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Human(e) Aspects of Tokyo:
Creative climate, small places of anarchy, stigmergy. Notes and a few projects for a guest lecture at Dr. Christian Dimmer's Public/Private Seminar, Waseda University
Nov. 16, 2011

Human(e) Aspects of Tokyo:
Creative climate, small places of anarchy, stigmergy. Notes and a few projects for a guest lecture at Dr. Christian Dimmer's Public/Private Seminar, Waseda University
Nov. 16, 2011

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Human(e) aspects of Tokyo

  1. 1. Human(e) Aspects of Tokyo creative climate, small places of anarchy, stigmergy notes and a few projects for a guest lecture at Dr. Christian Dimmer's Public/Private Seminar, Waseda University Nov. 16, 2011 Chris Berthelsen http://a-small-lab.com chris@a-small-lab.com @a_small_lab
  2. 2. People play with things and find new uses for them (Lynch, 1984:157) Messy and spontaneous,indiv idually created, everyday expressions of the creativity of everyday people in all of its facets. A response to the environment, a reflection of society, culture, and traditions (Jonas, 2007) Change reconciles with the idea of Improvement (Koolhaus, 2002) and people feel joy, as Leaky roof opposed to mere countermeasures pleasure (Illich, 1973:17) (Nakano Station, Tokyo)
  3. 3. I started out looking at Creativty creativity and innovation... Innovation
  4. 4. Hint: It didn't work for me At first in organizations... I Creativty thought it would be a good money spinner Innovation Organizations
  5. 5. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments
  6. 6. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Teams
  7. 7. I keep looking, down to the Creativty work environment Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Work Envrionment
  8. 8. I keep looking, down to the Creativty work environment and finally the individual.... Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Work Envrionment The Individual
  9. 9. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Work Envrionment The Individual At the same time
  10. 10. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Work Envrionment Regions The Individual At the same time, people were being exciting about innovation and creativity on regional
  11. 11. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Teams Countries Work Envrionment Regions The Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country
  12. 12. Creativty Innovation Organizations Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment Regions The Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country and city levels....
  13. 13. Creativty Innovation Organizations Neighbourhoods Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment Regions The Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country and city levels....I kept looking, through to neighbourhoods
  14. 14. Creativty Innovation The Individual Organizations Neighbourhoods Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment Regions The Individual At the same time, people were be exciting about innovation and creativity on regional, country and city levels....I kept looking, through to neighbourhoods and finally the individual...
  15. 15. Creativty Innovation The Individual Organizations Neighbourhoods Departments Cities Teams Countries Work Envrionment Regions The Individual
  16. 16. individual Components of Creativity & Creative Climate environment Ref: Amabile, Isaksen, Ekvall etc Here is a little framework for thinking about creativity.... Please keep it in mind while I flip through the examples and projects later....
  17. 17. after Amabile “A product or response is creative to the extent that those familiar with the context in which it was created and/or resides in regard it as being novel and valuable to a suitable degree.” creative product
  18. 18. As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Ref Stigmergy, later
  19. 19. Always some kind of process (sub/conscious, in/direct), ending with the creative output Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace
  20. 20. The creative product always comes out of the mind of the individual, (e.g. even if simultaneously arrived at in a group) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace
  21. 21. The processes and persons reside in some environment (social, psychological, climate etc etc) Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace
  22. 22. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity
  23. 23. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Knowledge & Skills Domain relevant
  24. 24. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Creativity Knowledge & Specific Skills Skills Tacit, explicit, personality etc...
  25. 25. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Intrinsic Creativity Knowledge & Motivation Specific Skills Skills 'for itself'
  26. 26. Press (Environment) Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Intrinsic Creativity Knowledge & Motivation Specific Skills Skills
  27. 27. Press (Environment) Creative Climate Person Process As fine-grained creative product component of happiness. Engram, Trace Components of Creativity Intrinsic Creativity Knowledge & Motivation Specific Skills Skills
  28. 28. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Text from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full Climate: A collective perceptual Debate construct reflecting a lower level of Freedom abstraction based on observedIdea Support patterns of interaction and behaviour (Schneider, 2000). Culture, which reflects the deeper and more stable aspects of values, traditions, rituals and history (Denison, 1996). Resources Research on organizational culture has typically focused on Playfulness the underlying assumptions and values of the organization Time /Humor that are deeply embedded and can often be subconscious, hidden and taken for granted (Schein, 2004).
  29. 29. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea Support Trust/ Openness Conflict (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor Text from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full and Mathisen and Einarsen (2004: 126) (see also on Amabile et al., 1996, 1999)
  30. 30. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The way new ideas are treated. In a high Idea- Idea Support situation, people Support receive ideas and Trust/ suggestions in an attentive Openness and professional manner. People listen generously to Conflict each other. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor Text from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full
  31. 31. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The occurrence and open disagreement between Idea viewpoints, ideas, Support experiences and knowledge. Trust/ In the Debating situation, Openness many different voices and points of view are Conflict exchanged and encouraged. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  32. 32. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity. In a high Idea Risk-Taking climate, people Support can make decisions even Trust/ when they do not have Openness certainty and all the information desired. People Conflict can and do ‘go out on a limb’ to put new ideas (Violence?) forward. Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  33. 33. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea High levels of Freedom imply Support Trust/ more perceived autonomy and Openness ability for individual discretion. Conflict (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor Text from : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2010.00558.x/full
  34. 34. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea The emotional safety in relationships. In high Support Trust/ Trust/Openness situations, people feel more Openness comfortable sharing ideas and being frank and honest Conflict with each other. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  35. 35. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom Idea Access to resources including funds, facilities, Support Trust/ materials and information. Openness Conflict (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  36. 36. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The amount of time people Idea can, and do, use for elaborating new ideas. Support When Idea-Time is high, Trust/ people can explore and Openness develop new ideas that may not have been included in Conflict the original task. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  37. 37. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom The spontaneity and ease Idea displayed within the environment. Good-natured Support joking and laughter and a Trust/ relaxed atmosphere (lower Openness stress) are indicators of higher levels of Playfulness Conflict and Humour. (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  38. 38. Creative Climate (see e.g. Ekvall, Amabile, Isaksen) Risk Debate Tolerance Freedom When Conflict is high, people engage in Idea interpersonal warfare, Support slander and gossip, and Trust/ even plot against each Openness other...Crime.... Include also threats/actual phyiscal Conflict violence (police, military, private security) (Violence?) Resources Playfulness Time /Humor
  39. 39. A quick run through Tokyo (keeping in mind the creative climate framework)
  40. 40. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Public Seating
  41. 41. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Safety.
  42. 42. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  43. 43. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  44. 44. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Access.
  45. 45. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  46. 46. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT When access becomes difficult
  47. 47. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Fix it.
  48. 48. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT In a city with scarce space and dirt, make it yourself....
  49. 49. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Even on a 10cm wide curb....
  50. 50. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or on the sidewalk.
  51. 51. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  52. 52. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  53. 53. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  54. 54. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or in a highrise.
  55. 55. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  56. 56. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  57. 57. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or on a precarious brick wall.
  58. 58. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Or along the railroad tracks.
  59. 59. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  60. 60. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Flower lovers share their passion...
  61. 61. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  62. 62. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Grape-obsessed Shibuya-ites.....
  63. 63. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  64. 64. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Basil
  65. 65. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT What appears to be dead space...
  66. 66. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Is home to fresh red peppers.
  67. 67. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Maintaining a dead spouse's neighbourhood park garden...
  68. 68. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT What appears to be run-down dead space
  69. 69. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Becomes a lush living fence that beautifies the vacant lots
  70. 70. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT And plays host to lovely flora....
  71. 71. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT The work of neighbourhood misfits
  72. 72. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Is actually a tomato garden.
  73. 73. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT People who often visit the neighbours
  74. 74. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Create their own access-ways.
  75. 75. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Placing rubbish bins where they are needed.
  76. 76. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  77. 77. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  78. 78. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Animals KEEP OUT!
  79. 79. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT With intricate, flexible and affordable construction.
  80. 80. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Even pedestrian smokers find a way to keep the street (if not the air) clean.
  81. 81. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  82. 82. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  83. 83. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  84. 84. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Dark apartment complexes call for home-made street lights.
  85. 85. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT And when you're sick of people asking you how to find the station, you stick up some signs.
  86. 86. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Bricks are a key element in bicycle parking.
  87. 87. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  88. 88. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  89. 89. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  90. 90. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Foxface decorates an inner city garden
  91. 91. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT Even when it's out of season (fruit are tied on with plastic ties)
  92. 92. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT In the suburbs, where Jazz clubs are scarce, you need to make your own..
  93. 93. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  94. 94. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT And golf lovers construct a 'fold away' 9-hole course in the local park.
  95. 95. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  96. 96. Discuss: RISK – FREEDOM – TRUST – RESOURCES – TIME – PLAYFULNESS – IDEA SUPPORT – DEBATE - CONFLICT
  97. 97. ad infinitum
  98. 98. But, In a dire view of the city
  99. 99. “Part machine, part sub- human organism, part nightmare-huge projection and embodiment of passion and insanity.” (Huxley, 1939) From 'After Many a Summer Dies the Swan' not 'Brave New World' Photo: Mori Scale Model of Tokyo
  100. 100. Total absence of purpose(Lynch, 1984:364).
  101. 101. Community = the market + isolation; Freedom = total surveillance society (Zerzan, 2006).
  102. 102. "if there has to be a bloodbath, then let’s get it over with" (Ronald Regan quoted in the San Francisco Chronicle in response to protests when the People’s Park in Berkeley was fenced off by police and the National Guard (in McKay (2011:120)).) This is California, 1966 Photo: Collection of the Oakland Museum of California
  103. 103. → The abstract, faceless conquest of Space by Man (capitalized) → the limitation of place for men(in small letters) (Ellul, 1964:328). Our city illness a basic motive , a common denominator; A single (Lynch, 1984:364) has mechanism by which it most disturbs urbanites. This is the loss of control. (Krupat)
  104. 104. The message is clear: “You cannot do as you please; your actions do not make any difference."
  105. 105. No walking, No running, No walking, No Hold the No running. handrail. throwing cigarettes. Stand in Be an orderly careful! fashion. (of your sandals) No walking, Hold the handrail. No running, Because it's dangerous. Subway station (Nagoya)
  106. 106. And of course, don't play on the grass... Not just 'don't walk' but specifically directed at children.... Apartment block grassed area in Western Tokyo
  107. 107. The Radical Monopoly of Space:
  108. 108. The Radical Monopoly of Space: a major tool rules out natural competence, imposing compulsory consumption and thereby restricting personal autonomy.
  109. 109. The Radical Monopoly of Space: a major tool rules out natural competence, imposing compulsory consumption and thereby restricting personal autonomy. It constitutes a special kind of social control because it is enforced by means of the imposed consumption of a standard product that only large institutions can provide (Illich, 1973:35).
  110. 110. people give up their native ability to do what they can do for themselves and for each other, in exchange for something “better” that can be done for them only by a major tool(Illich, 1973:36) Housing in Western Tokyo
  111. 111. But, commoditized city space which is ‘assembled and ordered’ in form, appearance, and functional prescription need not be entirely fixed or predetermined by the complex process through which it enters the world. Reality acquires its identity from what can be done with it and what is important is the relationship that human beings have to their everyday environment.
  112. 112. But, commoditized city space which is ‘assembled and ordered’ in form, appearance, and functional prescription need not be entirely fixed or predetermined by the complex process through which it enters the world. Reality acquires its identity from what can be done with it and what is important is the relationship that human beings have to their everyday environment. Technology in this view can generate specific forms of access to the world for human beings. It is the use-objects around us that are the nearest and authentic things, they give us access to being and thus (help us) shape our world.
  113. 113. The most powerful way of improving our environment then is to put the control of it into the hands of its immediate users who have the stake and knowledge to make it function well (Lynch, 1984:165). The last great force in the city is the residents themselves (Orum their creative response to and Chen:18); change is their ultimate guarantee of survival (Lynch, 1984:172). Taking care of apartment block public space in Edogawa
  114. 114. It is important to understand unintended user contributions to urban order becaus e this is a potentially revolutionary aspect of the city's structure. The general organization of urba n life must develop more sensitivity to the arbitrariness of human use fo r the city as an object, or that arbitrariness will coalesce into revolt. These lifestyles must be given breathing space (Glean Chase discussing urban cavemanship in Wilsher and Righter, 1975:98-99).
  115. 115. Pick one spot in the city and begin to think of it as yours. It doesn't matter where, and it doesn't matter what (Auster, 2003) Hollyhock grown by residents of housing opposite train lines in Western Tokyo
  116. 116. “We give back to man the joy of building.” (Hans Hollein, 1960) “The reconstruction of life, the rebuilding of the world: one and the same desire.” (Vaneigem, 1967:chpt10)
  117. 117. Small Places of Anarchy
  118. 118. Small Places of Anarchy The actor, not the hero (Bamyeh, 2009:30). Neither the passive observer of determined systems nor a determined manipulator of passive material and standing reserve, but rather the cultivator See also http://thisbigcity.net/small-places-of-anarchy-in-the-city-three-investigations-in-tokyo/
  119. 119. Tokyo makes it possible for slim segments of the population to generate their own environments in scattered oases of a vast metroscape. What emerges here is the idea of the city of unimposed order, consisting of communal self-determination on one hand and individual freedom on the other. Here authority is practical, rather than absolute or permanent, and based in communication, negotiation.
  120. 120. NO control state Small places of anarchy are zones of human-scale action, attachment and care. They can: NO rule majority 1) Replace state control with regards to an aspect of city life. 2) Take away that aspect from the YES requirement of majority rule. to 3) Promote unimposed order as unimposed order as the style working. work style
  121. 121. They are located within the existing system, tacitly accepted or actively protected, and may take many forms. They are not the whole of society but occupy space within the existing order and can be entirely individual in nature.
  122. 122. They are located within the existing system, tacitly accepted or actively protected, and may take many forms. They are not the whole of society but occupy space within the existing order and can be entirely individual in nature. They are not consciously based in anarchist ideology because “anarchy is a normal tendency in voluntary organized social life, where spontaneous order comes out without an imposition.” The virtue of unimposed order thus develops through learning of the practice of rational freedom – that the complexity of the social world can be an asset rather than a source of perpetual war.
  123. 123. What emerges is not intensified debate, ‘automatic pilot’ resistance or struggle (Boomkens, 2008:16). Neither is it the violence of market-based 'competition' or the dull submission of the hierarchy. Rather life emerges as a common but negotiated human experiment – a life that is engaged and felt rather than delegated and abstracted (Bamyeh, 2009:12, 24) in places of intensified cohabitation and conjunction (Boomkens, 2008:15).
  124. 124. For the case of Tokyo
  125. 125. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo] City ・都市 Workplace ・職場 Suburb ・町・街 Nearby Large Park ・もっと大きい公園 Workplace ・職場 Neighbourhood ・近所 Nearby Larger Roads ・近くの道路 Parking Space ・駐車所 Close Small Deceased Parks ・近くの公園 Grandparents' House & Shop ・亡くなった親戚 Surrounds ・家の近く の家や店 Uncle's Opposite House Footpath ・反対歩道 Own Shop ・おじさんの家 & Surrounds Footpath ・歩道 Frontage ・正面 Home ・自宅 Dwelling ・住まい
  126. 126. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo]
  127. 127. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo]
  128. 128. Locations of Small Places of Anarchy (Scattered Uchi) [Tokyo]
  129. 129. Practically, this means that the individual realizes that the society that he or she lives in is the landscape – that this living thing right now before our eyes is the landscape. Every resident has a clear sense of identity and culture , of agency … or possibly more correctly, the habitat in which agency operates and which it produces in the course of its operation (Bauman, 1992, 190-1 see Flusty, 2004).
  130. 130. "I will grow, I will grow when the city grows" (Huidobro, 1919:115) Small Places of Anarchy form the City Gardened walkway (Suginami-ku, Tokyo)
  131. 131. Stigmergy ‘… instead of coordination through direct communication, each individual can adjust its building behaviour to fit with that of its neighbours through the medium of the work in progress’. Camazine, et al.(2001, p. 24)
  132. 132. Stigmergy Form of self- organization Complex, seemingly intelligent, structures without planning, control, or even direct communication Supports collaboration between even very simple agents or actions
  133. 133. Stigmergy Mechanism of indirect coordination between agents or actions. Form of self- organization The trace left in the environment by an action Complex, seemingly intelligent, structures stimulates the performance of a next action by the same or a different agent. without planning, control, or even direct Subsequent actions tend to reinforce and build on each other. communication Supports collaboration Leading to the spontaneous between even very simple emergence of coherent, apparently agents or actions systematic activity.
  134. 134. Stigmergy Information flow via the Actor/Action environment Imprint of information via cues and/or Coordination/ Actor/Action stimulus Environment Construction Activities Actor/Action http://epress.anu.edu.au/info_systems/mobile_devices/ch09s05.html
  135. 135. Something like http://thisbigcity.net/the-non-intentional-landscape-of-tokyo/ Non-Intentional Landscape, Hand-Made City Stigmergent City Elastic city http://www.thepolisblog.org/2011/11/imagining-elastic-city.html
  136. 136. Walls, curbs, balconies and roofs. Sidewalks, corners, overhangs, carparks and train stations. The park, inherited property, reappropriated fishing spots, public toilets and green sleeping spots. Here, the city of crumbs is experienced as a city of fine-grained humanity built in the gaps of the city. This is a physical manifestation of the fragments of individual human knowledge of the city; residences, parks and free space, extended family, and areas connected to their professional, social and other roles.
  137. 137. Non-intentional Landscape (Shibuya) http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-small-lab/6245919459/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  138. 138. Non-intentional Landscape (Akishima-shi) http://www.flickr.com/photos/a-small-lab/6246441966/sizes/l/in/photostream/
  139. 139. Non-intentional Landscape (Hand-Made Tokyo Collage Workshop) http://a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo
  140. 140. Some projects examining the human(e), fine-grained aspects of Tokyo
  141. 141. FIXES (a-small-lab.com/fixes/) Investigating alterations of space/objects at the public/private boundary in suburban Tokyo, Japan.
  142. 142. TOKYO DIY GARDENING (tokyo-diy-gardening.org) An open sourcebook and resource for urban gardening on a personal level – “hands-on gardening for a crowded city”. It includes ‘how-to’ examples/instructions, photo essays, observations, interviews, articles and more with the aim of knowledge sharing and creation around low-cost, agile gardening in dense cities (with a focus on Tokyo).
  143. 143. HAND MADE PLAY (a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play) A collaborative + open research project investigating, enjoying, and learning from the self-initiated non-commercial play of children
  144. 144. HAND MADE PLAY (a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play)
  145. 145. Child-Scale Cities (http://a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play/understanding-the-child-scale-in-the-city-excerpt/)
  146. 146. Child-Scale Cities (http://a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play/understanding-the-child-scale-in-the-city-excerpt/)
  147. 147. Child-Scale Cities (http://a-small-lab.com/hand-made-play/understanding-the-child-scale-in-the-city-excerpt/)
  148. 148. HAND MADE ASPECTS OF MASS MADE HOUSING what elements of the human hand survival sickness.. are found in this space built on the logic of economies scale? We most emphatically condemn as inhuman the present practice of forbidding any modifications to social housing by their residents. Tied in to our suggestions for ownership, we uphold the fundamental right for an owner/resident to modify his/her dwelling to any extent without impinging on the rights of neighbors or the public space.”
  149. 149. HAND MADE ASPECTS OF MASS MADE TOILETS what elements of the human hand are found in this non-place?
  150. 150. HAND MADE ASPECTS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT what elements of the human hand are found in this non-place?
  151. 151. HAND MADE MEMORIAL (Ozaki Yutaka) hand made memorial in smooth, bald space temporal aspect, pilgrimage
  152. 152. KOKONOHANASHI (http://a-small-lab.com/projects/kokonohanashi.htm) “How do people like to discuss their neighbourhood spaces? What would a flexible, open and affordable system for facilitating this look like? How can we easily find out which neighbour-hood spaces people care about?” An iterative investigation.
  153. 153. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Keep Your City Beautiful! 153
  154. 154. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Keep Your City Beautiful! 154
  155. 155. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Keep Your City Delicious! 155
  156. 156. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Title: Aoyama Breakfast Time: 7:30am~10:00am, Early Spring 156
  157. 157. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) In a small run-down park not a minute's walk from the death-trap of Omotesando Hills. A small bearded man waits. 157
  158. 158. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Contrast the leisurely urban interior 158
  159. 159. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) with the psychological rigor that the commerical crust demands...........anyway, back to the breakfast. 159
  160. 160. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) butter, chocolate, juice, etc gas burner grated potato coffee, cups, stovetop espresso flour maker Necessary bits and pieces 160
  161. 161. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Season, sauce and eat. 161
  162. 162. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) A small, balding man enjoys his breakfast. 162
  163. 163. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Welcome to the bakery in a home! 163
  164. 164. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Welcome to the bakery in a home! Entrance fee 100 yen for 20 pieces, and your money back at the end! 164
  165. 165. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Bread, cake, biscuits and more! Take your pick! 165
  166. 166. Keep Your City Delicious (http://www.slideshare.net/asmalllab/keep-your-city-delicious) Go for it! 166
  167. 167. LOOK-A-ROUND (http://a-small-lab.com/projects/look-a-round) a board game which encourages learning about city accessibility Creating cities that are accessible to as many people as possible, regardless of physical capabilities is an important part of cultivating a fully functioning urban environment.
  168. 168. TOKYO-COLOUR-IN (http://a-small-lab.com/projects/tokyo-colour-in) introduce little hands and minds to the fine- grained hand made aspect of human(e) creativity on the street.
  169. 169. CITY BLOCKS Children have an inexhaustible ability to use and transform the debris of society in new and creative ways. CITY BLOCKS
  170. 170. FIXES TOOLKIT a card game about the hand-made city of Tokyo.
  171. 171. TOKYO MAPPING WORKSHOP (a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo)
  172. 172. TOKYO MAPPING WORKSHOP (a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo)
  173. 173. TOKYO MAPPING WORKSHOP (a-small-lab.com/projects/hand-made-tokyo)
  174. 174. "The experience of these ragpickers suggests a time other than that of development. And studying these groups, like digging into the history of ideas, can lift us from our assumptions, but with no guarantee of what the result will be" (Illich, 1989:7 PDF)
  175. 175. “Within the chaos, most people have forgotten who lives where and how; they have lost affection for their own locality. Beautiful cityscapes and wonderful living environments must be fostered slowly and steadily under the gaze of citizens who love and take pride in their land.” (Jinnai, 1995:65) Contact: Chris Berthelsen (chris@a-small-lab.com) > twitter.com/a_small_lab > a-small-lab.com

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