Chapter 3 Motherboard and BIOS


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Chapter 3 Motherboard and BIOS

  2. 2. Motherboard <ul><li>One big board that ties all other components together. </li></ul><ul><li>is the foundation of personal computer which supports every component from CPU to expansion buses, memory, input/output connectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a main board, baseboard, system board , or logic board on Apple computers and is sometimes abbreviated as mobo . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motherboard <ul><li>The basic purpose of the motherboard is to provide the electrical and logical connections by which the other components of the system communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, CMOS configurable chip, memory (ROM & RAM), real-time clock, jumpers, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive </li></ul>Lies in the type of power supply and main power switch each requires
  4. 4. Motherboard
  5. 5. Motherboard <ul><li>The most common method of configuring components on a motherboard is CMOS setup . </li></ul><ul><li>Some motherboards also use jumpers or DIP switches to adjust configuration settings . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Inside Motherboard: Chipsets <ul><li>Every motherboard has a chipset . </li></ul><ul><li>A chipset is a group of integrated circuits (chips) that are designed to work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Chipsets are unique to each motherboard design and work with the CPU to manage and control the computer’s system. </li></ul><ul><li>Chipset serve as electronic interfaces through which the CPU, RAM, and input/output devices interact. </li></ul><ul><li>A basic chip set consists of a bus controller, memory controller, Data and address buffer and peripheral controller . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chipset
  8. 8. Inside Motherboard: Basic Input Output System (BIOS) <ul><li>BIOS is the most important chip found on the motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the built-in software that determines what a computer should do when you first start it, before loading any operating system from a disk. </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions of a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>BIOS can also be said to be a coded program embedded on a chip , often called firmware , recognizes and controls various devices that make up the PC. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Inside Motherboard: Basic Input Output System (BIOS) <ul><li>Through BIOS configuration utility there are many ways to customize your computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The BIOS is typically placed in a ROM chip that comes with the computer (it is often called a ROM BIOS ). This ensures that the BIOS will always be available and will not be damaged by disk failures. </li></ul><ul><li>The BIOS, software in the form of programs stored on ROM chip is used during the startup routine (boot process) to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Two big companies that write BIOS are Award Software and Phoenix Technologies . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Inside Motherboard: Basic Input Output System (BIOS)
  11. 11. Inside Motherboard: Basic Input Output System (BIOS) NOTES: The primary function of the BIOS is to prepare the machine so other software programs stored on various media (such as hard drives, floppies, and CDs) can load, execute, and assume control of the PC. This process is known as booting up.
  12. 12. Inside Motherboard: Basic Input Output System (BIOS)
  13. 13. BIOS CAUTION!!!! Upgrade a BIOS only when necessary1Be sure to follow all precaution included with the motherboard manual and instructions for the upgrade. Improper installation can render the motherboard useless.
  14. 14. Inside Motherboard: CMOS <ul><li>Computer today store most configuration information in CMOS RAM , also called the realtime clock/non-volatile RAM (RTC/NVRAM) chip , which retains data even when computer is turned off. </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS is a computer chip responsible for storing settings of a computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>The word CMOS is actually an acronym which stands for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS does not store programs; it only stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware . </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Inside Motherboard: CMOS <ul><li>Most CMOS chips store around 64 KB of data. </li></ul><ul><li>The information stored in CMOS is absolutely necessary for the PC to function. </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS data reflect your computer hardware configuration . If you add /remove/change any hardware like CD ROM or hard disk, you must change the CMOS setting to reflect such changes, otherwise computer will not be able to access that piece of hardware. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Inside Motherboard: CMOS <ul><li>Typically CMOS contains at least the following information: </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy disk and hard disk drive types </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>RAM Size </li></ul><ul><li>Date and Time </li></ul><ul><li>Serial and Parallel port info </li></ul><ul><li>Plug and play info </li></ul><ul><li>Power saving setting </li></ul>
  17. 17. Inside Motherboard: CMOS <ul><li>In older PCs, CMOS was a separate chip on the motherboard. </li></ul>
  18. 18. A TYPICAL CMOS SETUP <ul><ul><li>CMOS setup allows to change some of the common configuration of your hardware . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS setup controls the basic things such as system time, hard drive settings, floppy drive settings, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The CMOS Setup Utility , commonly known as the BIOS screen . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To access the CMOS setup press the Del or F2 keys repeatedly on start-up while the PC is performing its memory check , before an operating system is loaded. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. A TYPICAL CMOS SETUP They might differ from others depending on BIOS company provider but all BIOS setup contains commonly used configuration options.
  20. 20. Most common ways to access CMOS setup <ul><li>When ever you add or remove any hardware like CD ROAM or floppy disk, CMOS must be reconfigured to match these changes. </li></ul><ul><li>CMOS setup can be protected by password for security reason so that not everyone can access and change its configuration. </li></ul><ul><li>You can change the stored data in CMOS by accessing the setup program stored in ROM BIOS. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Most common ways to access CMOS setup
  22. 22. CONFIGURING CMOS SETUP UTILITY <ul><li>When you press appropriate key or combination keys as mentioned in above table during PC boot process you will see CMOS Setup Utility screen with menus and help futures that is often user-friendly . </li></ul>
  29. 29. CMOS BATTERY <ul><li>The CMOS battery is located on your computer's motherboard. Most computers today use a coin cell CMOS battery. </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity from CMOS battery enables CMOS RAM to hold configuration data even while the main power to PC is turned off . </li></ul><ul><li>If the battery is disconnected, become old or fails, setup information is lost . An indication that battery is getting weak is that the system date and time are incorrect after the PC has been turned off and turned back on. </li></ul><ul><li>When you remove the old battery from the motherboard, the information stored in the CMOS will be lost, so you better write down the BIOS/CMOS settings before you replace your old CMOS battery. </li></ul>
  30. 30. CMOS BATTERY
  31. 31. POWER-ON SELF TEST (POST) <ul><li>When you turn on your PC, Power-On Self Test (POST) tests the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system requirements before booting up. </li></ul><ul><li>The POST is a series of built-in diagnostic program performed by BIOS that checks your hardware (the processor, video slots, hard drive and so on) to ensure that everything is present and functioning properly before the BIOS begins the actual boot. </li></ul><ul><li>It later continues with additional tests, such as the memory test. </li></ul><ul><li>If the diagnostic determines that everything is in working order, the computer will continue to boot. </li></ul>
  32. 32. POST BEEP CODES <ul><li>When you, switched on your computer the BIOS immediately takes control of the computer and performs the POST. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the POST the computer will play an audible BEEP through either the PC's internal speaker of through speakers attached to the sound card (if you have a built-in sound chip). </li></ul><ul><li>If the POST completed successfully without detecting any problems, then system will play a single short beep to let you know the test is complete. </li></ul><ul><li>After that computer will continue to startup and load the operating system. </li></ul>
  33. 33. POST BEEP CODES <ul><li>The codes or number of beeps vary depending on the motherboard and the manufacturer's requirements . </li></ul><ul><li>These codes are helpful in identifying problems . They are useful in cases where the system won't boot up and the video screen does not work, or if you are attempting to make modifications. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very important that you pay close attention to the number and/or pattern of the beeps your computer plays on start-up. </li></ul>
  34. 34. AMI BIOS Beep Codes <ul><li>AMI BIOS uses beeps of the same length and pitch. The error is displayed as a number of beeps. For example, 4 beeps indicated a timer failure. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Award BIOS Beep Codes <ul><li>Award BIOS uses beeps of varying duration . A long beep will typically last for 2 seconds while a short beep will last only 1 second . </li></ul><ul><li>Award BIOS also uses beeps of different frequency to indicate critical errors. </li></ul><ul><li>If an Award BIOS detects that the CPU is overheating it may play a high pitched repeating beep while the computer is running. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Award BIOS Beep Codes
  37. 37. Phoenix BIOS Beep Codes <ul><li>Phoenix BIOS uses beep code patterns to indicate problems. In the table below the '-‘ indicates a brief pause between beeps. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 1 - 1 - 2 would sound like BEEP <pause> BEEP <pause> BEEP BEEP </li></ul>
  38. 38. Phoenix BIOS Beep Codes
  39. 39. Phoenix BIOS Beep Codes
  40. 40. MOTHERBOARD CONNECTORS <ul><li>Motherboards have different types of connectors for input and output devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the most common connectors found on the modern motherboard are PS/2 keyboard, PS/2 mouse, USB, Serial, parallel, VGA, LAN and audio ports (connectors). </li></ul>
  42. 42. FORM FACTOR <ul><li>The shape and layout of a motherboard is called the form factor . </li></ul><ul><li>The form factor affects where individual components go and the shape of the computer's case. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several specific form factors that most PC motherboards use so that they can all fit in standard cases. </li></ul>