Seminar         on            A Small ScaleSolar Power Generation,Distribution, Storage.
Solar Energy:The Ultimate Renewable       Resource  Submitted by:-- DEEPESH KUMAR GARG
What is Solar Power?o   Solar power is the conversion of sunlight    into electricity, either directly    using photovolta...
How much solar energy?The surface receives about 47% of the total solarenergy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount isu...
Solar Power Generation System
cont…Solar Plant
How To Manufacture?   Solar panel comprises solar cells.   Solar Cell:     Solar cells produce direct current electricit...
PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT   The photovoltaic effect is the creation of a    voltage (or a corresponding electric current) in a ...
Direct Conversion into Electricity                   A simple wafer of silicon                    with wires attached to ...
PHOTOVOLTAIC            APPLICATION…   Power stations     Many solar photovoltaic power stations have    been built, main...
   In buildings     Photovoltaic arrays are often associated with    buildings: either integrated into them, mounted    o...
   Standalone devices    1.  Water pumps    2.  Parking meters    3. Emergency telephones    4 Temporary traffic signs,  ...
PERFORMANCE OF PV   Temperature     Generally, temperatures above room    temperature reduce the performance of    photov...
Solar Electricity:                 Parabolic Dishes   Focus a large area of sunlight on a smaller receiver    for each de...
Parabolic Dishes and Troughs                             Collectors in southern CA.Because they work best under direct sun...
STORAGE & DISTRIBUTION   Solar energy is not available at night, making    energy storage an important issue in order to ...
   Off-grid PV systems have traditionally    used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity.    With grid-tied s...
ADVANTAGES   Solar power is pollution-free during use. Production    end-wastes and emissions are manageable using existi...
DISADVANTAGES   Photovoltaic cells are costly to install.   Solar electricity is not produced at night and is much    re...
EFFICIENCY   Overall, the efficiency is about 10-14%.   Efficiency is far lass than the 77% of solar    spectrum with us...
Thank You.
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Solar power

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Solar power

  1. 1. Seminar on A Small ScaleSolar Power Generation,Distribution, Storage.
  2. 2. Solar Energy:The Ultimate Renewable Resource Submitted by:-- DEEPESH KUMAR GARG
  3. 3. What is Solar Power?o Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic (PV) or indirectly using concentrated solar power(CSP)o  Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
  4. 4. How much solar energy?The surface receives about 47% of the total solarenergy that reaches the Earth. Only this amount isusable.
  5. 5. Solar Power Generation System
  6. 6. cont…Solar Plant
  7. 7. How To Manufacture? Solar panel comprises solar cells. Solar Cell: Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light. Solar cells are based upon PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT.
  8. 8. PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT The photovoltaic effect is the creation of a voltage (or a corresponding electric current) in a material upon exposure to light.  The photovoltaic effect is that the generated electrons are transferred between different bands (i.e., from the valence to conduction bands) within the material, resulting in the buildup of a voltage between two electrodes.
  9. 9. Direct Conversion into Electricity  A simple wafer of silicon with wires attached to the layers. Current is produced based on types of silicon (n- and p-types) used for the layers. Each cell=0.5 volts.  Battery needed as storage  They are exposed to the weather, their lifespan is about 20 years.
  10. 10. PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATION… Power stations Many solar photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. As of December 2010, the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world is the Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant(Canada, 97 MW)
  11. 11.  In buildings Photovoltaic arrays are often associated with buildings: either integrated into them, mounted on them. In 2010, more than four-fifths of the 9,000 MW of solar PV operating in Germany was installed on rooftops.
  12. 12.  Standalone devices 1.  Water pumps 2.  Parking meters 3. Emergency telephones 4 Temporary traffic signs, Parking Meter
  13. 13. PERFORMANCE OF PV Temperature Generally, temperatures above room temperature reduce the performance of photovoltaic. Optimum Orientation of Solar Panels For best performance, terrestrial PV systems aim to maximize the time they face the sun.
  14. 14. Solar Electricity: Parabolic Dishes Focus a large area of sunlight on a smaller receiver for each device to generate electricity. Efficiency of this system was 25%. The more recent facilities converted a remarkable 22% of sunlight into electricity.
  15. 15. Parabolic Dishes and Troughs Collectors in southern CA.Because they work best under direct sunlight, parabolicdishes and troughs must be steered throughout the dayin the direction of the sun.
  16. 16. STORAGE & DISTRIBUTION Solar energy is not available at night, making energy storage an important issue in order to provide the continuous availability of energy Solar energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems.
  17. 17.  Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. With grid-tied systems, excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid.
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES Solar power is pollution-free during use. Production end-wastes and emissions are manageable using existing pollution controls. PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up. Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses.
  19. 19. DISADVANTAGES Photovoltaic cells are costly to install. Solar electricity is not produced at night and is much reduced in cloudy conditions. Therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required. Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter). Sun does not shine consistently
  20. 20. EFFICIENCY Overall, the efficiency is about 10-14%. Efficiency is far lass than the 77% of solar spectrum with usable wavelengths. 43% of photon energy is used to warm the crystal. Efficiency drops as temperature increases (from 24% at 0°C to 14% at 100°C.) Light is reflected off the front face and internal electrical resistance are other factors.
  21. 21. Thank You.

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