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Community resistance to biological invasions : role of diversity and network structure.

The presentation of the CESAB group LOLA-BMS at the 2016 french ecology conference in the FRB-CESAB session "Using a treasury of knowledge to tackle complex ecological questions." Presented by François Massol and Patrice David

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Community resistance to
biological invasions : role of
diversity and network structure
Patrice DAVID, François MASSOL
CNRS
COREIDS
Biological invasions
Rabbits
(Orycolagus cuniculus)
Water lilies
(Eicchornia crassipes)
Nile perchs
Lates niloticus
Zebra mussels
(Dreissena polymorpha)
- A worldwide revolution
in ecosystems and a major
component of global
change
- Concerns all kinds of
organisms and habitats
- Large impacts on
biodiversity but largely
unpredictable
biodiversity.europa.eu
Networks of species interactions
• Impacts of invasions
depend on interactions
with resident species
• Interactions are organized
in networks (eg food
webs)
• What properties of
networks make them
sensitive to invasion ?
The COREIDS group
• A group of scientists working
on invasions and/or
networks in France, Canada,
New Zealand
• Field biologists,
experimental biologists,
statisticians, theoreticians
• Synthesis, Meta-analysis,
modelling
Four types of local impacts of
invaders on food webs
I
R
1. Top-down
Invasive
predator
Resident
prey
Euglandina rosea
(predatory « wolf » snail)
Endemic
Partula spp
(tree snails)
- Direct predation is responsible for most
species extinctions following invasions
(Moorea
island)
Four types of local impacts of
invaders on food webs
I
R1
2. Exploitative
competition
R2
Invasive
species
Resident
prey
Resident
competitor
Endemic
Ceratitis catoirii
C. Capitata
Introd 1939
Locally
cultivated
fruit
(La Réunion
island)

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Community resistance to biological invasions : role of diversity and network structure.

  • 1. Community resistance to biological invasions : role of diversity and network structure Patrice DAVID, François MASSOL CNRS COREIDS
  • 2. Biological invasions Rabbits (Orycolagus cuniculus) Water lilies (Eicchornia crassipes) Nile perchs Lates niloticus Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) - A worldwide revolution in ecosystems and a major component of global change - Concerns all kinds of organisms and habitats - Large impacts on biodiversity but largely unpredictable biodiversity.europa.eu
  • 3. Networks of species interactions • Impacts of invasions depend on interactions with resident species • Interactions are organized in networks (eg food webs) • What properties of networks make them sensitive to invasion ?
  • 4. The COREIDS group • A group of scientists working on invasions and/or networks in France, Canada, New Zealand • Field biologists, experimental biologists, statisticians, theoreticians • Synthesis, Meta-analysis, modelling
  • 5. Four types of local impacts of invaders on food webs I R 1. Top-down Invasive predator Resident prey Euglandina rosea (predatory « wolf » snail) Endemic Partula spp (tree snails) - Direct predation is responsible for most species extinctions following invasions (Moorea island)
  • 6. Four types of local impacts of invaders on food webs I R1 2. Exploitative competition R2 Invasive species Resident prey Resident competitor Endemic Ceratitis catoirii C. Capitata Introd 1939 Locally cultivated fruit (La Réunion island)
  • 7. Four types of local impacts of invaders on food webs I R1 2. Exploitative competition R2 Invasive species Resident prey Resident competitor Endemic Ceratitis catoirii C. Capitata Introd 1939 Locally cultivated fruit C. rosa Introd 1955 (La Réunion island)
  • 8. Four types of local impacts of invaders on food webs I R1 2. Exploitative competition R2 Invasive species Resident prey Resident competitor Endemic Ceratitis catoirii C. Capitata Introd 1939 Locally cultivated fruit C. rosa Introd 1955 Bactrocera zonata Introd 1991 - Invasive competitors often arrive in successive series - Resident species are reduced or displaced more often than they go extinct (La Réunion island)
  • 9. Four types of local impacts of invaders on food webs I 3. Bottom-up Invasive prey Resident predator - Resident predators may limit populations of invasive species (biotic resistance) - Invasive species usually have positive effects on their predators R Invasive Gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) Endemic water snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum) (Lake Erie)
  • 10. Four types of local impacts of invaders on food webs I 3. Bottom-up Resident predator - Invasive species usually have positive effects on their predators - … but these benefits are sometimes outweighed by competition with more profitable resident prey - This situation is common with invasive plants eg Caulerpa taxifolia, Rubus alceifolius >> herbivore diversity decreases R R2 Resident competitor Horned Lizard Phrynosoma coronatum Invasive prey Argentine ant Linepithema humile Native ant Crematogaster californica (California)
  • 11. Four types of local impacts of invaders on food webs I 4. Apparent competition Resident predator R R2 Resident prey Invasive prey Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos Island fox Urocyon littoralis Feral pig Sus scrofa - Invasive species may benefit local generalist predators and indirectly affect local species (California channel islands)
  • 12. The filter hypothesis• ASYMMETRY : Invaders tend to have more impact (often strong) on natives than natives have on invaders; they are fiercer predators, better defended prey, and stronger competitors
  • 13. The filter hypothesis• ASYMMETRY : Invaders tend to have more impact (often strong) on natives than natives have on invaders; they are fiercer predators, better defended prey, and stronger competitors • LACK OF COEVOLUTION : Invaders and residents are evolutionary naive to each other : their interactions may often be extreme • Major outcomes Predation efficiency coevolved Not coevolved Frequency Example of predator introduction
  • 14. The filter hypothesis• ASYMMETRY : Invaders tend to have more impact (often strong) on natives than natives have on invaders; they are fiercer predators, better defended prey, and stronger competitors • LACK OF COEVOLUTION : Invaders and residents are evolutionary naive to each other : their interactions may often be extreme • FILTER : Only species that happen to be tolerant to resident species successfully invade • Major outcomes Predation efficiency coevolved Not coevolved Mean natives Invasion fails Invasion succeeds Mean invaders Frequency Example of predator introduction
  • 15. Propagation of effects in the recipient network : attenuation or amplification ? I
  • 16. Theoretical predictions • Theoretical models : construction of model food webs by addition of species and evolution of trophic traits (eg body size) • Introduce virtual invaders, measure probability of success and impact • Diversity >> filling of niche space >> less invasions and smaller impacts • Connectance : no clear effect
  • 17. Empirical data : Three cases of far-reaching impact of species introduction 1) Trophic cascades in lakes Favoured by the relatively low diversity and high efficiency of primary consumption of phytoplankton (unlike in many plant-based terrestrial ecosystems) http://www.lmvp.org
  • 18. Empirical data : Three cases of far-reaching impact of species introduction 2) Disequilibrium - Recent human modification : eutrophication, elimination of top predators, replacement of native forest by agriculture or secondary habitat >> low diversity, lots of unexploited resource - Evolutionary immaturity : remote islands lacking particular groups >> idem http://www.lmvp.org Guam island Tree snake Boiga irregularis
  • 19. Empirical data : Three cases of far-reaching impact of species introduction 3) Ecosystem engineering - Large modification of habitat: sessile filter-feeders : water clarification, creation of habitats - Attracts many new species, limits many others, deeply reorganizes energy and matter fluxes in lake ecosystem (pelagic >> benthic) http://ian.umces.edu Zebra mussel Great Lakes
  • 20. Detritivore Predator Omnivore Producer Detritivore Omnivore Producer Herbivore Predator Aquatic Terrestrial Increases Effect on diversity Decreases Meta-analysis
  • 21. Lessons for ecosystem conservation • Fight against causes of invasions rather than invasions themselves : pollution, perturbation, predator removal • Islands are hypersensitive due to past isolation : prevent introductions, especially of generalist predators • Eradication is usually costly and ineffective; resident communities often change ecologically and evolutionarily after invasions, there is often no way back. Look for mitigation rather than eradication.
  • 22. Next issue of Advances in Ecological Research Networks of Invasions #56 2017 Thanks for your attention