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Greece

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Greece

  1. 1.  OFFICIAL NAME: Hellenic Republic  FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary republic  CAPITAL: Athens  POPULATION: 10,722,816  OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Greek  MONEY: Euro  AREA: 50,942 square miles (131,940 square kilometers)  OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Greek
  2. 2. History  Indo-European peoples, including the Mycenaeans, began entering Greece about 2000 B.C. and set up sophisticated civilizations.  About 1200 B.C. , the Dorians, another Indo- European people, invaded Greece, and a dark age followed, known mostly through the Homeric epics.  At the end of this time, classical Greece began to emerge (c. 750 B.C. ) as a loose composite of city- states with a heavy involvement in maritime trade and a devotion to art, literature, politics, and philosophy.
  3. 3.  Greece reached the peak of its glory in the 5th century B.C. , but the Peloponnesian War (431– 404 B.C. ) weakened the nation, and it was conquered by Philip II and his son Alexander the Great of Macedonia, who considered themselves Greek.  By the middle of the 2nd century B.C. , Greece had declined to the status of a Roman province. It remained within the eastern Roman Empire until Constantinople fell to the Crusaders in 1204.  In 1453, the Turks took Constantinople and by 1460, Greece was a province in the Ottoman Empire.
  4. 4.  The Greek war of independence began in 1821, and by 1827 Greece won independence with sovereignty guaranteed by Britain, France, and Russia  The protecting powers chose Prince Otto of Bavaria as the first king of modern Greece in 1832 to reign over an area only slightly larger than the Peloponnese peninsula.  Chiefly under the next king, George I, chosen by the protecting powers in 1863, Greece acquired much of its present territory.
  5. 5.  During his 57-year reign, a period in which he encouraged parliamentary democracy, Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, Crete, and most of the Aegean islands were added from the disintegrating Turkish empire  Unfavorable economic conditions forced about one-sixth of the entire Greek population to emigrate (mostly to the U.S.) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. An unsuccessful war against Turkey after World War I brought down the monarchy, which was replaced by a republic in 1923.
  6. 6. Greek Culture: History, Culture, Traditions, and Religion  Standing at around the same size as the state of New York, Greece is a country that is rich in history, culture, traditions, and religion. They’re known for their belief in the Greek Gods, where philosophy was first discovered, the amazing architecture such as the Parthenon, and the creation of the Olympics, just to name a few. Even though the country has been through a lot of changes throughout history, the people still value Greek culture.
  7. 7. Music  During Ancient Greece, music was considered a gift from the gods. It was attributed to Hermes with the lyre, Athena with the flute, and Pan with the panpipes.  Music was performed during all sorts of occasions such as weddings, religious ceremonies, festivals, parties, and military activities.  It was also used during dramatic performances held in theaters such as plays and recitals.
  8. 8. Food Since the climate in Greece is mostly hot and dry, this means that the people rely heavily on fresh food. Their diet consists of a lot of vegetables and fruits, and some meats. As far as meat goes, they eat mostly lamb, pork and chicken. However, they do not consume as much meat as most other cultures. The most popular Greek food is the gyro, which is considered a street food snack. It’s a pita sandwich usually containing seasoned meat, salad, cucumbers, garlic and yogurt
  9. 9. Clothing / Fashion  Ancient Greeks usually wore simple garments that hung over their bodies. The peplos was a sleeveless, one-piece fabric with a hole cut out for the head.  The chiton was very similar to the peplos except it had sleeves for the arms. They were both usually made of wool since sheep farming was widespread and it helped keep them warm during the cold winters.
  10. 10. Religion  According to the history of Orthodoxy, Saint Paul was the first to come into Greece to preach Christianity, back in 49 AD. As of today, about 98% of the country’s population is Christian Orthodox. They are considered, however, to be more free and have less restrictions than other denominations of Christianity. For example, a priest in Greece can marry someone. Following a divorce, Greeks can remarry in church.  Another difference is that Greeks only attend church occasionally, not weekly. Their faith is still as deep and strong as any other Christian, but they also believe in the “Greek spirit”, which is represented by independence and freedom.
  11. 11. Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters, each with an uppercase and lowercase form. The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in the final position:
  12. 12. Tourist spot Acropolis, Athens  Considered the symbol of Athens and Greece, and indeed of Western civilisation, the Acropolis is a rocky mound rising in the heart of modern Athens and crowned by three magnificent temples dating from the 5th century BC.
  13. 13. Tourist spot Santorini  The most dramatic of all the Greek islands, Santorini is best known for the cliff-top towns of Fira and Oia, which lie on the west coast, overlooking the deep, blue sea-filled caldera. Made up of typical Cycladic whitewashed cubic buildings, many of which have been converted into boutique hotels with infinity pools, both Fira and Oia are considered romantic destinations, popular for weddings and honeymoons
  14. 14. Tourist spot Rhodes  the largest of Greece’s Dodecanese islands, is known for its beach resorts, ancient ruins and remnants of its occupation by the Knights of St. John during the Crusades. The city of Rhodes has an Old Town featuring the medieval Street of the Knights and the castlelike Palace of the Grand Masters
  15. 15. Author background Homer Idealized portrayal of Homer dating to the Hellenistic period. British Museum.  best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. He was believed by the ancient Greeks to have been the first and greatest of the epic poets.  Author of the first known literature of Europe, he is central to the Western canon.
  16. 16.  Homer was the most important and earliest of the Greek and Roman writers. Greeks and Romans didn't count themselves educated unless they knew his poems.  His influence was felt not only on literature, but on ethics and morality via lessons from his masterpieces. He is the first source to look for information on Greek myth and religion.  Yet, despite his prominence, we have no firm evidence that he ever lived.
  17. 17. Iliad  “The Iliad” (Gr: “Iliás”) is an epic poem by the ancient Greek poet Homer, which recounts some of the significant events of the final weeks of the Trojan War and the Greek siege of the city of Troy (which was also known as Ilion, Ilios or Ilium in ancient times).
  18. 18. The Odyssey  The Odyssey is Homer's epic of Odysseus' 10-year struggle to return home after the Trojan War. While Odysseus battles mystical creatures and faces the wrath of the gods, his wife Penelope and his son Telemachus stave off suitors vying for Penelope's hand and Ithaca's throne long enough for Odysseus to return.

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