
p=1.5e-05 r2=0.36
EVIMODIS
R/Gcamgreen
0.3 0.4 ...
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.35
1.4
R/G
MODIS
=0.07184 R/G
cam
+1.17
p=0.01 r2=0.14
R/GMODIS
R/Gcam
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 ...
GinGin Flux Tower Site
14-May-2012 16:33:00 Red/Green
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Rainfall(mm)
0
10
20
06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/...
0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
R/G
MODIS
=0.9572 R/G
cam
+-0.0733
p=0.00091 r2=0.37
R/GMODIS
R/Gcam
0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1...
Green/Red (instead of Red/Green)
0.2 0.25 0.3
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
R/G
MODIS
=-3.54 R/G
cam
+1.78
p=5.9e-05 r2=0.5
EVIMODIS
R/Gca...
2012 2013
Understory camera
Low density
Alice Springs Mulga Flux Tower Site
15-Oct-2012 14:00:00 Red/Green
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
R...
0.1 0.12 0.14
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.45
R/G
MODIS
=102.8 R/G
cam
+-9.46
p=0.62 r2
=0.032
EVIMODIS
R/Gcam
0.1 0.12 0.14
1.3
1.4
1.5...
1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
1.2
1.3
1.4
R/G
MODIS
=0.5382 R/G
cam
+0.444
p=0.42 r2=0.11
R/GMODIS
R/Gcam
1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
1.2
1.3
1.4
1....
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Restrepo Huete phenocams ACEAS 140311

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Australian Phenology Product Validation: Phenocam Network

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Restrepo Huete phenocams ACEAS 140311

  1. 1. Australian Phenology Product Validation: Phenocam Network Natalia Restrepo-Coupe and Alfredo Huete University Technology of Sydney AusCover Sydney Phenology Node Kevin Davies, Michael Liddell, Nicolas Weigand, Craig.Macfarlane, John Byrne , Victor Resco de Dios, Matthias Boer, Chelsea Maier, Nicolas Boulain, James Cleverly, Derek Eamus, Georgia Koerber, and Wayne S Meyer
  2. 2. Introduction  Phenology – definition and how it is characterized with the use of RS products (VIs)  AusCover at the UTS Sydney node:   Phenology product: applications in conservation, aerobiology, LSM inputs   Land Surface Temperature product   Disturbance product
  3. 3. Objective: Validation Phenology Product AusCover UTS Sydney node  Validation of the phenology product  Link between the in-situ measurement and the remote sensing community (this is study is conducted in collaboration with Ozflux tower PIs).  Site-specific support to the flux tower data collection (symbiosis)  Contribute to the understanding of water and carbon flux seasonal cycles (personal objective)
  4. 4. Objective: Validation Phenology Product AusCover UTS Sydney node Modified  from  Ma,  X.,  et  al.,  2013.  
  5. 5. Methods: Flux towers Ma,  X.,  et  al.,  2013.  Spa7al  pa8erns  and  temporal  dynamics  in  savanna  vegeta7on  phenology  across  the  North  Australian  Tropical   Transect.  Remote  Sens.  Environ.  139,  97–115.  doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.07.030  
  6. 6. Methods: Phenocam Network Phenological Eyes Network
  7. 7. Methods: Phenocams  AusCover Good Practice Guidelines (A technical handbook supporting calibration and validation activities of remotely sensed data products)  Chapter 8. Phenology Validation   Literature review   Different methods   Phenocams   Our experience   Our approach to instrument set-up, data collection and processing
  8. 8. Methods: Phenocams  Phenocams : •  RGB and spectral cameras •  Orientation, angles, azimuths •  Over- and understory •  Diurnal, daily, and seasonal settings, including frequency of observations (e.g. 30 minutes) •  Camera settings, integration times, F-stop, etc. •  Use of White/Gray references •  Computation Red/Green (RGB) and NIR/Red ratios (spectral) with and without use of reference Our method is designed to support the following working hypothesis…
  9. 9. Working hypothesis  Use of tower mounted phenocam imagery of whole-canopy and tree and understory layer vegetation to trace and evaluate the satellite phenology profile (e.g. both measures should provide a similar start of green-up and peak at same time, etc.).   Assessment of satellite phenology product accuracies in depicting the timing of seasonal vegetation dynamics, phenophases, and other transitional dates in time and space (cross-site).   Phenocams have the potential to assess and partition seasonality of the tree layer, grass layer, and whole-canopy.   Whether the change in signal is attributed to more leaves, greener leaves, younger-leaves, or some combination.  Although, a mechanistic understanding of phenology drivers is not a direct requirement of validation, it does enable up-scaling of point-based phenology to landscapes.
  10. 10. ALICE SPRINGS CHOWILLA ZIG ZAG GINGIN CUMBERLAND PLAINS CREDO SE QUEENSLAND SUPERSITE Mean annual precipitation (mm/month) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data (NASA, 2013) DISCOVERY CENTER ROBSON CREEK DAINTREE Phenocam Network Methods: Budget  We do not mind replication  We adapt our protocol to the site (Natalia open the protocol)  http://data.auscover.org.au/ xwiki/bin/view/Teams/ GoodPracticeHanbook
  11. 11. Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific ALICE SPRINGS CHOWILLA ZIG ZAG GINGIN CUMBERLAND PLAINS CREDO SE QUEENSLAND SUPERSITE Special thanks to Dr. M Liddell and N. Weigand DISCOVERY CENTER ROBSON CREEK DAINTREE
  12. 12. Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific ALICE SPRINGS CHOWILLA ZIG ZAG GINGIN CUMBERLAND PLAINS CREDO SE QUEENSLAND SUPERSITE Special thanks to Dr. V Resco de Dios, Matthias Boer and Chelsea Maier Natalia open document about Cumberland
  13. 13. Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific ALICE SPRINGS CHOWILLA ZIG ZAG GINGIN CUMBERLAND PLAINS CREDO SE QUEENSLAND SUPERSITE Special thanks to Prof D. Chittleborough, Prof W. Meyer, Dr. G. Whiteman and T. Luckbe
  14. 14. Phenocam Network Objectives: Site specific ALICE SPRINGS CHOWILLA ZIG ZAG GINGIN CUMBERLAND PLAINS CREDO SE QUEENSLAND SUPERSITE Special thanks to Dr. J. Cleverly, Dr. N Boulain, R Faux, Dr. N. Grant and Prof Derek Eamus
  15. 15. Alice Springs Mulga, NT Wingscapes Alice Springs Mulga, NT Campbell Sci cameras Phenocam Network: Sensor Comparison
  16. 16. Phenocam Network: Camera Calibration Figure 1. Relationship between camera incoming radiation (x-axis) and the raw output signal (DN) for a Spectralon white panel in 6 bands: Red (centered at wavelengths of 655), Green (555), NIR (857), Blue (460) and wavebands 923 and 728. Camera settings: f- stop 5.6, gain =1 and integration time = 15. Digital number DN for non calibrated images. An incident PAR a light meter (umol m-2 s-1) was used to guide the experiment.
  17. 17. Phenocam Network: Linking RGB indices to physiological response Red/Green 2 1.5 1 0.5 Wet Dry Mulga site biological crust (>50% Cyanobacteria) Green/ Red response after wetting (1.57 mm). -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Time (hours) -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 Red/Green Riverbed/Red Gum site biological crust (>50% Moss) Green/ Red response after wetting (1.57 mm). Special thanks to J. Jamieson, Dr N. Boulain, and Dr A. Leight Wet
  18. 18. Calperum-Chowilla Flux Tower Site 25-Oct-2012 12:00:00 Red/Green 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Rainfall(mm) 0 20 40 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 0.8 1.2 1.6 Red/Green Grasses Shrubs Salt Bush Soil Biological Crust Soil Understory camera
  19. 19. 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01 0.8 1.2 1.6 Red/GreenPhenocams 1 1.3 1.6 Red/GreenMODIS 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01 0.95 1.1 1.25 Red/GreenPhenocams 1.2 1.4 1.6 Red/GreenMODIS Calperum-Chowilla (CHO) RGB understory camera MODIS reflectances (Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function, BRDF model MCD43A4) Grasses Shrubs Salt Bush Soil Biological Crust Soil MODIS All image (green) Mean Grass, Shrubs, Salt Bush 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 R/G MODIS =0.09195 R/G cam +1.06 p=0.0048 r2=0.24 R/GMODIS R/Gcam 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 0.9 1 1.1 R/G MODIS =0.25 R/G cam green +0.704 p=0.0014 r2=0.3 R/GMODIS R/Gcamgreen
  20. 20. 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01 0.8 0.925 1.05 Green/RedPhenocams 0.1 0.2 0.3 EVIMODIS 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01 0.8 0.925 1.05 Green/RedPhenocams 0.2 0.4 0.6 NDVIMODIS All image (green) Mean Grass, Shrubs, Salt Bush MODIS Calperum-Chowilla (CHO) RGB understory camera MODIS vegetation indices (MOD13) 16-day product linearly resampled to 8-day 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 R/G MODIS =-0.3744 R/G cam +1.26 p=0.0011 r2=0.31 EVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.9 1 1.1 R/G MODIS =-1.403 R/G cam +1.33 p=0.00062 r2=0.34 EVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25 1.3 R/G MODIS =-0.0956 R/G cam green +1.23 p=0.019 r2=0.18 NDVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.9 1 1.1 R/G MODIS =-0.272 R/G cam green +1.16 p=0.0099 r2=0.21 NDVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen Dropinactivity Riseinactivity Green/Red (instead of Red/Green)
  21. 21. 0 0.5 1 1.5 Rainfall(mm) 0 20 04/01 07/01 10/01 01/01 1.1 1.2 1.3 Red/Green --- WindowSE--- WindowW--- WindowS Calperum-Chowilla Flux Tower Site 06-Mar-2013 10:00:00 Red/Green 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 ainfall(mm) 20 1.2 1.3 ed/Green --- WindowSE--- WindowW--- WindowS 2012 2013 Tower nadir camera
  22. 22. 01-Feb-2012 11:00:0001-Feb-2012 11:00:00 01-Feb-2012 11:00:00 Eucalyptus window Window EWindow W Window S
  23. 23. 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 R/G MODIS =-0.4369 R/G cam +1.35 p=0.0016 r2=0.21 EVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 R/G MODIS =-0.1372 R/G cam green +1.32 p=0.00042 r2=0.25 NDVIMODIS R/Gcam 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 R/G MODIS =0.07184 R/G cam +1.17 p=0.01 r2=0.14 R/GMODIS R/Gcam F M A M J J A S O N D J F M 1.1 1.3 1.5 Red/GreenPhenocams 1.2 1.4 1.6 Red/GreenMODIS F M A M J J A S O N D J F M 0.75 0.8 0.85 Green/RedPhenocams 0.1 0.2 0.3 EVIMODIS F M A M J J A S O N D J F M 0.75 0.8 0.85 Green/RedPhenocams 0.2 0.4 0.6 NDVIMODIS Window E Window S Window W MODIS Mean all windows MODIS Mean all windows MODIS
  24. 24. 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 R/G MODIS =-0.6335 R/G cam +1.21 p=1.5e-05 r2=0.36 EVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 R/G MODIS =-0.1914 R/G cam green +1.16 p=7.6e-06 r2=0.38 NDVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 R/G MODIS =-0.4369 R/G cam +1.35 p=0.0016 r2=0.21 EVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 R/G MODIS =-0.1372 R/G cam green +1.32 p=0.00042 r2=0.25 NDVIMODIS R/Gcam F M A M J J A S O N D J F M 0.85 0.925 1 Green/RedPhenocams 0.1 0.2 0.3 EVIMODIS F M A M J J A S O N D J F M 0.85 0.925 1 Green/RedPhenocams 0.2 0.4 0.6 NDVIMODIS Green vegetation window Red/Green Eucalyptus window MODIS Green/Red (instead of Red/Green)
  25. 25. 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 R/G MODIS =0.07184 R/G cam +1.17 p=0.01 r2=0.14 R/GMODIS R/Gcam 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1 1.05 1.1 1.15 1.2 R/G MODIS =0.1291 R/G cam green +0.903 p=1.6e-05 r2=0.36 R/GMODIS R/Gcamgreen F M A M J J A S O N D J F M 1.15 1.275 1.4 Red/GreenPhenocams 1.2 1.4 1.6 Red/GreenMODIS F M A M J J A S O N D J F M 1.03 1.08 1.13 Red/GreenPhenocams 1.2 1.4 1.6 Red/GreenMODIS Window E Window S Window W MODIS Eucalyptus window MODIS
  26. 26. GinGin Flux Tower Site 14-May-2012 16:33:00 Red/Green 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Rainfall(mm) 0 10 20 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01 0 0.5 1 Red/Green --- Banskia01 --- Banskia02 --- Schrub --- Litter --- Soil Tower nadir camera
  27. 27. 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 R/G MODIS =0.9572 R/G cam +-0.0733 p=0.00091 r2=0.37 R/GMODIS R/Gcam 0.9 0.95 1 1.05 1.1 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 R/G MODIS =2.32 R/G cam green +-1.64 p=0.0001 r2=0.47 R/GMODIS R/Gcamgreen All image (green) Mean Banskia01, Banskia01, Shrubs MODIS Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov 0 0.5 1Red/GreenPhenocams 0.8 0.95 1.1 Red/GreenMODIS Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov 0.4 0.7 1 Red/GreenPhenocams 0.9 1 1.1 Red/GreenMODIS
  28. 28. Green/Red (instead of Red/Green) 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 R/G MODIS =-3.54 R/G cam +1.78 p=5.9e-05 r2=0.5 EVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 R/G MODIS =-6.757 R/G cam +2.37 p=2e-05 r2=0.54 EVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 R/G MODIS =-0.645 R/G cam green +1.24 p=1.3e-05 r2=0.55 NDVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 R/G MODIS =-1.507 R/G cam green +1.51 p=1.6e-05 r2=0.55 NDVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov 1 1.6 2.2 Green/RedPhenocams 0.2 0.25 0.3 EVIMODIS Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov 1 1.6 2.2 Green/RedPhenocams 0.4 0.6 0.8 NDVIMODISAll image (green) Mean Banskia01, Banskia01, Shrubs MODIS
  29. 29. 2012 2013 Understory camera Low density Alice Springs Mulga Flux Tower Site 15-Oct-2012 14:00:00 Red/Green 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Rainfall(mm) 0 11 22 S N D J F M A M J J A S O 1 1.4 1.8 Red/Green --- Grass01 --- Grass02 --- Acacia --- Litter --- Crust
  30. 30. 0.1 0.12 0.14 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 R/G MODIS =102.8 R/G cam +-9.46 p=0.62 r2 =0.032 EVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.1 0.12 0.14 1.3 1.4 1.5 R/G MODIS =191 R/G cam +-18.8 p=0.66 r2 =0.026 EVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen 0.25 0.3 0.35 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 R/G MODIS =10.03 R/G cam green +-1.08 p=0.15 r2=0.24 NDVIMODIS R/Gcam 0.25 0.3 0.35 1.3 1.4 1.5 R/G MODIS =13.89 R/G cam green +-2.05 p=0.068 r2=0.36 NDVIMODIS R/Gcamgreen S12 D12 F13 A13 J13 A13 O13 0.6 0.7 0.8 Green/RedPhenocams 0.1 0.11 0.12 EVIMODIS S12 D12 F13 A13 J13 A13 O13 0.6 0.7 0.8 Green/RedPhenocams 0.2 0.25 0.3 NDVIMODISAll image (green) Mean Acacia, Grass01, Grass02 MODIS
  31. 31. 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.4 R/G MODIS =0.5382 R/G cam +0.444 p=0.42 r2=0.11 R/GMODIS R/Gcam 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 R/G MODIS =0.6175 R/G cam green +0.254 p=0.35 r2=0.15 R/GMODIS R/Gcamgreen S12 D12 F13 A13 J13 A13 O13 1 1.3 1.6 Red/GreenPhenocams 0.8 1.3 1.8 Red/GreenMODIS S12 D12 F13 A13 J13 A13 O13 1 1.4 1.8 Red/GreenPhenocams 1.6 1.7 1.8 Red/GreenMODIS All image (green) Mean Acacia, Grass01, Grass02 MODIS

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