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PRODUCTION OF
BIOFERTILIZER(ANABAENA
AND NOSTOC) USING CO2
Submitted by:
Roll : DURJ BT No: 2011/2
Regn.No.: 660 of 2010-11.
Under the guidence of Mr. Kaushik Dey
BIOFERTILIZER
 A biofertilizer (also bio-fertilizer) is a substance which contains
living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or
soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and
promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary
nutrients to the host plant. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the
natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and
stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting
substances. Bio-fertilizers can be expected to reduce the use
of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The microorganisms in bio-
fertilizers restore the soil's natural nutrient cycle and build soil
organic matter. Through the use of bio-fertilizers, healthy plants can
be grown, while enhancing the sustainability and the health of the
soil. Since they play several roles, a preferred scientific term for such
beneficial bacteria is "plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria" (PGPR).
Therefore, they are extremely advantageous in enriching soil
fertility and fulfilling plant nutrient requirements by supplying the
organic nutrients through microorganism and their byproducts.
Hence, bio-fertilizers do not contain any chemicals which are harmful
to the living soil.
BENEFITS OF BIOFERTILIZER
 A bio-fertilizer provides the following benefits:
 Since a bio-fertilizer is technically living, it
can symbiotically associate with plant roots. Involved
microorganisms could readily and safely convert complex organic
material in simple compounds, so that plants are easily taken up.
Microorganism function is in long duration, causing improvement
of the soil fertility. It maintains the natural habitat of the soil. It
increases crop yield by 20-30%, replaces
chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%, and stimulates plant
growth. It can also provide protection against drought and some
soil-borne diseases.
 Bio-fertilizers are cost-effective relative to chemical fertilizers.
They have lower manufacturing costs, especially regarding
nitrogen and phosphorus use.
 Production of bio-fertilizers by using microalgae helps to reduce
carbon dioxide as well as help to increase crop yield.
WHY BIOFERTILIZER SHOULD BE
PREPARE BY USING CO2 ?
The global carbon cycle has altered significantly due to extensive use of fossil
fuels, coal etc. This lead to increase in the emission of Green House Gases such
as CO2, CH4, NO2 and Fluorocarbon. In order to achieve environmental and
economic sustainability, a renewable, carbon neutral fuels are required that
are also capable of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this both macro
and microalgae appear to be a major source that can sequester high level of CO2
and can replace fossil fuels. Algae use CO2 as well as water and convert them
into carbohydrates and other useful products such as biofertilizer, biofuels, etc.
SOLUTION
 Increase in carbon dioxide is the major cause of global warming.
So it should be reduced for protecting our climate. Here ,my
project is one the new approaches to reduce co2 gas in atmosphere.
By this project, we can use this carbon dioxide gas to produce
Anabaena and Nostoc, which is a Cyanobacteria. We use this
bacterium as a biofertilizer.
ANABAENA
 CLASSIFICATON:
 Domain: Prokaryote
 Anabaena is in the prokaryote domain because its has no true nucleus and no membrance
bound organelles .
 Kingdom:Bacteria
 Phylum: Cyanobacteria
 This is the phylum of bacteria that acquire their energy through photosynthesis, and are
often called Blue Green Algae .
 Order:Nostocales
 Anabaena falls into this categories because they have trichome and lack endospores and
exospores
 Family: Nostocaceae
 This is the categories of Blue Green Algae that form heterocyst and have unbranched
trachoma.
NOSTOC
 Properties:
 Human pathogen: No
Interaction: Plant symbiotic
Number of membrances: 2
Number of inteins: 1
 presence of flagella :No
 Classification:
 Domain:Bacteria
 Phylum: Cyanobacteria
 Order: Nostocales
 Family: Nostacaceae
 Genus: Nostoc
 Species: punctiforme
METHODS
 At first cow dung and pond water is needed for producing cow dung
water(slurry) before two days from the project starting and wash the kipps
apparatus clearly and carefully.
 3 set of 100ml slurry prepared containing soil and cowdung.
 Then 100ml of slurry is added in 250ml of conical flask. After sometimes,
calcium carbonate and dilute HCL are used for the reaction in kipp’s
apparatus. Here the calcium carbonate react with dilute HCL to produce
carbon dioxide which is transferred to conical flask by a pipe which is
present on the magnetic stirrer with cow dung(slurry). Now we add algae in
the conical flask. Then start this magnetic stirrer . This process should be
minimum for two days .On the other hand, make a medium of slurry and
algae in a conical flask and preserve it in a incubator(shaker) for two days.
In the same time, another medium of only slurry should be made and
preserve it in a refrigerator for two days. Now take three aluminium foils
and measure the weight.
 After two days, take this three medium in the three aluminium foils.This
three mediums are:-1. Slurry+algae +carbon dioxide,2. Only slurry,3.
Slurry+algae. Then dry this three medium in a laboratory oven. It’s taking
several times. Then measure their weight in a spectrophotometer.
RESULT
 PETRI DISH 1 PETRI DISH 2 PETRI DISH 3
 (Slurry+algae+co2) (only slurry) (slurry+algae)
  
 Reading of aluminium foil:
 147.2mg 120.2mg 107.7mg
  
 Reading of aluminium foil + Reading of aluminium foil+(only slurry) A.F.
+slurry+Algae
 (slurry+Algae+CO2)
 211.1mg 131mg
129.1mg
 Net=(211.1-147.2mg) (131-120.2mg) (129.1-
107.7mg)
 =63.9 =10.8
=21.4
  
 Algae
 (63.9-10.8)
(21.4-10.4)
 =53.1
=10.6
 CO2 absorption is five times more.
 
 
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
 
CONCLUSION
 By using this technology we are able to produce biofertilizers( Anabena and
Nostoc).This biofertizers can be use in the agricultural fields to increase the
crop production .it may strengthen our economy and our social economy and
atmosphere will be free from carbon dioxides then environment will be clean
and clear .
DISCUSSION
 From this experiment ,it has been observed that in Petridish1 containing
slurry, algae and co2 absorption of co2 is five time more than the
Petridish2(only slurry) and Petridish3 (slurry+algae) so it can be concluded
that the growth of algae in presence of carbon dioxide and slurry is more
which is beneficial for a bio-fertilizer and thus more the growth of algae more
the absorption of co2
 So, this technology can be used for production of cyanobacterial biofertilizers
which is eco frienfdly without any harmful products produces in this
technology ,but more is required for more production of biofertilizers by using
unused carbon dioxides .
 
SOME PHOTOGRAPHS OF THIS
PROJECT
 
 
 
 
Slurry containing algae in which co2 is provided by kipp’s apparatus
 
PHOTOGRAPHS
Kipps apparatus containing calcium
carbonate and dilute HCl
(Slurry+algae+magnet+co2 ) in a
conical flask on the magnetic
stirrer
Thank
you for
listening

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Production of biofertilizer(anabaena and nostoc) using co2

  • 1. PRODUCTION OF BIOFERTILIZER(ANABAENA AND NOSTOC) USING CO2 Submitted by: Roll : DURJ BT No: 2011/2 Regn.No.: 660 of 2010-11. Under the guidence of Mr. Kaushik Dey
  • 2. BIOFERTILIZER  A biofertilizer (also bio-fertilizer) is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances. Bio-fertilizers can be expected to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The microorganisms in bio- fertilizers restore the soil's natural nutrient cycle and build soil organic matter. Through the use of bio-fertilizers, healthy plants can be grown, while enhancing the sustainability and the health of the soil. Since they play several roles, a preferred scientific term for such beneficial bacteria is "plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria" (PGPR). Therefore, they are extremely advantageous in enriching soil fertility and fulfilling plant nutrient requirements by supplying the organic nutrients through microorganism and their byproducts. Hence, bio-fertilizers do not contain any chemicals which are harmful to the living soil.
  • 3. BENEFITS OF BIOFERTILIZER  A bio-fertilizer provides the following benefits:  Since a bio-fertilizer is technically living, it can symbiotically associate with plant roots. Involved microorganisms could readily and safely convert complex organic material in simple compounds, so that plants are easily taken up. Microorganism function is in long duration, causing improvement of the soil fertility. It maintains the natural habitat of the soil. It increases crop yield by 20-30%, replaces chemical nitrogen and phosphorus by 25%, and stimulates plant growth. It can also provide protection against drought and some soil-borne diseases.  Bio-fertilizers are cost-effective relative to chemical fertilizers. They have lower manufacturing costs, especially regarding nitrogen and phosphorus use.  Production of bio-fertilizers by using microalgae helps to reduce carbon dioxide as well as help to increase crop yield.
  • 4. WHY BIOFERTILIZER SHOULD BE PREPARE BY USING CO2 ? The global carbon cycle has altered significantly due to extensive use of fossil fuels, coal etc. This lead to increase in the emission of Green House Gases such as CO2, CH4, NO2 and Fluorocarbon. In order to achieve environmental and economic sustainability, a renewable, carbon neutral fuels are required that are also capable of sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide. In this both macro and microalgae appear to be a major source that can sequester high level of CO2 and can replace fossil fuels. Algae use CO2 as well as water and convert them into carbohydrates and other useful products such as biofertilizer, biofuels, etc.
  • 5. SOLUTION  Increase in carbon dioxide is the major cause of global warming. So it should be reduced for protecting our climate. Here ,my project is one the new approaches to reduce co2 gas in atmosphere. By this project, we can use this carbon dioxide gas to produce Anabaena and Nostoc, which is a Cyanobacteria. We use this bacterium as a biofertilizer.
  • 6. ANABAENA  CLASSIFICATON:  Domain: Prokaryote  Anabaena is in the prokaryote domain because its has no true nucleus and no membrance bound organelles .  Kingdom:Bacteria  Phylum: Cyanobacteria  This is the phylum of bacteria that acquire their energy through photosynthesis, and are often called Blue Green Algae .  Order:Nostocales  Anabaena falls into this categories because they have trichome and lack endospores and exospores  Family: Nostocaceae  This is the categories of Blue Green Algae that form heterocyst and have unbranched trachoma.
  • 7. NOSTOC  Properties:  Human pathogen: No Interaction: Plant symbiotic Number of membrances: 2 Number of inteins: 1  presence of flagella :No  Classification:  Domain:Bacteria  Phylum: Cyanobacteria  Order: Nostocales  Family: Nostacaceae  Genus: Nostoc  Species: punctiforme
  • 8. METHODS  At first cow dung and pond water is needed for producing cow dung water(slurry) before two days from the project starting and wash the kipps apparatus clearly and carefully.  3 set of 100ml slurry prepared containing soil and cowdung.  Then 100ml of slurry is added in 250ml of conical flask. After sometimes, calcium carbonate and dilute HCL are used for the reaction in kipp’s apparatus. Here the calcium carbonate react with dilute HCL to produce carbon dioxide which is transferred to conical flask by a pipe which is present on the magnetic stirrer with cow dung(slurry). Now we add algae in the conical flask. Then start this magnetic stirrer . This process should be minimum for two days .On the other hand, make a medium of slurry and algae in a conical flask and preserve it in a incubator(shaker) for two days. In the same time, another medium of only slurry should be made and preserve it in a refrigerator for two days. Now take three aluminium foils and measure the weight.  After two days, take this three medium in the three aluminium foils.This three mediums are:-1. Slurry+algae +carbon dioxide,2. Only slurry,3. Slurry+algae. Then dry this three medium in a laboratory oven. It’s taking several times. Then measure their weight in a spectrophotometer.
  • 9. RESULT  PETRI DISH 1 PETRI DISH 2 PETRI DISH 3  (Slurry+algae+co2) (only slurry) (slurry+algae)     Reading of aluminium foil:  147.2mg 120.2mg 107.7mg     Reading of aluminium foil + Reading of aluminium foil+(only slurry) A.F. +slurry+Algae  (slurry+Algae+CO2)  211.1mg 131mg 129.1mg  Net=(211.1-147.2mg) (131-120.2mg) (129.1- 107.7mg)  =63.9 =10.8 =21.4     Algae  (63.9-10.8) (21.4-10.4)  =53.1 =10.6  CO2 absorption is five times more.    
  • 10. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION   CONCLUSION  By using this technology we are able to produce biofertilizers( Anabena and Nostoc).This biofertizers can be use in the agricultural fields to increase the crop production .it may strengthen our economy and our social economy and atmosphere will be free from carbon dioxides then environment will be clean and clear . DISCUSSION  From this experiment ,it has been observed that in Petridish1 containing slurry, algae and co2 absorption of co2 is five time more than the Petridish2(only slurry) and Petridish3 (slurry+algae) so it can be concluded that the growth of algae in presence of carbon dioxide and slurry is more which is beneficial for a bio-fertilizer and thus more the growth of algae more the absorption of co2  So, this technology can be used for production of cyanobacterial biofertilizers which is eco frienfdly without any harmful products produces in this technology ,but more is required for more production of biofertilizers by using unused carbon dioxides .  
  • 11. SOME PHOTOGRAPHS OF THIS PROJECT         Slurry containing algae in which co2 is provided by kipp’s apparatus  
  • 12. PHOTOGRAPHS Kipps apparatus containing calcium carbonate and dilute HCl (Slurry+algae+magnet+co2 ) in a conical flask on the magnetic stirrer