Ed-Psych Course (TEFL & ICT MAProgram) Unit 9: Freud and The Neo-Freudians (Erikson, Adler and Jung) Prepared by: Meriem Ait Hemmou Asma Askaoui Amal Hafidi Soumia Bouddage Omar Taky Eddine
Outline• SIGMUND FREUD: I- PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY II- Psycho-sexual Stages of Personality Development• Alfred Adler:Theory of individual psychology• Erikson: Psychosocial Theory• Carl Jung: Theory of Personality
Founder Sigmund Freud• MAY 6, 1856 – SIGMUND FREUD WAS BORN IN FREYBERG TOWN, CRECH REPUBLIC• 1881 – HE GRADUATED FROM MEDICAL FACULTY, UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA• He was an Austrian psychologist, he also worked as a medical researcher
Founder Sigmund Freud• 1896 – SIGMUND FREUD WAS OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZED• 1900 – HE RELEASED ‘INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS’• He was an early user of cocaine and recommended its use as a cure for morphine addiction.• SEPTEMBER 23, 1939 –FREUD PASSED AWAY IN HAMPSTEAD HOUSE
Overview of psychoanalysis theory•Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapyand a theory of personality•Emphasizes unconscious motivation;the main cause of behavior lies in unconsciousmind
• Freud was developing radically different ideas, he believed that mental life is like an iceberg: only small part is exposed to view. He called the area of mind that lies outside of personal awareness the unconscious• He believed that all thoughts, emotions and actions are determined. In other words nothing is an accident, if we probe deeply we will find the causes of every thought or action.• Freud sees human nature as deterministic; ife is about gaining pleasure and avoiding pain
The structure of of the human psyche or mind A. levels of mental life: 1. Unconscious• It includes all impulses, desires that are beyond awareness. But it affects our expression, feelings and actions• It is not directly observed, it is hidden below the conscious. One studies unconsious by looking at the slips of the tong, dreams, wishes….
• 2. Subconscious• The middle portion of the mind beneath the conscious layer.• It stores all types of information which can be easily brought to the level of consciousness whenever required.
3. Conscious• It is viewed as the smallest portion of the mind.• It includes the ideas, thoughts and images that we are aware of at any moment of our mental life.• It is the surface level, meaning the level we are aware of in a thinking state.
Structure of the human psych or mindB. Structure of personality: 1.ID 2. EGO 3. SUPEREGO
•1. ID• It is the first portion of the personality to develop.• It is present at birth and has the qualities of a spoiled child.• ID is selfish and follows no rules, considers only the satisfaction of its own needs and drives.• The ID is not rational and does not care how its wants are abtained.
• 2. EGO• The rational level of the personality.• It is the opposite of the « ID » which focuses on morality and justice.• Ego works against the ID and tries to conltrol the ID’s impulses.• Ego is the balance between ID and Super-Ego
• Super-Ego• It makes decisions if things are right or wrong.• It has the ability to reward through feelings of satisfaction and self love and punish by providing feelings of guilt and shame.• It is idealistic in nature, and perfection is its goal rather than pleasure seeking or destruction.
Example: EGO• I want to • I am on a eat • Eats a small super diet! chocolate! bar of chocolate ID SUPEREGO
Psycho-sexual Stages of Personality Development• Psychoanalytic theory contends that a child’s early childhood relationships, particularly those with his or her caregivers, are important influences of personality development.• Freud claimed that as children develop, they go through a universal series of stages. Each stage of development has psychological conflicts to be addressed by the id, ego, and superego, and each stage focuses on a different zone of the body.• Each stage is characterized by different demands and different ways of achieving that gratification.
• If children do not receive an appropriate amount of gratification by receiving either too little or too much they may become fixated in a particular stage. They continue to have the same demand for gratification that they had at that stage throughout the rest of their lives.• It can also result in a variety of behaviors and personality traits.
Age Name Pleasure source Conflict Weaning away from mothers 0-2 Oral Mouth: sucking, biting, swallowing breast 2-4 Anal Anus: defecating or retaining faeces Toilet training 4-5 Phallic Genitals Oedipus (boys), Electra (girls) Sexual urges sublimated into sports and6-puberty Latency hobbies. Same-sex friends also help avoid sexual feelings. Physical sexual changes reawakenpuberty repressed needs. Genital Social rulesonward Direct sexual feelings towards others lead to sexual gratification.
Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months).• Children Gain pleasure through sucking and eating; the child ultimately develops a sense of comfort through oral stimulation• During the oral stage, the child is focused on oral pleasures (sucking, feeding and oral discovery of the world).• It is believed that if an infant receives too much or too little oral stimulation, they may develop a fixation or a personality trait that is fixated on oral gratification.
• The theory states that these people may develop personality traits such as becoming extremely gullible or naive, always following others and never taking the lead.• They may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others.
Anal Stage (18 months to three years)• The focus shifts from the oral cavity to the anal region with the realization that going to the bathroom is a pleasurable event.• Freud believed that the unconscious mind was going through a conflict during this time. The “id” of our unconscious represents the part of our being that finds pleasure in expelling the body’s waste material, while the “ego” and “superego” signify culture’s pressure to resist succumbing to bodily function.
• If parents are too harsh or critical during toilet training, then a child may grow up to be anally expulsive or anally retentive.• “Anally expulsive” – limited levels of self- control, defiance, hostility, disorganization.• “Anally retentive” – Rigid, obsessively organized, and overly subservient to authority with focus on perfection, and cleanliness.
The phallic stage (3 and 5years)• This stage is characterized by a focus on sexual and aggressive feelings that pertain to the functioning of the sexual organs.• Freud believes that, during this phase, the young boy falls in love with his mother (the Oedipus complex) and dreads his father, while the young girl falls in love with her father (the Electra complex).
• This conflict is resolved through identification.• Freud also believed that fixation in this stage sometimes resulted in gender identity problems due to the child’s inability to identify properly with a rival parent .• Fixation at the phallic stage develops a phallic character, who is reckless, resolute, self-assured, and excessively vain and proud.
Latency (5 or 6 to puberty)• Freud thought that The drives that have been responsible for gratification in the previous stages appear relatively inactive .• Much of the childs energies are redirected into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play, becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender.
Genital Stage (puberty-adulthood)• This stage begins at puberty and develops with physiological changes brought on through hormones. The prior stages of development result in a focus on the genitals as a source for pleasure and teens develop and explore attractions to the opposite gender.
Contribution to Education• Freud’s system of psychoanalysis has made many contibutions to education :It has given a good method for the study of human behaviour.Freud’s system ushered in an era of child- centred education.It highlighted the ill effects of unnecessary restrictions and it has given an impetus to the movement of early childhood education.
It helped in understanding the exceptional children ,planning their education and taking all possible precautionary measures for preventing the problems they might face in the future.Freud’s concept of the unconscious has helped in understanding the cause of maladaptive behaviour .
It has provided a good therapy for treatment of mental illness and abnormal behaviour.It has highlighted the importance of good education and a healthy environment in the early years by emphasising the role of childhood experiences .
His emphasis on the role of sex in one’s life has brought out the necessity of providing proper sex education to children .Freud’s system of psychoanalysis has called for provision of proper extracurricular activities and suitable hobbies in school programmes.
Adler was one of Freud’s original followers and a member of the Psychological Wednesday Society.As such,the beliefs and values underlying Adler’s theories share the same core principles as Freud’s psychodynamic perspective.
While Freud and Adler worked very closely together for a period of time,Adler began to challenge Freud’s ideas with his own views about the role of individual experience. Their working relationship eventually diddolved and their theories moved in opposing directions.
• During the acrimonious breakup between the two men, Freud accused Adler of having paranoid delusions and of using terrorist tactics. He told one of his friends Freud said that the revolt by Adler was that of “an abnormal individual driven mad by ambition”(quoted in Gay, 1988, p. 223).
• In fact,several other differences made the relationship between Freud and Adler quite tenuous.
First, Freud reduced all motivation to sex and aggression, whereas Adler saw people as being motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority or success.Second, Freud assumed that people have little or no choice in shaping their personality, whereas Adler believed that people are largely responsible for who they are.
Third, Freud’s assumption that present behavior is caused by past experiences was directly opposed to Adler’s notion that present behavior is shaped by people’s view of the future. Fourth, in contrast to Freud, who placed very heavy emphasis on unconscious components of behavior, Adler believed that psychologically healthy people are usually aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it.
when theoretical and personal differences between Adler and Freud emerged, Adler left the Freud circle and established an opposing theory, which became known as individual psychology.
Holism: The Adlerian views man as a unit, a self-conscious whole that functions as an open system , not as a collection of drives and instincts. Field Theory: The premise is that an individual can only be studied by his movements, actions and relationships within his social field. In the context of Mind Development, this is essentially the examination of tasks of work, and the individuals feelings of belonging to the group. Teleology :("power to will" or the belief that individuals are guided not only by mechanical forces but that they also move toward certain goals of self-realization). While Adlers name is linked most often with the term inferiority-complex, towards the end of his career he became more concerned with observing the individuals struggle for significance or competence (later discussed by others as self-realization, or self-actualization, etc.). He believed that, standing before the unknown, each person strives to become more perfect, and in health is motivated by one dynamic force - the upward striving for completion - and all else is subordinated to this one master motive. Behavior is understood as goal-directed movement, though the person may not be fully aware of this motivation.
The Creative Self: The concept of the creative self places the responsibility for the individuals personality into his own hands. The Adlerian practitioner sees the individual as responsible for himself, he attempts to show the person that he cannot blame others or uncontrollable forces for his current condition. Life-Style: An individuals striving towards significance and belonging can be observed as a pattern. This pattern manifests early in life and can be observed as a theme throughout his lifetime. This permeates all aspects of perception and action. If one understands an individuals lifestyle, his behavior makes sense. Private intelligence: is the reasoning invented by an individual to stimulate and justify a self-serving style of life. By contrast, common sense represents societys cumulative, consensual reasoning that recognizes the wisdom of mutual benefit.
We also rate Adlerian theory high on its ability to guide action. The theory serves the psychotherapist, the teacher, and the parent with guidelines for the solution to practical problems in a variety of settings. Adlerian practitioners gather information through reports on birth order, dreams, early recollections, childhood difficulties,and physical deficiencies. They then use this information to understand a person’s style of life and to apply those specific techniques that will both increase that person’s individual responsibility and broaden his or her freedom of choice.
Biography• Born in Germany, June 15, 1902.• Influences: Sigmund Freud and Anna Freud (daughter of Sigmund Freud).• Professor in Harvard, Yale, University of California at Berkley, clinic in Massachusetts.• Changed his name from Erik Homberger to Erik Erickson.• Wrote Childhood and Society.• Retired in 1970.• he passed away in US, 1994 .
Child psychoanalystErik Erikson focused his research on theeffects… Society Individual psychological development Culture
• He accepted many of Freuds theories: – i.e. the id, ego, and superego & the theory of infantile sexuality.• He Rejected Freuds attempt to describe personality solely on: – The basis of sexuality, in contrary, felt that personality continued to develop beyond five years of age.
• Erikson suggests that every individual psychological development goes on through eight stages from birth to old age.• each stage poses a particular kind of challenge. If the individual handles this challenge well with the help of other significant people in their lives, then he can move smoothly onto the next stage and so on. Otherwise, these challenges will continue to reappear throughout a person’s life making it more and more difficult to proceed through next stages.
Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust(infancy)the challenge here is whether the child can learn to trust others, who take care of him or her, and thereby him or herself or whether, as a result of experiences, a sense of basic mistrust becomes internalized, which makes him or her withdraw. e.g. infant / mother / feeding and being comforted, sleeping, etc.
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt(early childhood)the challenge is whether the child can establish autonomy and thereby he or she becomes self- competent, and develop self-control, with the help of others, or whether shame and doubt will be established.e.g. toddler / parents / bodily functions, toilet training, muscular control, walking, etc.
Initiative versus Guilt(play age)the challenge here is whether the child, with the family encouragement of his formulating a plan of action and carry it through, can establish the habit of taking the initiative and then improve a sense of self direction, otherwise he or she generates feelings of guilt and then establishes sense of inhibition as a result of punishment.e.g. preschool / family / exploration, discovery, adventure, play.
Industry versus Inferiority(school age)the challenge in this stage is whether the child, interacting with his educational environment, will establish a sense of industry as basic educational skills and learning competence are developed or a sense of inferiority if learning experiences are beset with failure.e.g. child / school, teachers, friends, neighbourhood / achievement and accomplishment.
Identity versus Role Confusion(adolescence)here the challenge is whether the adolescent, as a member of adolescents group, will construct identity as promoting a high level of self- acceptance and self-controlling of his or her destiny or whether role confusing is going to be established and as result fanaticism and repudiation will be enhanced.e.g. adolescent/peers; groups/resolving identity and direction, becoming a grown-up.
Intimacy versus Isolation(young adulthood)the challenge here is whether a person can establish sense of intimacy, within love, work and friendship contexts, thereby he or she develop a feelings of love and affiliation. Otherwise, this person is going to generate isolation .e.g. young adult / lovers, friends, work connections / intimate relationships, work and social life.
Generativity versus Stagnation(adulthood)in this stage the challenge is whether the person will be able to maintain a sense of generativity within the community to continue to see oneself as a person who is capable of generating new interests and insights and who continues to have something to offer to others, otherwise, he / she will create a sense of stagnation and then generating feelings of overextension and rejectivity.e.g. mid-adult / children, community / giving back, helping, contributing.
Ego Identity versus Despair(later adulthood).the late adulthood stage of life as defined by a conflict between ego integrity and despair. Adults at this stage, usually over age 65, feel content if they look back at their lives and feel theyve been productive and happy. If not, they may feel despair, or like theyve been wasting their time.e.g. late adult / society, life / meaning ; goal, achievement.
The life stages are interdependent, unresolvedconflicts at one stage influence identitydevelopment at later stages.
Carl Jung• Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology (also known as Jungian psychology).• Two processes that are important in learning – how we take in information – what we do with the information once it is in our brains• He called the first PERCEPTION and the second JUDGEMENT
Learning Styles Based on Jungs Theory of Personality Jungian learning styles describe four main dimensions: (1) Extroverted/Introverted. (2) Sensation/Intuition. (3) Thinking/Feeling.
Extraverted Learning StyleExtraverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideasfrom other people. They prefer socializing and working in groups. Characteristics of Extraverted Learners: • Enjoys working with others in groups • Often gathers ideas from outside sources • Willing to lead, participate and offer opinions • Jumps right in without guidance from others
Introverted Learning Style • While introverted learners are still sociable, they prefer to solve problems on their own.Characteristics of Introvert Learners:Prefers to work aloneEnjoys quiet, solitary workOften generates ideas from internalsourcesPrefers to listen, watch and reflectLikes to observe others beforeattempting a new skill
• Both attitudes - extraversion and introversion - are present in every person, in different degrees. No-one is pure extravert or pure introvert, and more recent studies (notably Eysenck) indicate that a big majority of people are actually a reasonably well-balanced mixture of the two types, albeit with a preference for one or the other.• In addition to the two attitudes of extraversion and introversion, Jung also developed a framework of four functional types.
Sensing Learning Style• Jungs Sensation function translates signals from the senses into factual data. There is no judgement of right or wrong, good or bad, implications, causes, directions, context, possibilities, themes, or related concepts. Sensation sees what is, as what it is. Sensation is the opposite to Intuition.• Characteristics of Sensate Learners:• Focuses on the present• Practical and reasonable• Utilizes experience and common sense to solve problems• Keenly observe the surrounding world
Intuitive Learning Style• Intuitive learners tend to focus more on the world of possibility. They enjoy considering ideas, possibilities, and potential outcomes. These learners like abstract thinking, daydreaming, and imagining the future.• Characteristics of Intuitive Learners• Prefers to work in short sessions, rather than finishing a task all at once• Enjoys new challenges, experiences and situations• More likely to look at the big picture rather than the details• Like theories and abstract ideas
• Jung said that Intuition and Sensation are Irrational since they are concerned with perception and do not evaluate. According to Jung the Intuition and Sensation functions are Irrational because they simply gather information and perceive the nature of something - they do not reason or decide or judge.
Thinking Learning Style• Individuals with a thinking learning style tend to focus more on the structure and function of information and objects… It is objective to the extent that evaluation is based on personal intelligence and comprehension Characteristics of Thinking Learners:• Interested in logic and patterns• Dislike basing decisions on emotions• Bases decisions on reason and logic
Feeling Learning StylePeople with a feeling style manage information based on theinitial emotions and feelings it generates. It is a rational processof forming personal subjective opinion about whethersomething is good or bad, right or wrong, acceptable orunacceptable, etc.• Characteristics of Feeling Learners:• Interested in people and their feelings• Base decisions on immediate feelings• Generates excitement and enthusiasm in group settings
Jung said that Thinking and Feeling are Rational because both of these functions evaluate experience. In Jungs theory the Thinking and Feeling functions are Rational‘ because they reason and decide and judge.
• The Rational and Irrational descriptions that Jung attached to the four functions might not appear particularly significant at first, especially given that Jungs use of the words is rather different to the modern meanings.• modern words that describe Jungs meaning of Rational and Irrational, respectively Judging (rational Thinking and Feeling) and Perceiving (irrational Sensation and Intuition)
• Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jungs typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using either the judging function (thinking or feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion).