Human(e) aspects of Tokyo

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Human(e) Aspects of Tokyo:
Creative climate, small places of anarchy, stigmergy. Notes and a few projects for a guest lecture at Dr. Christian Dimmer's Public/Private Seminar, Waseda University
Nov. 16, 2011

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Human(e) aspects of Tokyo

  1. 1. Human(e) Aspects of Tokyocreative climate, small places of anarchy, stigmergynotes and a few projects for a guest lecture at Dr. Christian Dimmers Public/Private Seminar, Waseda UniversityNov. 16, 2011Chris Berthelsenhttp://a-small-lab.comchris@a-small-lab.com@a_small_lab
  2. 2. People play with things and find new uses for them (Lynch, 1984:157) Messy and spontaneous,indiv idually created, everyday expressions of the creativity of everyday people in all of its facets. A response to the environment, a reflection of society, culture, and traditions (Jonas, 2007) Change reconciles with the idea of Improvement (Koolhaus, 2002) and people feel joy, asLeaky roof opposed to merecountermeasures pleasure (Illich, 1973:17)(Nakano Station, Tokyo)
  3. 3. I started out looking at Creativtycreativity and innovation... Innovation
  4. 4. Hint: It didnt work for me At first in organizations... I Creativty thought it would be a good money spinner Innovation Organizations
  5. 5. Creativty Innovation OrganizationsDepartments
  6. 6. Creativty Innovation OrganizationsDepartmentsTeams
  7. 7. I keep looking, down to the Creativty work environment Innovation Organizations Departments Teams WorkEnvrionment
  8. 8. I keep looking, down to the Creativty work environment and finally the individual.... Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Work EnvrionmentThe Individual
  9. 9. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Work EnvrionmentThe Individual At the same time
  10. 10. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Work Envrionment RegionsThe Individual At the same time, people were being exciting about innovation and creativity on regional
  11. 11. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Countries Work Envrionment RegionsThe Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country
  12. 12. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment RegionsThe Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country and city levels....
  13. 13. Creativty Innovation Organizations Neighbourhoods Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment RegionsThe Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country and city levels....I kept looking, through to neighbourhoods
  14. 14. Creativty Innovation The Individual Organizations Neighbourhoods Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment RegionsThe Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country and city levels....I kept looking, through to neighbourhoods and finally the individual...
  15. 15. Creativty Innovation The Individual Organizations Neighbourhoods Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment RegionsThe Individual
  16. 16. individual Components of Creativity & Creative Climateenvironment Ref: Amabile, Isaksen, Ekvall etc Here is a little framework for thinking about creativity.... Please keep it in mind while I flip through the examples and projects later....
  17. 17. after Amabile“A product or response is creative to the extent that thosefamiliar with the context in which it was created and/orresides in regard it as being novel and valuable to asuitable degree.”creative product
  18. 18. As fine-grainedcreative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Ref Stigmergy, later
  19. 19. Always some kind of process (sub/conscious, in/direct),ending with the creative outputProcess As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace
  20. 20. The creative product always comes out of the mind of theindividual, (e.g. even if simultaneously arrived at in a group)Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace
  21. 21. The processes and persons reside in some environment(social, psychological, climate etc etc)Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace
  22. 22. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity
  23. 23. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Knowledge & Skills Domain relevant
  24. 24. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Creativity Knowledge & Specific Skills Skills Tacit, explicit, personality etc...
  25. 25. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of CreativityIntrinsic Creativity Knowledge &Motivation Specific Skills Skillsfor itself
  26. 26. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of CreativityIntrinsic Creativity Knowledge &Motivation Specific Skills Skills
  27. 27. Press (Environment)Creative Climate Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Intrinsic Creativity Knowledge & Motivation Specific Skills Skills
  28. 28. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen)Text from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full Climate: A collective perceptual Debate construct reflecting a lower level of Freedom abstraction based on observedIdea Support patterns of interaction and behaviour (Schneider, 2000).Culture, which reflects the deeper and more stable aspects ofvalues, traditions, rituals and history (Denison, 1996). ResourcesResearch on organizational culture has typically focused on Playfulnessthe underlying assumptions and values of the organization Time /Humorthat are deeply embedded and can often be subconscious,hidden and taken for granted (Schein, 2004).
  29. 29. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea Support Trust/ Openness Conflict (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /HumorText from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full and Mathisenand Einarsen (2004: 126) (see also on Amabile et al., 1996, 1999)
  30. 30. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The way new ideas are treated. In a high Idea- Idea Support situation, people Support receive ideas and Trust/ suggestions in an attentive Openness and professional manner. People listen generously to Conflict each other. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /HumorText from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full
  31. 31. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The occurrence and open disagreement between Idea viewpoints, ideas, Support experiences and knowledge. Trust/ In the Debating situation, Openness many different voices and points of view are Conflict exchanged and encouraged. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  32. 32. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity. In a high Idea Risk-Taking climate, people Support can make decisions even Trust/ when they do not have Openness certainty and all the information desired. People Conflict can and do ‘go out on a limb’ to put new ideas (Violence?) forward. Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  33. 33. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea High levels of Freedom imply Support Trust/ more perceived autonomy and Openness ability for individual discretion. Conflict (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /HumorText from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full
  34. 34. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea The emotional safety in relationships. In high Support Trust/ Trust/Openness situations, people feel more Openness comfortable sharing ideas and being frank and honest Conflict with each other. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  35. 35. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea Access to resources including funds, facilities, Support Trust/ materials and information. Openness Conflict (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  36. 36. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The amount of time people Idea can, and do, use for elaborating new ideas. Support When Idea-Time is high, Trust/ people can explore and Openness develop new ideas that may not have been included in Conflict the original task. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  37. 37. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The spontaneity and ease Idea displayed within the environment. Good-natured Support joking and laughter and a Trust/ relaxed atmosphere (lower Openness stress) are indicators of higher levels of Playfulness Conflict and Humour. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  38. 38. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom When Conflict is high, people engage in Idea interpersonal warfare, Support slander and gossip, and Trust/ even plot against each Openness other...Crime.... Include also threats/actual phyiscal Conflict violence (police, military, private security) (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  39. 39. A quick run through Tokyo(keeping in mind the creative climate framework)
  40. 40. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Public Seating
  41. 41. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Safety.
  42. 42. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  43. 43. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  44. 44. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Access.
  45. 45. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  46. 46. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT When access becomes difficult
  47. 47. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Fix it.
  48. 48. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT In a city with scarce space and dirt, make it yourself....
  49. 49. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Even on a 10cm wide curb....
  50. 50. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or on the sidewalk.
  51. 51. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  52. 52. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  53. 53. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  54. 54. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or in a highrise.
  55. 55. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  56. 56. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  57. 57. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or on a precarious brick wall.
  58. 58. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or along the railroad tracks.
  59. 59. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  60. 60. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Flower lovers share their passion...
  61. 61. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  62. 62. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Grape-obsessed Shibuya-ites.....
  63. 63. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  64. 64. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Basil
  65. 65. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT What appears to be dead space...
  66. 66. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Is home to fresh red peppers.
  67. 67. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Maintaining a dead spouses neighbourhood park garden...
  68. 68. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT What appears to be run-down dead space
  69. 69. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Becomes a lush living fence that beautifies the vacant lots
  70. 70. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT And plays host to lovely flora....
  71. 71. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT The work of neighbourhood misfits
  72. 72. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Is actually a tomato garden.
  73. 73. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT People who often visit the neighbours
  74. 74. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Create their own access-ways.
  75. 75. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Placing rubbish bins where they are needed.
  76. 76. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  77. 77. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  78. 78. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Animals KEEP OUT!
  79. 79. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT With intricate, flexible and affordable construction.
  80. 80. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Even pedestrian smokers find a way to keep the street (if not the air) clean.
  81. 81. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  82. 82. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  83. 83. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  84. 84. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Dark apartment complexes call for home-made street lights.
  85. 85. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT And when youre sick of people asking you how to find the station, you stick up some signs.
  86. 86. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Bricks are a key element in bicycle parking.
  87. 87. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  88. 88. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  89. 89. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  90. 90. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Foxface decorates an inner city garden
  91. 91. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Even when its out of season (fruit are tied on with plastic ties)
  92. 92. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT In the suburbs, where Jazz clubs are scarce, you need to make your own..
  93. 93. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  94. 94. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT And golf lovers construct a fold away 9-hole course in the local park.
  95. 95. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  96. 96. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  97. 97. adinfinitum
  98. 98. But,In a dire view of the city
  99. 99. “Part machine, part sub- human organism, part nightmare-huge projection and embodiment of passion and insanity.” (Huxley, 1939) From After Many a Summer Dies the Swan not Brave New WorldPhoto: Mori Scale Model of Tokyo
  100. 100. Totalabsence ofpurpose(Lynch, 1984:364).
  101. 101. Community =the market + isolation;Freedom = totalsurveillance society(Zerzan, 2006).
  102. 102. "if there has to be a bloodbath, then let’s get it over with" (Ronald Regan quoted in the San Francisco Chronicle in response to protests when the People’s Park in Berkeley was fenced off by police and the National Guard (in McKay (2011:120)).) This is California, 1966Photo: Collection of the Oakland Museum of California
  103. 103. → The abstract, faceless conquest of Space by Man (capitalized)→ the limitation of place for men(in small letters) (Ellul, 1964:328).Our city illnessa basic motive , a common denominator; A single (Lynch, 1984:364) hasmechanism by which it most disturbs urbanites.This is the lossof control. (Krupat)
  104. 104. The message isclear: “You cannotdo as you please;your actions do notmake anydifference."
  105. 105. No walking, No running, No walking, No Hold the No running. handrail. throwing cigarettes. Stand inBe an orderlycareful! fashion.(of yoursandals) No walking, Hold the handrail. No running, Because its dangerous. Subway station (Nagoya)
  106. 106. And of course, dont play on the grass... Not just dont walk but specifically directed at children.... Apartment block grassed area in Western Tokyo
  107. 107. The Radical Monopoly ofSpace:
  108. 108. The Radical Monopoly ofSpace:a major tool rules out natural competence, imposingcompulsory consumption and thereby restrictingpersonal autonomy.
  109. 109. The Radical Monopoly ofSpace:a major tool rules out natural competence, imposingcompulsory consumption and thereby restrictingpersonal autonomy. It constitutes a special kind ofsocial control because it is enforced by means of theimposed consumption of astandard product that onlylarge institutions canprovide (Illich, 1973:35).
  110. 110. people give up their native abilityto do what they can do forthemselves and for each other, inexchange for something “better” thatcan be done for them only by a majortool(Illich, 1973:36) Housing in Western Tokyo
  111. 111. But, commoditized city space which is ‘assembled and ordered’ in form,appearance, and functional prescription need not be entirely fixed orpredetermined by the complex process through which it enters the world.Reality acquires its identity from what can be done with itand what is important is the relationship that humanbeings have to their everyday environment.
  112. 112. But, commoditized city space which is ‘assembled and ordered’ in form,appearance, and functional prescription need not be entirely fixed orpredetermined by the complex process through which it enters the world.Reality acquires its identity from what can be done with itand what is important is the relationship that humanbeings have to their everyday environment.Technology in this view can generate specificforms of access to the world for human beings. Itis the use-objects around us that are the nearestand authentic things, they give us access to beingand thus (help us) shape our world.
  113. 113. The most powerful way of improving our environment then is to putthe control of it into the hands of its immediate users who have thestake and knowledge to make it function well (Lynch, 1984:165).The last great force in the cityis the residents themselves (Orum their creative response toand Chen:18);change is their ultimateguarantee of survival (Lynch, 1984:172). Taking care of apartment block public space in Edogawa
  114. 114. It is important to understand unintendeduser contributions to urban order because this is a potentially revolutionary aspectof the citys structure. The general organization of urban life must develop more sensitivity to the arbitrariness of human use for the city as an object, or that arbitrariness will coalesce into revolt.These lifestyles must be given breathing space(Glean Chase discussing urban cavemanship in Wilsher and Righter, 1975:98-99).
  115. 115. Pick one spot in the city and begin tothink of it as yours. It doesnt matterwhere, and it doesnt matter what(Auster, 2003) Hollyhock grown by residents of housing opposite train lines in Western Tokyo
  116. 116. “We give back to man the joy of building.”(Hans Hollein, 1960)“The reconstruction of life, therebuilding of the world: one and thesame desire.” (Vaneigem, 1967:chpt10)
  117. 117. SmallPlaces ofAnarchy
  118. 118. Small Places of AnarchyThe actor, not the hero (Bamyeh, 2009:30).Neither the passive observer ofdetermined systems nor a determinedmanipulator of passive material andstanding reserve, but ratherthe cultivatorSee alsohttp://thisbigcity.net/small-places-of-anarchy-in-the-city-three-investigations-in-tokyo/
  119. 119. Tokyo makes it possible forslim segments of the populationto generate their own environmentsin scattered oases of a vast metroscape.What emerges here is the idea of the city ofunimposed order,consisting ofcommunal self-determination on one handand individual freedom on the other.Here authority is practical, rather thanabsolute or permanent, and based incommunication, negotiation.
  120. 120. NOcontrol state Small places of anarchy are zones of human-scale action, attachment and care. They can:NOrule majority 1) Replace state control with regards to an aspect of city life. 2) Take away that aspect from theYES requirement of majority rule. to 3) Promote unimposed order asunimposed order as the style working.work style
  121. 121. They are located within the existing system,tacitly accepted or actively protected, and may take many forms.They are not the whole of society but occupy space within the existing order and can be entirelyindividual in nature.
  122. 122. They are located within the existing system,tacitly accepted or actively protected, and may take many forms.They are not the whole of society but occupy space within the existing order and can be entirelyindividual in nature.They are not consciously based in anarchist ideology because“anarchy is a normal tendency in voluntary organizedsocial life, where spontaneous order comes out withoutan imposition.”The virtue of unimposed order thus develops through learning of the practice of rational freedom– that the complexity of the social world can be an asset rather than a source of perpetual war.
  123. 123. What emerges is not intensified debate, ‘automatic pilot’resistance or struggle (Boomkens, 2008:16).Neither is it the violence of market-basedcompetition or the dull submission of thehierarchy.Rather life emerges as a common but negotiated human experiment – a lifethat is engaged and felt rather than delegatedand abstracted (Bamyeh, 2009:12, 24) in places ofintensified cohabitation and conjunction(Boomkens, 2008:15).
  124. 124. For the case of Tokyo
  125. 125. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo] City ・都市 Workplace ・職場 Suburb ・町・街 Nearby Large Park ・もっと大きい公園 Workplace ・職場 Neighbourhood ・近所 Nearby Larger Roads ・近くの道路 Parking Space ・駐車所 Close Small Deceased Parks ・近くの公園 Grandparents House & Shop ・亡くなった親戚 Surrounds ・家の近く の家や店 Uncles Opposite House Footpath ・反対歩道 Own Shop ・おじさんの家 & Surrounds Footpath ・歩道 Frontage ・正面 Home ・自宅 Dwelling ・住まい
  126. 126. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo]
  127. 127. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo]
  128. 128. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo]
  129. 129. Practically, this means that the individual realizesthat the society that he or she lives in is thelandscape – that this living thingright now before our eyes isthe landscape. Every resident has a clearsense of identity and culture , of agency … orpossibly more correctly, the habitat in which agencyoperates and which it produces in the course of itsoperation (Bauman, 1992, 190-1 see Flusty, 2004).
  130. 130. "I will grow, I will grow when the city grows" (Huidobro, 1919:115) Small Places of Anarchy form the City Gardened walkway (Suginami-ku, Tokyo)
  131. 131. Stigmergy‘… instead of coordination throughdirect communication, each individualcan adjust its building behaviour to fitwith that of its neighbours throughthe medium of thework in progress’. Camazine, et al.(2001, p. 24)
  132. 132. StigmergyForm of self-organizationComplex, seeminglyintelligent, structureswithout planning,control, or even directcommunicationSupports collaborationbetween even very simpleagents or actions
  133. 133. Stigmergy Mechanism of indirect coordination between agents or actions.Form of self-organization The trace left in the environment by an actionComplex, seeminglyintelligent, structures stimulates the performance of a next action by the same or a different agent.without planning,control, or even direct Subsequent actions tend to reinforce and build on each other.communicationSupports collaboration Leading to the spontaneousbetween even very simple emergence of coherent, apparentlyagents or actions systematic activity.
  134. 134. Stigmergy Information flow via the Actor/Action environment Imprint of information via cues and/or Coordination/ Actor/Action stimulus Environment Construction Activities Actor/Actionhttp://epress.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/ch09s05.html
  135. 135. Something like http://thisbigcity.net/the-non-intentional-landscape-of-tokyo/ Non-Intentional Landscape, Hand-Made City Stigmergent City Elastic city http://www.thepolisblog.org/2011/11/imagining-elastic-city.html
  136. 136. Walls,curbs,balconies and roofs.Sidewalks,corners, overhangs,carparksand train stations.The park, inherited property,reappropriated fishing spots,public toilets and green sleeping spots.Here, the city of crumbs is experienced as a city of fine-grained humanitybuilt in the gaps of the city.This is a physical manifestation of the fragments of individual human knowledge of thecity;residences,parks and free space,extended family,and areas connected to their professional,socialand other roles.
  137. 137. Non-intentional Landscape (Shibuya)http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-small-lab/6245919459/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  138. 138. Non-intentional Landscape (Akishima-shi)http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-small-lab/6246441966/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  139. 139. Non-intentional Landscape (Hand-Made Tokyo Collage Workshop)http://a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo
  140. 140. Some projects examining the human(e), fine-grained aspects of Tokyo
  141. 141. FIXES (a-small-lab.com/fixes/) Investigating alterations of space/objects at the public/private boundary in suburban Tokyo, Japan.
  142. 142. TOKYO DIY GARDENING (tokyo-diy-gardening.org) An open sourcebook and resource for urban gardening on a personal level – “hands-on gardening for a crowded city”. It includes ‘how-to’ examples/instructions, photo essays, observations, interviews, articles and more with the aim of knowledge sharing and creation around low-cost, agile gardening in dense cities (with a focus on Tokyo).
  143. 143. HAND MADE PLAY (a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play) A collaborative + open research project investigating, enjoying, and learning from the self-initiated non-commercial play of children
  144. 144. HAND MADE PLAY (a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play)
  145. 145. Child-Scale Cities(http://a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play/understanding-the-child-scale-in-the-city-excerpt/)
  146. 146. Child-Scale Cities(http://a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play/understanding-the-child-scale-in-the-city-excerpt/)
  147. 147. Child-Scale Cities(http://a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play/understanding-the-child-scale-in-the-city-excerpt/)
  148. 148. HAND MADE ASPECTS OF MASS MADE HOUSING what elements of the human hand survival sickness.. are found in this space built on the logic of economies scale? We most emphatically condemn as inhuman the present practice of forbidding any modifications to social housing by their residents. Tied in to our suggestions for ownership, we uphold the fundamental right for an owner/resident to modify his/her dwelling to any extent without impinging on the rights of neighbors or the public space.”
  149. 149. HAND MADE ASPECTS OF MASS MADE TOILETS what elements of the human hand are found in this non-place?
  150. 150. HAND MADE ASPECTS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT what elements of the human hand are found in this non-place?
  151. 151. HAND MADE MEMORIAL (Ozaki Yutaka) hand made memorial in smooth, bald space temporal aspect, pilgrimage
  152. 152. KOKONOHANASHI (http://a-small-lab.com/projects/kokonohanashi.htm) “How do people like to discuss their neighbourhood spaces? What would a flexible, open and affordable system for facilitating this look like? How can we easily find out which neighbour-hood spaces people care about?” An iterative investigation.
  153. 153. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Keep Your City Beautiful! 153
  154. 154. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Keep Your City Beautiful! 154
  155. 155. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Keep Your City Delicious! 155
  156. 156. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Title: Aoyama Breakfast Time: 7:30am~10:00am, Early Spring 156
  157. 157. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) In a small run-down park not a minutes walk from the death-trap of Omotesando Hills. A small bearded man waits. 157
  158. 158. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Contrast the leisurely urban interior 158
  159. 159. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) with the psychological rigor that the commerical crust demands...........anyway, back to the breakfast. 159
  160. 160. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) butter, chocolate, juice, etc gas burner grated potato coffee, cups, stovetop espresso flour maker Necessary bits and pieces 160
  161. 161. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Season, sauce and eat. 161
  162. 162. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) A small, balding man enjoys his breakfast. 162
  163. 163. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Welcome to the bakery in a home! 163
  164. 164. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Welcome to the bakery in a home! Entrance fee 100 yen for 20 pieces, and your money back at the end! 164
  165. 165. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Bread, cake, biscuits and more! Take your pick! 165
  166. 166. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Go for it! 166
  167. 167. LOOK-A-ROUND (http://a-small-lab.com/projects/look-a-round) a board game which encourages learning about city accessibility Creating cities that are accessible to as many people as possible, regardless of physical capabilities is an important part of cultivating a fully functioning urban environment.
  168. 168. TOKYO-COLOUR-IN (http://a-small-lab.com/projects/tokyo-colour-in) introduce little hands and minds to the fine- grained hand made aspect of human(e) creativity on the street.
  169. 169. CITY BLOCKSChildren have an inexhaustible ability to use and transformthe debris of society in new and creative ways. CITY BLOCKS
  170. 170. FIXES TOOLKIT a card game about the hand-made city of Tokyo.
  171. 171. TOKYO MAPPING WORKSHOP (a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo)
  172. 172. TOKYO MAPPING WORKSHOP (a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo)
  173. 173. TOKYO MAPPING WORKSHOP (a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo)
  174. 174. "The experience of these ragpickers suggests a timeother than that of development. And studying thesegroups, like digging into the history of ideas, can lift usfrom our assumptions, but with no guarantee of whatthe result will be"(Illich, 1989:7 PDF)
  175. 175. “Within the chaos, most people have forgotten who lives where and how;they have lost affection for their own locality.Beautiful cityscapes and wonderful living environments must be fosteredslowly and steadily under the gaze of citizens who love and take pride intheir land.”(Jinnai, 1995:65) Contact: Chris Berthelsen (chris@a-small-lab.com) > twitter.com/a_small_lab > a-small-lab.com

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