From expert to novice OER user: the OER Engagement Ladder

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  • In 2009 the UK Open Educational Re porgramme was lunch – lots of money went into release of OER. Soon after phase 1 of he programme was accomplished, OER producers and funding bodies realized that there was lack of evidence that anyone was actually using these resources. So suddenly there was this growing understanding that we have to look at the other side of the coin as well – not only production but also reuse side of things. Not only producer but also users.
  • So JISC commissioned OER impact study which was probably the first project to look at how lecturers actually use OER. I was one of the team members working closely with Liz Materman, and Marion Manton & DW from TALL department at OXfordThe study identified a set of benefits…And 4 categories of enabling factors. Looking at how OER reuse was being supported at the strategic level ,we identified some emerging grass roots initiatives which aimed at raising lecturers’ engagement of OER. These icluded for example OER specific workshops, attempts to bring OER into PG cert. This led me personally to apply for SCORE fellowship to look closer at these initiatives:What are they? Whom do they address? What motivates them? what are they trying to achieve? -
  • Each participant worked with a drawing of a ladder and three sets of colour-coded ‘cue cards’.The participants were invited to describe how reusing OER manifests itself at each of three steps on the ladder: low, middle and high. They did this by selecting and placing cue cards on the ladder. To create the cue cards I went back to the data from the OER Impact Study and extracted verbs that describe what expert or novice OER users do with OER, and barriers and enabling factors. The cards were not ‘set in stone’, but were mainly used as stimuli. Participants were invited to modify the cards, to omit cards that they felt did not apply to them, and to add new cards for factors that they felt were missing. In response to participants’ suggestions, the core set of cards was revised during the course of the study.
  • Misconceptions: - They think that if you share sth on the web, then you want others to use it- Attribution –
  • This level is mainly an exploration into what kind of OERs are out there in a teacher’s own discipline, but the ways in which teachers go about searching and reusing educational materials remain largely unchanged i.e. OER is used alongside other ‘free stuff on the web’ usually to ‘fill in gaps’ in their own teaching materials or as supplementary resources to which they can direct their students:Searches for OER: usually know of 2-3 repositories and other techniques. Searching for OER is not a regular activityWhat gets reused in first place is OER produced locally or recommended locally
  • An important breakthrough in a teacher’s engagement with OER is likely to come when he or she is involved in a process of creating a new course, or, even better, redesigning an old one from an on-campus to a blended or online delivery.What teachers often realise at that point is that creating everything from scratch is either far beyond their capacity or they have to reconsider the types of materials they have used so far. So it’s agood opportunity for module support services to bring OER to teachers’ attention as one of the relevant elements in designing/redesigning a course.
  • An important breakthrough in a teacher’s engagement with OER is likely to come when he or she is involved in a process of creating a new course, or, even better, redesigning an old one from an on-campus to a blended or online delivery.What teachers often realise at that point is that creating everything from scratch is either far beyond their capacity or they have to reconsider the types of materials they have used so far. So it’s agood opportunity for module support services to bring OER to teachers’ attention as one of the relevant elements in designing/redesigning a course.
  • At this level there is a shift in a teacher’s approach to searching for and reusing OER from piecemeal to a more strategic one. Searching becomes more targeted and it often moves outside a comfort zone of the institutional repository. OER are still used as supplementary materials but some get also integrated into core teaching and learning.Reusing OER produced externally was usually seen higher up on a ladder than reusing materials produced locally. But in some disciplines it might be easier to get hold of materials externally, because there are more of them than locally. Therefore, reusing OER produced outside one’s own institution may also come at the ‘low’ rung of the ladder.Teachers would usually start taking advantage of the CC licence by making small adaptations (tweaks) to the resources that they find and plan to use in their teaching. OERs that get tweaked are usually created in simple tools such as Word or PowerPoint and the adaptations are focused around things like: changing format of a document or context of a resource, updating references or statistics, replacing images.Integrating OER into core teaching is sign of growing confidence in using OERs.Attributing – suggestion that correct attribution of the creator is a sign of greater familiarity with the CC-licence concept.
  • there is usually a long way to go between a point when a teacher becomes aware of OER and open licensing and a point when they fully understand the meaning of different types of cc-licence and implications it has on how a resource can be used.
  • A crucial moment that can impinge on teachers’ engagement with OER is when they’ve collected feedback on students’ learning experience in a particular session or module which made use of OER.The more convinced a teacher is of positive effects that reusing OER has had on their practice, the more likely they are to take this engagement forward or even start sharing OER themselves.
  • At this level OER is fully embedded into a person’s teaching and learning practice and, as a result, it gets incorporated into students learning more widely and with confidence.There has also been a major shift in a teacher’s perception of who should benefit, from the initial focus on self-benefit and the benefit to one’s own students, to the benefit to the entire community, which manifests itself in a teacher’s: a) advocacy of OER and open practice. b) sharing their own resources under open licences, and Modifying and sharing back: little evidence at present – 3 reasons:a) teachers don’t adapt b) Not easy technically, especially if one wanted to put the modified resource back where the original came fromc) nervousness about the reaction of the author of the original resource
  • Acceptance by students:how their students will react to the fact that a substantial part of learning resources come from outside the university esp in light of increased fees. HEA has recently commissioned a study of students’ reactions to OER.
  • Sharing back and pedagogic dialogue around OERs are more likely to occur within smaller, discipline-specific networks and communities, especially if there are technical solutions in place to support these activities.Staffdevt opportunities as a by-product: quote: ‘seeing what other people are doing and how that […] refreshes your practice, because it gives you different ideas but it also makes you question your own practice […], you can compare yourself to others.’
  • From expert to novice OER user: the OER Engagement Ladder

    1. 1. The OER Engagement Ladder From ‘novice’ to ‘expert’ OER user JISC Innovating e-learning 2012 15 November 2012, 14:00 -15:00 Starring: geezaweezer cc byNarrator: Joanna Wild F. Wild cc by F. Wild cc by Alan Educator Jane OER-Promoter
    2. 2. OER “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions” (UNESCO 2012)
    3. 3. Outline• Researching OER use: how did it all start?• Method• OER Engagement Ladder• Strategic considerations• Support & service considerations• Discussion
    4. 4. Researching OER use: why? The other side of the coin
    5. 5. OER Impact Study• Perceived benefits of using OER• Enabling factors – Attitudinal, Pedagogic, Logistical, Strategic 5
    6. 6. OER Engagement Study• How do institutions, departments, individuals go about raising lecturers’ engagement with OER reuse?• How do they define ‘engagement’?• What are the progression stages from ‘novice’ to ‘expert’ OER users? What are the barriers? What are the enabling factors?
    7. 7. MethodQualitative & exploratory:1. Semi-structured interviews with: • OER Promoters (10) • Teachers (5) • ‘OER faculty champions’2. OER engagement ladder
    8. 8. Is ladder a goodmetaphor? “It is a ladder and it’s a steep ladder sometimes” “It’s not a neat move up the ladder thing, its more of you get so far and then you suddenly realise: ‘Oh, so this is why!’”
    9. 9. The OER Engagement Ladder
    10. 10. • Shares and reuses ER locally or within existing communities of practice • Uses digital resources found on the web to enhance teaching and learning Underpinning • Many students toOER Directs Self online resources as supplementary materialOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    11. 11. • Little (or no) awareness of copyright and licensing  operating under ‘fair use’ + misconceptions Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    12. 12. Social OEP Step 1: Understanding • Awareness of the concept of OER & open licences Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    13. 13. Enabling “I knew about the CC • Emerging distinction between OER licence but I kind of put it and ‘stuff on the Web’ at the back of my mind… I thought it wasn’t that Social OEP important” Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    14. 14. Enabling “One of my concernsCC “I knew about the about OER in general is but I kind of thatit • Emerging distinction between OER licence the thought put people and ‘stuff on the Web’ might see it lazy or poor practice. at the back of my mind… I Sothought it wasn’t that to this it was very useful to go Social OEP session and to received • Reassurance that using OER is important” acceptable, and even, good practice information that it’s not poor practice” Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    15. 15. Few Social OEP Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding • Searches for OER to fill gaps/supplement learning Underpinning Many Self OER • Reuses OER produced or recommended locallyOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    16. 16. Enabling “E-resources team is really • Networks of trust good, very proactive with sending stuff and circulating resources” Few Social OEP Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    17. 17. Enabling • Local repositories Few Social OEP Piecemeal “There is definitely a comfort zone of: ‘My institution has Step 1: Understanding already validated these things so I am not going to get in trouble for using these’” Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    18. 18. “It all seemed a bit of a blind panic at the beginning: ‘how I am going to write all of this?’ Few Step 2: Need • Is involved in designing a online course Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning SelfOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    19. 19. Few Step 2: Need Piecemeal “We invite people to reconsider their practices at the stage of Step 1: Understanding designing their course and consider alternatives that include OER” Underpinning Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    20. 20. Perceived benefit: productivity “So when they introduced us to OER, then I thought: ‘oh thats great!’” Few Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning SelfOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    21. 21. Few Social OEP Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding • Reuses OER produced externally • Tweaks OER • Integrates OER into core teaching Underpinning Many Self OER • Attributes the creatorOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    22. 22. Logistical barriers: • Discoverability “It’s difficult to find the • Quantity and quality of OER kind of resources I • Licences Few Social OEP need… I gave up” Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    23. 23. “If you involve the library, Enabling factors (strategic): you’re likely to get a list of 6 or 8 resources which you • Support in searching, selecting and might look at and decide correct attribution that may be 3 or 4 are • Local repositories+ Few Social OEP suitable” Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many SelfOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    24. 24. Enabling factors (pedagogic): • Granularity • Pedagogic intent Few Social OEP Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    25. 25. Step 3: Reflection Few Social OEP Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal “We’ll wait and see how the new module goes on a course.” Step 1: Understanding • Appraises the effects of using OER Underpinning on students’ learning experience Many Self OER and own practiceOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    26. 26. • Shares own resources openly Step 3: Reflection Few Social OEP Strategic Step 2: Need “Until you get to this point it’s: ‘I found something, it is helpful for Piecemeal me’. And you have to be really engaged with it before you think: ‘this is good for everybody!’” Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    27. 27. Benefit: Terms of use “I now always go for images that have CC licence. I never Step 3: Reflection know when I might want to upload [my resource] Few Social OEP somewhere and share it” Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    28. 28. Embedded Step 3: Reflection Few OEP Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal “The more confident you feel with it, the more you use it .” Step 1: Understanding • OER is embedded into teachers’ every- day practice • Advocates and encourages others to Underpinning use OER Many Self OER • [Modifies and shares back]Original image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    29. 29. Embedded Enabling factors: • Acceptance by students Step 3: Reflection Few OEP Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding • OER is embedded into teachers’ every- day practice Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    30. 30. Embedded Enabling factors: Step 3: Reflection • Discipline-specific communities “Does OER lead to a • Staff development opportunities Few OEP better practice? I think it OER as a by-product or a means to Strategic does, just because of the an end dialogue around it” Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding • [Modifies and shares back] Underpinning Many Self OEROriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    31. 31. Embedded Step 3: Reflection Few OEP Strategic Step 2: Need Piecemeal Step 1: Understanding Underpinning Self OER F. Wild cc byOriginal image geezaweezer cc by; adapted by Joanna Wild ©2012 licensed cc by
    32. 32. Strategic considerations IOER use is made integral to existing strategies… “We wrote OER into our teaching and learning strategy a couple of years ago”
    33. 33. Strategic considerations IOER use is made integral to existing strategies… “We wrote OER into our teaching and learning strategy a couple of years ago”… and embedded into existing systems and services “I think the advantage of the “Sustainability is talking PGCert is starting to catch about OER in all the other every new member staff [CPD] workshops” coming in”
    34. 34. Strategic considerations IISenior management in individual faculties commit to OER; sponsor promotional activitiesGrass-roots initiatives seek management backing OER “If the buy-in to use OER is not high enough in your institution, engagement gets to a certain point and then it just becomes something that individuals are doing”
    35. 35. Support & service considerationsAcademics are not going it alone• Support for sourcing OER – Librarians as filters or help – Learning technologists • Templates for searching • Tools for evaluating and attribution “Librarians are brilliant in finding things. It’s what they love doing!” 38
    36. 36. Support & service considerationsAcademics are not going it alone• Support for understanding licences and attribution The tool that I will forever praise is the Open Attribute tool… I just say to them: ‘Do this, follow what it says, there you go, here is your attribution, put it in. I love that tool! 39
    37. 37. Support & service considerationsA-------------------- -----------------------B = OEP
    38. 38. References & Acknowledgements• Original drawings: Fridolin Wild, cc by: slidesha.re/UecTWE• OER Impact model: McGill, L., Falconer, I., Beetham, H. and Littlejohn, A. JISC/HE Academy OER Programme: Phase 2 Synthesis and Evaluation Report. JISC, 2011 https://oersynth.pbworks.com/w/page/46324015/UKOER%20Phase%202 %20final%20report• Liz Masterman & Joanna Wild: OER Impact Study: Research Report: http://bit.ly/Lajesu• David White & Marion Manton: Open Educational Resources: The Value of Reuse in Higher Education: http://bit.ly/TJThaX• Joanna Wild: The OER Engagement Study: http://bit.ly/UEcbPi• Joanna Wild & Liz Masterman: WW1 Centenary Continuation & Beginnings. Evaluation report, to be published

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